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Sediments In Archaeological Context

Author : Julie K. Stein
ISBN : UOM:39015050793069
Genre : Science
File Size : 70.40 MB
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Almost Every Artifact in archaeological analysis originates in or on the ground. While there are elaborate methods for extracting and analyzing artifacts, treatment of the material within which they are located is often unsophisticated and does not include systematic analysis.Sediments in Archaeological Context is concerned with the analysis of this matrix and the potential use of sediments to answer archaeological questions. Describing sediments and sampling them in appropriate ways do not replace the study of artifacts, but they can provide additional, useful information regarding a site complex, its physical environment, and the relations of artifacts to each other.Each chapter in the volume considers sediments within a specific context. Topics include sediments found in a variety of environments: cultural environments, rockshelter and cave environments, dryland alluvial environments, humid alluvial environments, lake environments, shoreline environments, and spring and wetland environments.Sediments in Archaeological Context is intended for every archaeologist who investigates sites in depositional contexts.
Category: Science

Archaeological Soil And Sediment Micromorphology

Author : Cristiano Nicosia
ISBN : 9781118941058
Genre : Science
File Size : 86.7 MB
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Chapter 39 FTIR Microscopy -- 39.1 Principles of the Analytical Method -- 39.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure -- 39.3 Archaeological Applications -- References -- Chapter 40 X-ray Microdiffraction -- 40.1 Fundamentals of X-ray Diffraction -- 40.2 XRD Instrumentation -- 40.3 Output and Analysis -- 40.4 Applications to Archaeological Micromorphology Samples -- 40.5 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 41 Micro XRF -- 41.1 Principles of the Analytical Method -- 41.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure -- 41.3 Archaeological Applications -- 41.4 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 42 Micro-CT Scanning -- 42.1 Principles of the Analytical Method -- 42.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedures -- 42.3 Archaeological Applications -- 42.4 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 43 Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (SEM-EPMA) Techniques -- 43.1 Principles of the Techniques -- 43.2 Sample Preparation and Analysis -- 43.3 Archaeological Applications -- References -- 44 Reflected Light -- 44.1 Principles of the Analytical Method -- 44.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure -- 44.3 Archaeological Applications -- References -- Index -- EULA
Category: Science

Principles Of Geoarchaeology

Author : Michael R. Waters
ISBN : 0816517703
Genre : Science
File Size : 50.51 MB
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Geoarchaeological studies can significantly enhance interpretations of human prehistory by allowing archaeologists to decipher from sediments and soils the effects of earth processes on the evidence of human activity. While a number of previous books have provided broad geographic and temporal treatments of geoarchaeology, this new volume presents a single author's view intended for North American archaeologists. Waters deals with those aspects of geoarchaeologyÑstratigraphy, site formation processes, and landscape reconstructionÑmost fundamental to archaeology, and he focuses on the late Quaternary of North America, permitting in-depth discussions of the concepts directly applicable to that research. Assuming no prior geologic knowledge on the part of the reader, Waters provides a background in fundamental geological processes and the basic tools of geoarchaeology. He then proceeds to relate specific physical processes, microenvironments, deposits, and landforms associated with riverine, desert, lake, glacial, cave, coastal, and other environments to archaeological site formation, location, and context. This practical volume illustrates the contributions of geoarchaeological investigations and demonstrates the need to make such studies an integral part of archaeological research. The text is enhanced by more than a hundred line drawings and photographs. CONTENTS 1. Research Objectives of Geoarchaeology 2. Geoarchaeological Foundations: The Archaeological Site Matrix: Sediments and Soils / Stratigraphy / The Geoarchaeological Interpretation of Sediments, Soils, and Stratigraphy 3. Alluvial Environments: Streamflow / Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition / Alluvial Environments: Rivers, Arroyos, Terraces, and Fans / Alluvial Landscapes Evolution and the Archaeological Record / Alluvial Landscape Reconstruction 4. Eolian Environments: Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition / Sand Dunes / Loess and Dust / Stone Pavements / Eolian Erosion / Volcanic Ash (Tephra) 5. Springs, Lakes, Rockshelters, and Other Terrestrial Environments: Springs / Lakes / Slopes / Glaciers / Rockshelters and Caves 6. Coastal Environments: Coastal Processes / Late Quaternary Sea Level Changes / Coastal Environments / Coastal Landscape Evolution and the Archaeological Record / Coastal Landscape Reconstruction 7. The Postburial Disturbance af Archaeological Site Contexts: Cryoturbation / Argilliturbation / Graviturbation / Deformation / Other Physical Disturbances / Floralturbation / Faunalturbation 8. Geoarchaeological Research Appendix A: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating the Effects of Fluvial Landscape Evolution on the Archaeological Record Appendix B: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating Site-Specific Synchronic and Diachronic Alluvial Landscape Reconstructions Appendix C: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating Regional Synchronic and Diachronic Alluvial Landscape Reconstructions
Category: Science

