SPECIES SENSITIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN ECOTOXICOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

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Species Sensitivity Distributions In Ecotoxicology

Author : Leo Posthuma
ISBN : 9781420032314
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 86.38 MB
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In spite of the growing importance of Species Sensitivity Distribution models (SSDs) in ecological risk assessments, the conceptual basis, strengths, and weaknesses of using them have not been comprehensively reviewed. This book fills that need. Written by a panel of international experts, Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology reviews the current SSD methods from all angles, compiling for the first time the variety of contemporary applications of SSD-based methods. Beginning with an introduction to SSDs, the chapter authors review the issues surrounding SSDs, synthesizing the positions of advocates and critics with their own analysis of each issue. Finally, they discuss the prospects for future development, paving the way for improved future uses. In sum, this book defines the field of SSD modeling and application. It reveals a lively field, with SSD-applications extending beyond legally adopted quality criteria to other applications such as Life-Cycle Analysis. For anyone developing or revising environmental criteria or standards, this book explores the pros and cons of using the SSD approach. For anyone who needs to apply and interpret SSD-based criteria or standards, the book explains the basis for the numbers, thereby making it possible to correctly apply and defend them. For anyone performing ecological risk assessments, the book covers when and how to use SSDs including alternative assumptions, data treatments, computational methods, and available resources. Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology provides you with a clear picture of these standard models for estimating ecological risks from laboratory toxicity data.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Fish Physiology Organic Chemical Toxicology Of Fishes

Author : Keith B. Tierney
ISBN : 9780123982551
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 64.9 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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Fish Physiology: Organic Chemical Toxicology of Fishes discusses the different types of organic chemical contaminants and their respective toxic effects in fish. The book also covers the detection of dissolved organic compounds and methods to assess organic toxicity. Substances addressed in this book include organometallics, hydrocarbons, endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), insecticides, herbicides, and pharmaceuticals. Fish are exposed to an ever-increasing array of organic chemicals that find their way into rivers and oceans. Some of these compounds are no longer being produced but nonetheless persist within the environment (persistent organic pollutants, or POPs). The exposure of fish to toxic organic compounds has potential impact on human, fish, and ecosystem health. Yet the regulations that govern environmental water quality vary worldwide, and compliance is never complete. This book provides a crucial resource on these issues for researchers in zoology, fish physiology, and related fields; applied researchers in environmental monitoring, conservation biology, and toxicology; and university-level students and instructors in these areas. Organized by type of toxic organic chemicals Includes metals, POPs, EDCs, herbicides, insecticides, and pharmaceuticals Measures toxicity in a variety of ways aside from lethality Probes the toxic effects of compound mixtures as well as single pollutants
Category: Technology & Engineering

Risk And Uncertainty Assessment For Natural Hazards

Author : Jonathan Rougier
ISBN : 9781107006195
Genre : Science
File Size : 79.98 MB
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A state-of-the-art overview of natural hazard risk assessment, for researchers and professionals in natural-hazard science, risk management and environmental science.
Category: Science

Ecological Risk Assessment Second Edition

Author : Glenn W. Suter II
ISBN : 9781420012569
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 21.83 MB
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The definitive reference in its field, Ecological Risk Assessment, Second Edition details the latest advances in science and practice. In the fourteen years since the publication of the best-selling first edition, ecological risk assessment (ERA) has moved from the margins into the spotlight. It is now commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds, and other environmental management issues. Delineating the processes for performing an ERA, the book begins by defining the field, then goes on to describe its relationship to other environmental assessment practices and its organizational framework. The book also includes a chapter on ecological epidemiology, which has previously been treated as a type of ERA, but is now recognized as a distinct practice in itself. It explores important concepts in the ERA process including probability, uncertainty, scale, mode of action and multiple causes. Reflecting changes in the field, the book’s scope has been broadened to include discussions of the application of ERA to agents other than chemical contaminants. The multitude of illustrative figures provides a flavor for the diverse practice of ERA. The author has re-organized the material, presenting a unitary process of ERA that is applicable to various problems, scales, and mandates. He keeps the emphasis squarely on providing clear, scientifically sound, and unbiased technical advice on the risks from chemicals and chemical mixtures.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Analysis Of Pesticides In Food And Environmental Samples Second Edition

