SECTARIANIZATION MAPPING THE NEW POLITICS OF THE MIDDLE EAST

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Sectarianization

Author : Nader Hashemi
ISBN : 9780190664886
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 55.93 MB
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As the Middle East descends ever deeper into violence and chaos, 'sectarianism' has become a catch-all explanation for the region's troubles. The turmoil is attributed to 'ancient sectarian differences', putatively primordial forces that make violent conflict intractable. In media and policy discussions, sectarianism has come to possess trans-historical causal power. This book trenchantly challenges the lazy use of 'sectarianism' as a magic-bullet explanation for the region's ills, focusing on how various conflicts in the Middle East have morphed from non-sectarian (or cross-sectarian) and nonviolent movements into sectarian wars. Through multiple case studies -- including Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Yemen and Kuwait -- this book maps the dynamics of sectarianisation, exploring not only how but also why it has taken hold. The contributors examine the constellation of forces -- from those within societies to external factors such as the Saudi-Iran rivalry -- that drive the sectarianisation process and explore how the region's politics can be de-sectarianised. Featuring leading scholars -- and including historians, anthropologists, political scientists and international relations theorists -- this book will redefine the terms of debate on one of the most critical issues in international affairs today.
Category: Political Science

The New Sectarianism

Author : Geneive Abdo
ISBN : 9780190233143
Genre : RELIGION
File Size : 85.57 MB
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"The New Sectarianism considers the causes for growing Sunni-Shi'a animosity in countries such as Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Iran, and Saudi Arabia. It illustrates how the two groups perceive one another after the Arab uprisings, how these perceptions have affected Arab life, and how these contestations pose a serious threat to the stability of regional states and to stakeholders in the wider world"--
Category: RELIGION

Sectarian Gulf

Author : Toby Matthiesen
ISBN : 9780804787222
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 61.21 MB
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As popular uprisings spread across the Middle East, popular wisdom often held that the Gulf States would remain beyond the fray. In Sectarian Gulf, Toby Matthiesen paints a very different picture, offering the first assessment of the Arab Spring across the region. With first-hand accounts of events in Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait, Matthiesen tells the story of the early protests, and illuminates how the regimes quickly suppressed these movements. Pitting citizen against citizen, the regimes have warned of an increasing threat from the Shia population. Relations between the Gulf regimes and their Shia citizens have soured to levels as bad as 1979, following the Iranian revolution. Since the crackdown on protesters in Bahrain in mid-March 2011, the "Shia threat" has again become the catchall answer to demands for democratic reform and accountability. While this strategy has ensured regime survival in the short term, Matthiesen warns of the dire consequences this will have—for the social fabric of the Gulf States, for the rise of transnational Islamist networks, and for the future of the Middle East.
Category: Political Science

The Wahhabi Mission And Saudi Arabia

Author : David Commins
ISBN : 9780857731357
Genre : Religion
File Size : 83.52 MB
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The history of the Wahhabis' close, loyal alliance with the ancestors of the present Saudi royal family has been recounted in fascinating, and persuasive detail by David Commins. His conclusion is no less startling as it is important, that Wahhabi hegemony over regional religious culture is in jeopardy; its credibility debased, possibly no longer able to buttress the Saudi dynasty's legitimacy. Whatever their future, the story of the Wahhabis has been told with authority and clarity by Commins in this absorbing book. - David Waines, Professor of Islamic Studies, Lancaster University ‘David Commins’ careful, comprehensive and erudite account of Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia could not have come at a more opportune time. After so many tendentious and uninformed treatments of the subject in recent years, it is a pleasure to read a real historian’s account, based upon original Arabic sources. Everyone involved in the public debate about Saudi Arabia’s role in the Muslim world should read this book.’ —F. GREGORY GAUSE, UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT ‘David Commins’ work makes major contributions toward understanding the historical development of Wahhabism, particularly in the 19th century. His analysis of 19th century Wahhabi thought demonstrates the interplay between religion and politics during this critical time, setting the stage for the 20th century founding of the contemporary Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.’ —NATANA J. DELONG-BAS, GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY, AUTHOR OF WAHHABI ISLAM: FROM REVIVAL AND REFORM TO GLOBAL JIHAD (I.B.TAURIS)
Category: Religion

Desert Kingdoms To Global Powers

Author : Rory Miller
ISBN : 9780300222166
Genre : History
File Size : 28.35 MB
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A lively analysis of the Arab Gulf states’ stunning rise to global power over the last half-century and of the daunting challenges they confront today Once just sleepy desert sheikdoms, the Arab Gulf states of Saudi Arabia, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait now exert unprecedented influence on international affairs—the result of their almost unimaginable riches in oil and gas. In this book, Rory Miller, an expert in Gulf politics and international affairs, provides an accessible account of the achievements of these countries since the 1973 global oil crisis. He also investigates how the shrewd Arab Gulf rulers who have overcome crisis after crisis meet the external and internal challenges of the onrushing future. The Arab Gulf region has become an East–West hub for travel, tourism, sport, culture, trade, and finance. But can the autocratic regimes maintain stability at home and influence abroad as they deal with the demands of social and democratic reform? Miller considers an array of factors—Islamism, terrorism, the Arab Spring, volatile oil prices, global power dynamics, and others—to assess the future possibilities.
Category: History

