SEVERE SPACE WEATHER EVENTS UNDERSTANDING SOCIETAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS A WORKSHOP REPORT

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Severe Space Weather Events Understanding Societal And Economic Impacts

Author : Committee on the Societal and Economic Impacts of Severe Space Weather Events: A Workshop
ISBN : 9780309127691
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.75 MB
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The adverse effects of extreme space weather on modern technology--power grid outages, high-frequency communication blackouts, spacecraft anomalies--are well known and well documented, and the physical processes underlying space weather are also generally well understood. Less well documented and understood, however, are the potential economic and societal impacts of the disruption of critical technological systems by severe space weather. As a first step toward determining the socioeconomic impacts of extreme space weather events and addressing the questions of space weather risk assessment and management, a public workshop was held in May 2008. The workshop brought together representatives of industry, the government, and academia to consider both direct and collateral effects of severe space weather events, the current state of the space weather services infrastructure in the United States, the needs of users of space weather data and services, and the ramifications of future technological developments for contemporary society's vulnerability to space weather. The workshop concluded with a discussion of un- or underexplored topics that would yield the greatest benefits in space weather risk management.
Category: Science

Global Navigation Satellite Systems

Author : National Academy of Engineering
ISBN : 9780309222754
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 44.44 MB
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The Global Positioning System (GPS) has revolutionized the measurement of position, velocity, and time. It has rapidly evolved into a worldwide utility with more than a billion receiver sets currently in use that provide enormous benefits to humanity: improved safety of life, increased productivity, and wide-spread convenience. Global Navigation Satellite Systems summarizes the joint workshop on Global Navigation Satellite Systems held jointly by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering and the Chinese Academy of Engineering on May 24-25, 2011 at Hongqiao Guest Hotel in Shanghai, China. "We have one world, and only one set of global resources. It is important to work together on satellite navigation. Competing and cooperation is like Yin and Yang. They need to be balanced," stated Dr. Charles M. Vest, President of the National Academy of Engineering, in the workshop's opening remarks. Global Navigation Satellite Systems covers the objectives of the workshop, which explore issues of enhanced interoperability and interchangeability for all civil users aimed to consider collaborative efforts for countering the global threat of inadvertent or illegal interference to GNSS signals, promotes new applications for GNSS, emphasizing productivity, safety, and environmental protection. The workshop featured presentations chosen based on the following criteria: they must have relevant engineering/technical content or usefulness; be of mutual interest; offer the opportunity for enhancing GNSS availability, accuracy, integrity, and/or continuity; and offer the possibility of recommendations for further actions and discussions. Global Navigation Satellite Systems is an essential report for engineers, workshop attendees, policy makers, educators, and relevant government agencies.
Category: Technology & Engineering

The 23rd Cycle

Author : Sten F. Odenwald
ISBN : 9780231120784
Genre : Science
File Size : 90.80 MB
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A NASA space scientist maps out the coming solar cycle -- and its catastrophic potential to disrupt worldwide power and communications systems. He includes a history of the record of auroral sightings, accounts of communications blackouts from the 20th century, industries sensitive to solar storms, and radiation and health issues.
Category: Science

Defending Planet Earth

Author : Space Studies Board
ISBN : 9780309149686
Genre : Science
File Size : 53.99 MB
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The United States spends approximately $4 million each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.
Category: Science

Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 0309165482
Genre : Science
File Size : 23.30 MB
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Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research examines current interdisciplinary research efforts and recommends ways to stimulate and support such research. Advances in science and engineering increasingly require the collaboration of scholars from various fields. This shift is driven by the need to address complex problems that cut across traditional disciplines, and the capacity of new technologies to both transform existing disciplines and generate new ones. At the same time, however, interdisciplinary research can be impeded by policies on hiring, promotion, tenure, proposal review, and resource allocation that favor traditional disciplines. This report identifies steps that researchers, teachers, students, institutions, funding organizations, and disciplinary societies can take to more effectively conduct, facilitate, and evaluate interdisciplinary research programs and projects. Throughout the report key concepts are illustrated with case studies and results of the committee’s surveys of individual researchers and university provosts.
Category: Science

The Blue Economy

Author : Gunter A. Pauli
ISBN : 0912111909
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 57.60 MB
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Dr. Gunter Pauli is challenging the green movement he has been so much a part of to do better, to do more. He is the entrepreneur who launched Ecover; those products are probably in many of your homes. He built the largest ecologically-sound factory in the world. His participation in the Club of Rome and the founding of Zero Emissions Research Institute (ZERI) has made an immense contribution to sustainability both in terms of research, public awareness and articulating a visionary direction. He has dedicated himself to teaching and the hands-on implementation of projects that have brought healthy environments, good nutrition, health care and jobs in sustainable commerce to a myriad of places in the world.
Category: Business & Economics

Enhancing The Resilience Of The Nation S Electricity System

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309463072
Genre : Science
File Size : 69.16 MB
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Americans’ safety, productivity, comfort, and convenience depend on the reliable supply of electric power. The electric power system is a complex “cyber-physical†system composed of a network of millions of components spread out across the continent. These components are owned, operated, and regulated by thousands of different entities. Power system operators work hard to assure safe and reliable service, but large outages occasionally happen. Given the nature of the system, there is simply no way that outages can be completely avoided, no matter how much time and money is devoted to such an effort. The system’s reliability and resilience can be improved but never made perfect. Thus, system owners, operators, and regulators must prioritize their investments based on potential benefits. Enhancing the Resilience of the Nation’s Electricity System focuses on identifying, developing, and implementing strategies to increase the power system’s resilience in the face of events that can cause large-area, long-duration outages: blackouts that extend over multiple service areas and last several days or longer. Resilience is not just about lessening the likelihood that these outages will occur. It is also about limiting the scope and impact of outages when they do occur, restoring power rapidly afterwards, and learning from these experiences to better deal with events in the future.
Category: Science

Space Storms And Space Weather Hazards

Author : I.A. Daglis
ISBN : 1402000308
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 80.76 MB
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Proceedings of the Nato Advanced Study Institute, 19-29 June 2000, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece
Category: Mathematics

Public Response To Alerts And Warnings Using Social Media

Author : Committee on Public Response to Alerts and Warnings Using Social Media: Current Knowledge and Research Gaps
ISBN : 9780309290333
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 23.44 MB
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Following an earlier NRC workshop on public response to alerts and warnings delivered to mobile devices, a related workshop was held on February 28 and 29, 2012 to look at the role of social media in disaster response. This was one of the first workshops convened to look systematically at the use of social media for alerts and warnings-an event that brought together social science researchers, technologists, emergency management professionals, and other experts on how the public and emergency managers use social media in disasters.In addition to exploring how officials monitor social media, as well as the resulting privacy considerations, the workshop focused on such topics as: what is known about how the public responds to alerts and warnings; the implications of what is known about such public responses for the use of social media to provide alerts and warnings to the public; and approaches to enhancing the situational awareness of emergency managers. Public Response to Alerts and Warnings Using Social Media: Report of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps summarizes presentations made by invited speakers, other remarks by workshop participants, and discussions during parallel breakout sessions. It also points to potential topics for future research, as well as possible areas for future research investment, and it describes some of the challenges facing disaster managers who are seeking to incorporate social media into regular practice.
Category: Political Science