Author : Jose L. Tadeo
ISBN : 9781351047074
Genre : Science
File Size : 74.42 MB
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This book provides a critical overview of analytical methods used for the determination of pesticide residues and other contaminants in food and environmental samples by modern instrumental analysis. It contains up-to-date material including recent trends in sample preparation, general methods used for pesticide analysis and quality assurance aspects, and chromatographic and immunoassay methods. The rest of the book describes particular analytical methods used for the determination of pesticides in food and soil, water and air. In addition, the levels of these chemicals found in food, their regulatory aspects and the monitoring of pesticides in the environment are described.
Category: Science

Mixture Toxicity

Author : Cornelis A. M. van Gestel
ISBN : 1439830096
Genre : Medical
File Size : 41.34 MB
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In the last decade and a half, great progress has been made in the development of concepts and models for mixture toxicity, both in human and environmental toxicology. However, due to their different protection goals, developments have often progressed in parallel but with little integration. Arguably the first book to clearly link ecotoxicology and classic human toxicology, Mixture Toxicity: Linking Approaches from Ecological and Human Toxicology incorporates extensive reviews of exposure to toxicants, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, toxicity of mixtures, and risk assessment. The book examines developments in both fields, compares and contrasts their current state of the art, and identifies where one field can learn from the other. Each chapter provides an essential overview of the state of the art in both human and ecotoxicological mixture risk assessment, focusing on the work published in the last fifteen years. The coverage progresses from exposure to risk assessment, at each step identifying the special complications typically raised by mixtures. Based on in-depth discussions among specialists representing different disciplines and approaches, the chapters each address: Exposure — how to quantify the amounts of chemicals that may enter the living organism Kinetics, dynamics, and metabolism — how the chemicals enter an organism, travel within the organism, how they are metabolized and reach the target site, and explain development of toxicity with time Toxicity — what are the chemicals’ detrimental effects on the organism Test design and complex mixture characterization — how chemicals interact, how to measure effects of mixtures, and how to identify responsible chemicals Risk assessment — how to assess for risks in humans and the environment An unusual combination of different points of view on exposure to and risk assessment of chemical mixtures, this book summarizes current knowledge on combined effects of toxicant mixtures, information that is generally only available in a very fragmented form as individual journal papers. It identifies possible crosslinks and includes recommendations for mutual developments that can improve the state of knowledge on mixture toxicity and ultimately lead to better and more integrated risk assessment.
Category: Medical

Extrapolation Practice For Ecotoxicological Effect Characterization Of Chemicals

Author : Keith R. Solomon
ISBN : 1420073923
Genre : Science
File Size : 60.2 MB
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A wide-ranging compilation of techniques, Extrapolation Practice for Ecotoxicological Effect Characterization of Chemicals describes methods of extrapolation in the framework of ecological risk assessment. The book, informally known as EXPECT, identifies data needs and situations where these extrapolations can be most usefully applied, making it a practical guide to the application of extrapolation procedures. It focuses on the extrapolation of chemical effects and covers the extrapolation of exposures in the context of interactions between toxicants and the matrix.
Category: Science

Chemicals In The Environment

Author : Ronald E. Hester
ISBN : 9780854042067
Genre : Law
File Size : 53.45 MB
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Reviews the contemporary framework of legislation for the regulation of chemicals in the UK ...
Category: Law

Ecotoxicology Of Amphibians And Reptiles

Author : Donald W. Sparling
ISBN : 1420064169
Genre : Nature
File Size : 72.83 MB
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One of the major factors behind the writing of the First Edition was the worldwide phenomenon of declining amphibian populations. Although this decline has not abated, the breadth of research into its causes has expanded significantly. This book provides an authoritative compendium of the most recent information.
Category: Nature

Linking Aquatic Exposure And Effects

Author : Theo C. Brock
ISBN : 9781439858929
Genre : Science
File Size : 75.31 MB
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Time-variable exposure profiles of pesticides are more often the rule than exception in the surface waters of agricultural landscapes. There is, therefore, a need to adequately address the uncertainties arising from time-variable exposure profiles in the aquatic risk assessment procedure for pesticides. Linking Aquatic Exposure and Effects: Risk Assessment of Pesticides provides guidance and recommendations for linking aquatic exposure and ecotoxicological effects in the environmental assessment of agricultural pesticides. Leading international scientists share their expertise in aquatic exposure assessment, aquatic ecotoxicology, and the risk assessment and management of plant protection products. The book incorporates the tools and approaches currently available for assessing the environmental risks of time-variable exposure profiles of pesticides. It also discusses the science behind these techniques. This volume covers the extrapolation techniques, including models that address the environmental fate, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, and ecological effects, for performing accurate aquatic environmental risk assessments of pesticides. It explains how to link aquatic exposure and effects in the risk assessment procedure for plant protection products.
Category: Science