SPIN GLASSES AND COMPLEXITY PRIMERS IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS

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Spin Glasses And Complexity

Author : Daniel L. Stein
ISBN : 9780691147338
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 70.49 MB
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Spin glasses are disordered magnetic systems that have led to the development of mathematical tools with an array of real-world applications, from airline scheduling to neural networks. Spin Glasses and Complexity offers the most concise, engaging, and accessible introduction to the subject, fully explaining what spin glasses are, why they are important, and how they are opening up new ways of thinking about complexity. This one-of-a-kind guide to spin glasses begins by explaining the fundamentals of order and symmetry in condensed matter physics and how spin glasses fit into--and modify--this framework. It then explores how spin-glass concepts and ideas have found applications in areas as diverse as computational complexity, biological and artificial neural networks, protein folding, immune response maturation, combinatorial optimization, and social network modeling. Providing an essential overview of the history, science, and growing significance of this exciting field, Spin Glasses and Complexity also features a forward-looking discussion of what spin glasses may teach us in the future about complex systems. This is a must-have book for students and practitioners in the natural and social sciences, with new material even for the experts.
Category: Mathematics

Phase Transitions

Author : Ricard V. Solé
ISBN : 9780691150758
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 47.54 MB
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Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of life, viral replication, epidemics, language evolution, and the emergence and breakdown of societies. Written at an undergraduate mathematical level, this book provides the essential theoretical tools and foundations required to develop basic models to explain collective phase transitions for a wide variety of ecosystems.
Category: Mathematics

Statistical Physics Of Spin Glasses And Information Processing

Author : Hidetoshi Nishimori
ISBN : 0198509405
Genre : Science
File Size : 32.20 MB
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Spin glasses are magnetic materials. Statistical mechanics, a subfield of physics, has been a powerful tool to theoretically analyse various unique properties of spin glasses. A number of new analytical techniques have been developed to establish a theory of spin glasses. Surprisingly, these techniques have turned out to offer new tools and viewpoints for the understanding of information processing problems, including neural networks, error-correcting codes, image restoration, and optimization problems. This book is one of the first publications of the past ten years that provide a broad overview of this interdisciplinary field. Most of the book is written in a self-contained manner, assuming only a general knowledge of statistical mechanics and basic probability theory. It provides the reader with a sound introduction to the field and to the analytical techniques necessary to follow its most recent developments
Category: Science

Sociophysics

Author : Serge Galam
ISBN : 9781461420316
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 45.11 MB
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Do humans behave much like atoms? Sociophysics, which uses tools and concepts from the physics of disordered matter to describe some aspects of social and political behavior, answers in the affirmative. But advocating the use of models from the physical sciences to understand human behavior could be perceived as tantamount to dismissing the existence of human free will and also enabling those seeking manipulative skills . This thought-provoking book argues it is just the contrary. Indeed, future developments and evaluation will either show sociophysics to be inadequate, thus supporting the hypothesis that people can primarily be considered to be free agents, or valid, thus opening the path to a radically different vision of society and personal responsibility. This book attempts to explain why and how humans behave much like atoms, at least in some aspects of their collective lives, and then proposes how this knowledge can serve as a unique key to a dramatic leap forwards in achieving more social freedom in the real world. At heart, sociophysics and this book are about better comprehending the richness and potential of our social interaction, and so distancing ourselves from inanimate atoms.
Category: Social Science

Statistical Mechanics Of Lattice Systems

Author : Sacha Friedli
ISBN : 9781107184824
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 48.16 MB
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A self-contained, mathematical introduction to the driving ideas in equilibrium statistical mechanics, studying important models in detail.
Category: Mathematics

