SEX TESTING GENDER POLICING IN WOMENS SPORTS SPORT AND SOCIETY

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Sex Testing

Author : Lindsay Pieper
ISBN : 9780252098444
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 25.39 MB
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In 1968, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) implemented sex testing for female athletes at that year's Games. When it became clear that testing regimes failed to delineate a sex divide, the IOC began to test for gender --a shift that allowed the organization to control the very idea of womanhood. Lindsay Parks Pieper explores sex testing in sport from the 1930s to the early 2000s. Focusing on assumptions and goals as well as means, Pieper examines how the IOC in particular insisted on a misguided binary notion of gender that privileged Western norms. Testing evolved into a tool to identify--and eliminate--athletes the IOC deemed too strong, too fast, or too successful. Pieper shows how this system punished gifted women while hindering the development of women's athletics for decades. She also reveals how the flawed notions behind testing--ideas often sexist, racist, or ridiculous--degraded the very idea of female athleticism.
Category: Social Science

Testing For Athlete Citizenship

Author : Kathryn E. Henne
ISBN : 9780813575568
Genre : Sports & Recreation
File Size : 79.87 MB
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Incidents of doping in sports are common in news headlines, despite regulatory efforts. How did doping become a crisis? What does a doping violation actually entail? Who gets punished for breaking the rules of fair play? In Testing for Athlete Citizenship, Kathryn E. Henne, a former competitive athlete and an expert in the law and science of anti-doping regulations, examines the development of rules aimed at controlling performance enhancement in international sports. As international and celebrated figures, athletes are powerful symbols, yet few spectators realize that a global regulatory network is in place in an attempt to ensure ideals of fair play. The athletes caught and punished for doping are not always the ones using performance-enhancing drugs to cheat. In the case of female athletes, violations of fair play can stem from their inherent biological traits. Combining historical and ethnographic approaches, Testing for Athlete Citizenship offers a compelling account of the origins and expansion of anti-doping regulation and gender-verification rules. Drawing on research conducted in Australasia, Europe, and North America, Henne provides a detailed account of how race, gender, class, and postcolonial formations of power shape these ideas and regulatory practices. Testing for Athlete Citizenship makes a convincing case to rethink the power of regulation in sports and how it separates athletes as a distinct class of citizens subject to a unique set of rules because of their physical attributes and abilities.
Category: Sports & Recreation

Qualifying Times

Author : Jaime Schultz
ISBN : 9780252095962
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 36.92 MB
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This perceptive, lively study explores U.S. women's sport through historical "points of change": particular products or trends that dramatically influenced both women's participation in sport and cultural responses to women athletes. Beginning with the seemingly innocent ponytail, the subject of the Introduction, scholar Jaime Schultz challenges the reader to look at the historical and sociological significance of now-common items such as sports bras and tampons and ideas such as sex testing and competitive cheerleading. Tennis wear, tampons, and sports bras all facilitated women’s participation in physical culture, while physical educators, the aesthetic fitness movement, and Title IX encouraged women to challenge (or confront) policy, financial, and cultural obstacles. While some of these points of change increased women's physical freedom and sporting participation, they also posed challenges. Tampons encouraged menstrual shame, sex testing (a tool never used with male athletes) perpetuated narrowly-defined cultural norms of femininity, and the late-twentieth-century aesthetic fitness movement fed into an unrealistic beauty ideal. Ultimately, Schultz finds that U.S. women's sport has progressed significantly but ambivalently. Although participation in sports is no longer uncommon for girls and women, Schultz argues that these "points of change" have contributed to a complex matrix of gender differentiation that marks the female athletic body as different than--as less than--the male body, despite the advantages it may confer.
Category: Social Science

Gender Testing In Sport

Author : Sandy Montanola
ISBN : 9781317527107
Genre : Sports & Recreation
File Size : 86.23 MB
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After the young South African athlete Caster Semenya won the 800m title at the 2009 World Championships she was obliged to undergo gender testing and was temporarily withdrawn from international competition. The way that this controversy unfolded represents a rich and multi-layered example of the construction of gender in wider society and the interrelationships between sport, culture and the media. This is the first book to explore the case in depth, from socio-cultural, ethical and legal perspectives. Analysing what came to be called "the Caster Semenya Case" in a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary fashion, and covering issues from media discourses and the rhetoric and regulations of the sport’s governing bodies to the reaction of the athlete herself, the book explores the ethics of how gender norms in sport, and in society more generally, are constructed through appearance, behaviour and sporting performance. This 2009 controversy can be taken as an indicator of the tensions of the time, and served as a link between medical sciences, society and gender. Including discussions of key concepts such as 'intersex', 'body norms', and 'fairness', Gender Testing in Sport is fascinating and important reading for anybody with an interest in sport studies, gender studies or biomedical ethics.
Category: Sports & Recreation

