SPIN GLASSES AND COMPLEXITY PRIMERS IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS

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Spin Glasses And Complexity

Author : Daniel L. Stein
ISBN : 9780691147338
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 49.58 MB
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Spin glasses are disordered magnetic systems that have led to the development of mathematical tools with an array of real-world applications, from airline scheduling to neural networks. Spin Glasses and Complexity offers the most concise, engaging, and accessible introduction to the subject, fully explaining what spin glasses are, why they are important, and how they are opening up new ways of thinking about complexity. This one-of-a-kind guide to spin glasses begins by explaining the fundamentals of order and symmetry in condensed matter physics and how spin glasses fit into--and modify--this framework. It then explores how spin-glass concepts and ideas have found applications in areas as diverse as computational complexity, biological and artificial neural networks, protein folding, immune response maturation, combinatorial optimization, and social network modeling. Providing an essential overview of the history, science, and growing significance of this exciting field, Spin Glasses and Complexity also features a forward-looking discussion of what spin glasses may teach us in the future about complex systems. This is a must-have book for students and practitioners in the natural and social sciences, with new material even for the experts.
Category: Mathematics

Phase Transitions

Author : Ricard V. Solé
ISBN : 9780691150758
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 44.66 MB
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Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of life, viral replication, epidemics, language evolution, and the emergence and breakdown of societies. Written at an undergraduate mathematical level, this book provides the essential theoretical tools and foundations required to develop basic models to explain collective phase transitions for a wide variety of ecosystems.
Category: Mathematics

Quantum Spin Glasses Annealing And Computation

Author : Shu Tanaka
ISBN : 9781108302531
Genre : Science
File Size : 68.76 MB
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Quantum annealing is a new-generation tool of information technology, which helps in solving combinatorial optimization problems with high precision, based on the concepts of quantum statistical physics. Detailed discussion on quantum spin glasses and its application in solving combinatorial optimization problems is required for better understanding of quantum annealing concepts. Fulfilling this requirement, the book highlights recent development in quantum spin glasses including Nishimori line, replica method and quantum annealing methods along with the essential principles. Separate chapters on simulated annealing, quantum dynamics and classical spin models are provided for enhanced learning. Important topics including adiabatic quantum computers and quenching dynamics are discussed in detail. This text will be useful for students of quantum computation, quantum information, statistical physics and computer science.
Category: Science

Statistical Physics Of Spin Glasses And Information Processing

Author : Hidetoshi Nishimori
ISBN : 0198509405
Genre : Science
File Size : 70.90 MB
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Spin glasses are magnetic materials. Statistical mechanics, a subfield of physics, has been a powerful tool to theoretically analyse various unique properties of spin glasses. A number of new analytical techniques have been developed to establish a theory of spin glasses. Surprisingly, these techniques have turned out to offer new tools and viewpoints for the understanding of information processing problems, including neural networks, error-correcting codes, image restoration, and optimization problems. This book is one of the first publications of the past ten years that provide a broad overview of this interdisciplinary field. Most of the book is written in a self-contained manner, assuming only a general knowledge of statistical mechanics and basic probability theory. It provides the reader with a sound introduction to the field and to the analytical techniques necessary to follow its most recent developments
Category: Science

Spin Glass Theory And Beyond

Author : M Mezard
ISBN : 9789813103917
Genre : Science
File Size : 57.63 MB
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This book contains a detailed and self-contained presentation of the replica theory of infinite range spin glasses. The authors also explain recent theoretical developments, paying particular attention to new applications in the study of optimization theory and neural networks. About two-thirds of the book are a collection of the most interesting and pedagogical articles on the subject.
Category: Science

Statistical Mechanics Of Lattice Systems

Author : Sacha Friedli
ISBN : 9781107184824
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 72.38 MB
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A self-contained, mathematical introduction to the driving ideas in equilibrium statistical mechanics, studying important models in detail.
Category: Mathematics

Simulating Social Complexity

Author : Bruce Edmonds
ISBN : 9783540938132
Genre : Computers
File Size : 75.60 MB
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Social systems are among the most complex known. This poses particular problems for those who wish to understand them. The complexity often makes analytic approaches infeasible and natural language approaches inadequate for relating intricate cause and effect. However, individual- and agent-based computational approaches hold out the possibility of new and deeper understanding of such systems. Simulating Social Complexity examines all aspects of using agent- or individual-based simulation. This approach represents systems as individual elements having each their own set of differing states and internal processes. The interactions between elements in the simulation represent interactions in the target systems. What makes these elements "social" is that they are usefully interpretable as interacting elements of an observed society. In this, the focus is on human society, but can be extended to include social animals or artificial agents where such work enhances our understanding of human society. The phenomena of interest then result (emerge) from the dynamics of the interaction of social actors in an essential way and are usually not easily simplifiable by, for example, considering only representative actors. The introduction of accessible agent-based modelling allows the representation of social complexity in a more natural and direct manner than previous techniques. In particular, it is no longer necessary to distort a model with the introduction of overly strong assumptions simply in order to obtain analytic tractability. This makes agent-based modelling relatively accessible to a range of scientists. The outcomes of such models can be displayed and animated in ways that also make them more interpretable by experts and stakeholders. This handbook is intended to help in the process of maturation of this new field. It brings together, through the collaborative effort of many leading researchers, summaries of the best thinking and practice in this area and constitutes a reference point for standards against which future methodological advances are judged. This book will help those entering into the field to avoid "reinventing the wheel" each time, but it will also help those already in the field by providing accessible overviews of current thought. The material is divided into four sections: Introductory, Methodology, Mechanisms, and Applications. Each chapter starts with a very brief section called ‘Why read this chapter?’ followed by an abstract, which summarizes the content of the chapter. Each chapter also ends with a section of ‘Further Reading’ briefly describing three to eight items that a newcomer might read next.
Category: Computers

Elements Of Phase Transitions And Critical Phenomena

Author : Hidetoshi Nishimori
ISBN : 9780199577224
Genre : Science
File Size : 75.21 MB
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As an introductory account of the theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena, this book reflects lectures given by the authors to graduate students at their departments and is thus classroom-tested to help beginners enter the field. Most parts are written as self-contained units and every new concept or calculation is explained in detail without assuming prior knowledge of the subject. The book significantly enhances and revises a Japanese version which is a bestseller in the Japanese market and is considered a standard textbook in the field. It contains new pedagogical presentations of field theory methods, including a chapter on conformal field theory, and various modern developments hard to find in a single textbook on phase transitions. Exercises are presented as the topics develop, with solutions found at the end of the book, making the text useful for self-teaching, as well as for classroom learning.
Category: Science

Systems Education For A Sustainable Planet

Author : Ockie Bosch
ISBN : 9783038427896
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 46.48 MB
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Systems Education for a Sustainable Planet" that was published in Systems
Category: Social Science

P Adic Analysis And Mathematical Physics

Author : Vasili? Sergeevich Vladimirov
ISBN : 9810208804
Genre : Science
File Size : 44.11 MB
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p-adic numbers play a very important role in modern number theory, algebraic geometry and representation theory. Lately p-adic numbers have attracted a great deal of attention in modern theoretical physics as a promising new approach for describing the non-Archimedean geometry of space-time at small distances.This is the first book to deal with applications of p-adic numbers in theoretical and mathematical physics. It gives an elementary and thoroughly written introduction to p-adic numbers and p-adic analysis with great numbers of examples as well as applications of p-adic numbers in classical mechanics, dynamical systems, quantum mechanics, statistical physics, quantum field theory and string theory.
Category: Science