Natural Complexity

Author : Paul Charbonneau
ISBN : 0691170355
Genre : Computers
File Size : 23.50 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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This book provides a short, hands-on introduction to the science of complexity using simple computational models of natural complex systems--with models and exercises drawn from physics, chemistry, geology, and biology. By working through the models and engaging in additional computational explorations suggested at the end of each chapter, readers very quickly develop an understanding of how complex structures and behaviors can emerge in natural phenomena as diverse as avalanches, forest fires, earthquakes, chemical reactions, animal flocks, and epidemic diseases. Natural Complexity provides the necessary topical background, complete source codes in Python, and detailed explanations for all computational models. Ideal for undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and researchers in the physical and natural sciences, this unique handbook requires no advanced mathematical knowledge or programming skills and is suitable for self-learners with a working knowledge of precalculus and high-school physics. Self-contained and accessible, Natural Complexity enables readers to identify and quantify common underlying structural and dynamical patterns shared by the various systems and phenomena it examines, so that they can form their own answers to the questions of what natural complexity is and how it arises.
Category: Computers

Spin Glass Theory And Beyond

Author : M Mezard
ISBN : 9789813103917
Genre : Science
File Size : 36.55 MB
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This book contains a detailed and self-contained presentation of the replica theory of infinite range spin glasses. The authors also explain recent theoretical developments, paying particular attention to new applications in the study of optimization theory and neural networks. About two-thirds of the book are a collection of the most interesting and pedagogical articles on the subject.
Category: Science

Quantum Spin Glasses Annealing And Computation

Author : Bikas K. Chakrabarti
ISBN : 9781107113190
Genre : Science
File Size : 59.74 MB
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Quantum annealing is a new-generation tool of information technology, which helps in solving combinatorial optimization problems with high precision, based on the concepts of quantum statistical physics. Detailed discussion on quantum spin glasses and its application in solving combinatorial optimization problems is required for better understanding of quantum annealing concepts. Fulfilling this requirement, the book highlights recent development in quantum spin glasses including Nishimori line, replica method and quantum annealing methods along with the essential principles. Separate chapters on simulated annealing, quantum dynamics and classical spin models are provided for enhanced learning. Important topics including adiabatic quantum computers and quenching dynamics are discussed in detail. This text will be useful for students of quantum computation, quantum information, statistical physics and computer science.
Category: Science

Diversity And Complexity

Author : Scott E. Page
ISBN : 1400835143
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 55.39 MB
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This book provides an introduction to the role of diversity in complex adaptive systems. A complex system--such as an economy or a tropical ecosystem--consists of interacting adaptive entities that produce dynamic patterns and structures. Diversity plays a different role in a complex system than it does in an equilibrium system, where it often merely produces variation around the mean for performance measures. In complex adaptive systems, diversity makes fundamental contributions to system performance. Scott Page gives a concise primer on how diversity happens, how it is maintained, and how it affects complex systems. He explains how diversity underpins system level robustness, allowing for multiple responses to external shocks and internal adaptations; how it provides the seeds for large events by creating outliers that fuel tipping points; and how it drives novelty and innovation. Page looks at the different kinds of diversity--variations within and across types, and distinct community compositions and interaction structures--and covers the evolution of diversity within complex systems and the factors that determine the amount of maintained diversity within a system. Provides a concise and accessible introduction Shows how diversity underpins robustness and fuels tipping points Covers all types of diversity The essential primer on diversity in complex adaptive systems
Category: Political Science

Why We Live In Hierarchies

Author : Anna Zafeiris
ISBN : 9783319704838
Genre : Science
File Size : 90.78 MB
Format : PDF
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This book systematically interprets and documents new, unifying principles and basic laws describing the most relevant aspects of hierarchy. To do so, it discusses recent experiments and models that are simple and realistic enough to reproduce the observations, and develops concepts for a better understanding of the complexity of systems consisting of many organisms. The book covers systems ranging from flocks of birds to groups of people. Although it focuses on hierarchical collective behavior in general, two aspects pop up in the majority of cases: collective motion and dynamically changing, partially directed networks (and the natural relation between the two). In addition, it offers a brief description of the most relevant definitions and concepts involved in the context of hierarchies, presenting both a review of the current literature and a number of new experimental and computational results in more detail. It is a valuable resource for students and scholars pursuing research on the structure of interactions within the collectives of animals and humans.
Category: Science