Transgender Athletes In Competitive Sport

Author : Eric Anderson
ISBN : 9781315304250
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 79.43 MB
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While efforts to include gay and lesbian athletes in competitive sport have received significant attention, it is only recently that we have begun examining the experiences of transgender athletes in competitive sport. This book represents the first comprehensive study of the challenges that transgender athletes face in competitive sport; and the challenges they pose for this sex-segregated institution. Beginning with a discussion of the historical role that sport has played in preserving sex as a binary, the book examines how gender has been policed by policymakers within competitive athletics. It also considers how transgender athletes are treated by a system predicated on separating males from females, consequently forcing transgender athletes to negotiate the system in coercive ways. The book not only exposes our culture’s binary thinking in terms of both sex and gender, but also offers a series of thought-provoking and sometimes contradictory recommendations for how to make sport more hospitable, inclusive and equitable. Transgender Athletes in Competitive Sport is important reading for all students and scholars of the sociology of sport with an interest in the relationship between sport and gender, politics, identity and ethics.
Category: Social Science

Sports In Society

Author : Jay Coakley
ISBN : 9780077433215
Genre : Sports & Recreation
File Size : 34.97 MB
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Sports in Society emphasizes the cultural, interactional, and structural dimensions of sports. Coakley encourages readers to think critically about issues and controversies in sports while considering their own personal experiences, families, schools, communities and societies.
Category: Sports & Recreation

Sport And Society In The Global Age

Author : Tim Marjoribanks
ISBN : 9780230356221
Genre : Sports & Recreation
File Size : 79.10 MB
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Are sports influenced by their social context? Can sport influence the social world? And how is sport changing in our increasingly globalized society? This thought-provoking text explores these questions and introduces key debates in the sociology of sport. Uncovering the power dynamics within sport and bringing this everyday topic under a sociological lens, the book: explores hot topics and contemporary controversies, such as e-gaming, fan violence and sex testing examines the central role of technology and the media in how sport is consumed, represented and played discusses a wide range of thinkers, from Gramsci to Castells reflects on developments in sport at local, global and national levels. With clearly explained theory and vibrant case examples, this text shows how we engage with sport in social, political, cultural and economic terms. It is an indispensable text for students across the social sciences studying sports.
Category: Sports & Recreation

Playing With The Boys

Author : Eileen McDonagh
ISBN : 9780195167566
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 44.65 MB
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Athletic contests help define what we mean in America by "success." By keeping women from "playing with the boys" on the false assumption that they are inherently inferior, society relegates them to second-class citizens. In this forcefully argued book, Eileen McDonagh and Laura Pappano show in vivid detail how women have been unfairly excluded from participating in sports on an equal footing with men. Using dozens of powerful examples--girls and women breaking through in football, ice hockey, wrestling, and baseball, to name just a few--the authors show that sex differences are not sufficient to warrant exclusion in most sports, that success entails more than brute strength, and that sex segregation in sports does not simply reflect sex differences, but actively constructs and reinforces stereotypes about sex differences. For instance, women's bodies give them a physiological advantage in endurance sports, yet many Olympic events have shorter races for women than men, thereby camouflaging rather than revealing women's strengths.
Category: Political Science

Women And Sport

Author : Staurowsky, Ellen J.
ISBN : 9781492532194
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 65.2 MB
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Women and Sport: Continuing a Journey of Liberation and Celebration is a comprehensive textbook for interdisciplinary courses that focus on women and gender studies in sport. It provides readers with thought-provoking discussions about the history, evolution, and current role of women in sport.
Category: Social Science

Sexing The Body

Author : Anne Fausto-Sterling
ISBN : 9780786724338
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 44.2 MB
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Why do some people prefer heterosexual love while others fancy the same sex? Is sexual identity biologically determined or a product of convention? In this brilliant and provocative book, the acclaimed author of Myths of Gender argues that even the most fundamental knowledge about sex is shaped by the culture in which scientific knowledge is produced.Drawing on astonishing real-life cases and a probing analysis of centuries of scientific research, Fausto-Sterling demonstrates how scientists have historically politicized the body. In lively and impassioned prose, she breaks down three key dualisms - sex/gender, nature/nurture, and real/constructed - and asserts that individuals born as mixtures of male and female exist as one of five natural human variants and, as such, should not be forced to compromise their differences to fit a flawed societal definition of normality.
Category: Social Science