SEVERE SPACE WEATHER EVENTS UNDERSTANDING SOCIETAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS A WORKSHOP REPORT

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Severe Space Weather Events Understanding Societal And Economic Impacts

Author : Committee on the Societal and Economic Impacts of Severe Space Weather Events: A Workshop
ISBN : 9780309127691
Genre : Science
File Size : 82.69 MB
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The adverse effects of extreme space weather on modern technology--power grid outages, high-frequency communication blackouts, spacecraft anomalies--are well known and well documented, and the physical processes underlying space weather are also generally well understood. Less well documented and understood, however, are the potential economic and societal impacts of the disruption of critical technological systems by severe space weather. As a first step toward determining the socioeconomic impacts of extreme space weather events and addressing the questions of space weather risk assessment and management, a public workshop was held in May 2008. The workshop brought together representatives of industry, the government, and academia to consider both direct and collateral effects of severe space weather events, the current state of the space weather services infrastructure in the United States, the needs of users of space weather data and services, and the ramifications of future technological developments for contemporary society's vulnerability to space weather. The workshop concluded with a discussion of un- or underexplored topics that would yield the greatest benefits in space weather risk management.
Category: Science

The 23rd Cycle

Author : Sten F. Odenwald
ISBN : 9780231120784
Genre : Science
File Size : 83.76 MB
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A NASA space scientist maps out the coming solar cycle -- and its catastrophic potential to disrupt worldwide power and communications systems. He includes a history of the record of auroral sightings, accounts of communications blackouts from the 20th century, industries sensitive to solar storms, and radiation and health issues.
Category: Science

Critical Information Infrastructures Security

Author : Eric Luiijf
ISBN : 3319039636
Genre : Computers
File Size : 75.87 MB
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, CRITIS 2013, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in September 2013. The 16 revised full papers and 4 short papers were thoroughly reviewed and selected from 57 submissions. The papers are structured in the following topical sections: new challenges, natural disasters, smart grids, threats and risk, and SCADA/ICS and sensors.
Category: Computers

Climate And Social Stress

Author : Committee on Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Social and Political Stresses
ISBN : 9780309278560
Genre : Science
File Size : 36.48 MB
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Climate change can reasonably be expected to increase the frequency and intensity of a variety of potentially disruptive environmental events--slowly at first, but then more quickly. It is prudent to expect to be surprised by the way in which these events may cascade, or have far-reaching effects. During the coming decade, certain climate-related events will produce consequences that exceed the capacity of the affected societies or global systems to manage; these may have global security implications. Although focused on events outside the United States, Climate and Social Stress: Implications for Security Analysis recommends a range of research and policy actions to create a whole-of-government approach to increasing understanding of complex and contingent connections between climate and security, and to inform choices about adapting to and reducing vulnerability to climate change.
Category: Science

The Sun To The Earth And Beyond

Author : Committee on Solar and Space Physics
ISBN : 9780309089722
Genre : Science
File Size : 44.50 MB
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This volume, The Sun to the Earth-and Beyond: Panel Reports, is a compilation of the reports from five National Research Council (NRC) panels convened as part of a survey in solar and space physics for the period 2003-2013. The NRC's Space Studies Board and its Committee on Solar and Space Physics organized the study. Overall direction for the survey was provided by the Solar and Space Physics Survey Committee, whose report, The Sun to the Earth-and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, was delivered to the study sponsors in prepublication format in August 2002. The final version of that report was published in June 2003. The panel reports provide both a detailed rationale for the survey committee's recommendations and an expansive view of the numerous opportunities that exist for a robust program of exploration in solar and space physics.
Category: Science

Defending Planet Earth

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309157218
Genre : Science
File Size : 50.61 MB
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The United States spends approximately $4 million each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.
Category: Science

Space Storms And Space Weather Hazards

Author : I.A. Daglis
ISBN : 9789401009836
Genre : Science
File Size : 83.35 MB
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Space storms, the manifestation of bad weather in space, have a number of physical effects in the near-Earth environment: acceleration of charged particles in space, intensification of electric currents in space and on the ground, impressive aurora displays, and global magnetic disturbances on the Earth's surface. Space weather has been defined as `conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space- and ground-based technological systems and can endanger human life'. The 19 chapters of this book, written by some of the foremost experts on the topic, present the most recent developments in space storm physics and related technological issues, such as malfunction of satellites, communication and navigation systems, and electric power distribution grids. Readership: researchers, teachers and graduate students in space physics, astronomy, geomagnetism, space technology, electric power and communication technology, and non-specialist physicists and engineers. As recommended in the United Nations Space & Atmospheric Science Education Curriculum booklet. Please find it amongst classics such as T.J.M. Boyd, J.J. Sanderson, J.K. Hargreaves and M.C. Kelly etc.
Category: Science

Abrupt Impacts Of Climate Change

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309287760
Genre : Science
File Size : 40.83 MB
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Climate is changing, forced out of the range of the past million years by levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases not seen in the Earth's atmosphere for a very, very long time. Lacking action by the world's nations, it is clear that the planet will be warmer, sea level will rise, and patterns of rainfall will change. But the future is also partly uncertain -- there is considerable uncertainty about how we will arrive at that different climate. Will the changes be gradual, allowing natural systems and societal infrastructure to adjust in a timely fashion? Or will some of the changes be more abrupt, crossing some threshold or "tipping point" to change so fast that the time between when a problem is recognized and when action is required shrinks to the point where orderly adaptation is not possible? Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change is an updated look at the issue of abrupt climate change and its potential impacts. This study differs from previous treatments of abrupt changes by focusing on abrupt climate changes and also abrupt climate impacts that have the potential to severely affect the physical climate system, natural systems, or human systems, often affecting multiple interconnected areas of concern. The primary timescale of concern is years to decades. A key characteristic of these changes is that they can come faster than expected, planned, or budgeted for, forcing more reactive, rather than proactive, modes of behavior. Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change summarizes the state of our knowledge about potential abrupt changes and abrupt climate impacts and categorizes changes that are already occurring, have a high probability of occurrence, or are unlikely to occur. Because of the substantial risks to society and nature posed by abrupt changes, this report recommends the development of an Abrupt Change Early Warning System that would allow for the prediction and possible mitigation of such changes before their societal impacts are severe. Identifying key vulnerabilities can help guide efforts to increase resiliency and avoid large damages from abrupt change in the climate system, or in abrupt impacts of gradual changes in the climate system, and facilitate more informed decisions on the proper balance between mitigation and adaptation. Although there is still much to learn about abrupt climate change and abrupt climate impacts, to willfully ignore the threat of abrupt change could lead to more costs, loss of life, suffering, and environmental degradation. Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change makes the case that the time is here to be serious about the threat of tipping points so as to better anticipate and prepare ourselves for the inevitable surprises.
Category: Science

Hunger And Obesity

Author : Food and Nutrition Board
ISBN : 9780309187428
Genre : Medical
File Size : 23.56 MB
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At some point during 2009, more than 17 million households in the United States had difficulty providing enough food for all their members because of a lack of resources. In more than one-third of these households, the food intake of some household members was reduced and normal eating patterns were disrupted due to limited resources. The Workshop on Understanding the Relationship Between Food Insecurity and Obesity was held to explore the biological, economic, psychosocial, and other factors that may influence the relationship between food insecurity, overweight, and obesity in the United States. Hunger and Obesity examines current concepts and research findings in the field. The report identifies information gaps, proposes alternative approaches to analyzing data, recommends new data that should be collected, and addresses the limitations of the available research.
Category: Medical