Soils In Archaeological Research

Author : Vance T. Holliday
ISBN : 9780195149654
Genre : Science
File Size : 26.58 MB
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This book is a discussion of the study of soils as a component of earth science applications in archaeology, a subdiscipline known as geoarchaeology. The volume focuses on how the study of soils can be integrated with other aspects of archaeological and geoscientific research to answer questions regarding the past. Anyone who needs to know how soils can be used to help answer archaeological questions will be interested in this work.
Category: Science

Environmental Archaeology

Author : Dena F. Dincauze
ISBN : 0521310776
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 35.41 MB
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Archaeologists today need a wide range of scientific approaches in order to delineate and interpret the ecology of their sites. But borrowing concepts from other disciplines demands a critical understanding, and the methods must be appropriate to particular sets of data. This book is an authoritative and essential guide to methods, ranging from techniques for measuring time with isotopes and magnetism to the sciences of climate reconstruction, geomorphology, sedimentology, soil science, paleobotany and faunal paleoecology. Their applications are illustrated by examples from the Paleolithic, through classical civilizations, to urban archaeology.
Category: Social Science

Archaeological Sediments And Soils

Author : Anthony J Barham
ISBN : 9781315434445
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 36.48 MB
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A collection of papers focusing on the links between archaeology and the study of geological sediments and soils.
Category: Social Science

Practical And Theoretical Geoarchaeology

Author : Paul Goldberg
ISBN : 9781118688199
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 74.48 MB
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Practical and Theoretical Geoarchaeology provides an invaluable overview of geoarchaeology and how it can be used effectively in the study of archaeological sites and contexts. Taking a pragmatic and functional approach, this book presents: a fundamental, broad-based perspective of the essentials of modern geoarchaeology in order to demonstrate the breadth of the approaches and the depth of the problems that it can tackle. the rapid advances made in the area in recent years, but also gives the reader a firm grasp of conventional approaches. covers traditional topics with the emphasis on landscapes, as well as anthropogenic site formation processes and their investigation. provides guidelines for the presentation of field and laboratory methods and the reporting of geoarchaeological results. essential reading for archaeology undergraduate and graduate students, practicing archaeologists and geoscientists who need to understand and apply geoarchaeological methodologies. Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at: “This is one of the best textbooks that I have read in years. I enjoyed reviewing it, and found it well-written and thorough in its coverage of the traditional earth science aspects of geoarchaeology. The non-traditional aspects were intriguing and equally thorough... I predict that this book will become the textbook of choice for geoarchaeology classes for several years.” Geomorphology 101 (2008) 740–743
Category: Technology & Engineering

Techniques In Archaeological Geology

Author : Ervan Garrison
ISBN : 9783319302324
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 57.40 MB
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This 2nd edition is a survey level review of key areas of archaeological geology/geoarchaeology. Principal subject areas include: historical principles; archaeologic and geomorphic surfaces and landforms types; sediments and sediment analytic methods; archaeological stoney materials - petrographic and mineralogic attributes; ceramic materials - mineralogic composition and analytic methods; geochemical methods useful in archaeological geology - studies of materials; commonly used geochronological methods for archaeological geology. Contributions to paleoecology, paleoclimate and ancient cultures as well as multivariate ICP and EDX data are now included.
Category: Social Science