International Relations Of The Middle East

Author : Louise Fawcett
ISBN : 9780198708742
Genre : Middle East
File Size : 74.65 MB
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The most authoritative, comprehensive, and balanced overview of international relations in the Middle East, this respected textbook helps students get to grips with this fascinating and challenging subject area. A team of expert scholars combines a history of the region with analysis of key themes, actors, and conflicts, using a range of learning features and online resources to support student learning.Offering a wide range of perspectives, this book exposes studentsto different approaches to the subject, and encourages them to think critically in order to draw their own conclusions. The text features a range of case studies and 'micro-cases' throughout, demonstrating the relevance of international relations theory in the contemporary Middle East, and helping students to apply their learning to real world situations.The fourth edition features a new chapter on the Arab Spring, highlighting this significant development in contemporary Middle Eastern international relations, and an expanded discussion of rising powers in the region, such as Russia and China. New to this editionA new chapter on the Arab Spring and its aftermath brings the book fully up-to-date with contemporary events.Fuller discussion of 'new' and 'rising' actors in the region, including Russia and China, ensures that the text accurately reflects the current multipolar international system.An increased number of case studies demonstrate the relevance of theory to practice.End-of-chapter questions have been introduced to encourage students to check their understanding and reflect on their learning.
Category: Middle East

The Syria Dilemma

Author : Nader Hashemi
ISBN : 9780262026833
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 90.3 MB
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The current conflict in Syria has killed more than 80,000 people and displaced four million, yet most observers predict that the worst is still to come. And for two years, the international community has failed to take action. World leaders have repeatedly resolved not to let atrocities happen in plain view, but the legacy of the bloody and costly intervention in Iraq has left policymakers with little appetite for more military operations. So we find ourselves in the grip of a double burden: the urge to stop the bleeding in Syria, and the fear that attempting to do so would be Iraq redux. What should be done about the apparently intractable Syrian conflict? This book focuses on the ethical and political dilemmas at the heart of the debate about Syria and the possibility of humanitarian intervention in today's world. The contributors--Syria experts, international relations theorists, human rights activists, and scholars of humanitarian intervention--don't always agree, but together they represent the best political thinking on the issue. The Syria Dilemma includes original pieces from Michael Ignatieff, Mary Kaldor, Radwan Ziadeh, Thomas Pierret, Afra Jalabi, and others. Contributors: Asli Bâli, Richard Falk, Tom Farer, Charles Glass, Shadi Hamid, Nader Hashemi, Christopher Hill, Michael Ignatieff, Afra Jalabi, Rafif Jouejati, Mary Kaldor, MarcLynch, Vali Nasr, Thomas Pierret, Danny Postel, Aziz Rana, Christoph Reuter, Kenneth Roth, Anne-Marie Slaughter, Fareed Zakaria, Radwan Ziadeh, Stephen Zunes
Category: Political Science

The Other Saudis

Author : Toby Matthiesen
ISBN : 9781107043046
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 21.29 MB
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This accessible scholarly work traces the regional politics of the Shia in the Eastern Province of Sunni-dominated Saudi Arabia since the nineteenth century. The first book in English on the topic, it casts new light on the survival strategies and political mobilization of the Shia community as it confronts the repressive machinery of the Saudi regime.
Category: Political Science

Beyond Sunni And Shia

Author : Frederic Wehrey
ISBN : 9780190876050
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 42.97 MB
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This collection seeks to advance our understanding of intra-Islamic identity conflict during a period of upheaval in the Middle East. Instead of treating distinctions between and within Sunni and Shia Islam as primordial and immutable, it examines how political economy, geopolitics, domestic governance, social media, non- and sub-state groups, and clerical elites have affected the transformation and diffusion of sectarian identities. Particular attention is paid to how conflicts over distribution of political and economic power have taken on a sectarian quality, and how a variety of actors have instrumentalized sectarianism. The volume, covering Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf, Iran, and Egypt, includes contributors from a broad array of disciplines including political science, history, sociology, and Islamic studies. Beyond Sunni and Shia draws on extensive fieldwork and primary sources to offer insights that are empirically rich and theoretically grounded, but also accessible for policy audiences and the informed public.
Category: Political Science

Sectarianism In Iraq

Author : Fanar Haddad
ISBN : 9780199327386
Genre : History
File Size : 33.36 MB
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Viewing Iraq from the outside is made easier by compartmentalising its people (at least the Arabs among them) into Shi'as and Sunnis. But can such broad terms, inherently resistant to accurate quantification, description and definition, ever be a useful reflection of any society? If not, are we to discard the terms 'Shi'a' and 'Sunni' in seeking to understand Iraq? Or are we to deny their relevance and ignore them when considering Iraqi society? How are we to view the common Iraqi injunction that 'we are all brothers' or that 'we have no Shi'as and Sunnis' against the fact of sectarian civil war in 2006? Are they friends or enemies? Are they united or divided; indeed, are they Iraqis or are they Shi'as and Sunnis? Fanar Haddad provides the first comprehensive examination of sectarian relations and sectarian identities in Iraq. Rather than treating the subject by recourse to broad-based categorisation, his analysis recognises the inherent ambiguity of group identity. The salience of sectarian identity and views towards self and other are neither fixed nor constant; rather, they are part of a continuously fluctuating dynamic that sees the relevance of sectarian identity advancing and receding according to context and to wider socioeconomic and political conditions. What drives the salience of sectarian identity? How are sectarian identities negotiated in relation to Iraqi national identity and what role do sectarian identities play in the social and political lives of Iraqi Sunnis and Shi'as? These are some of the questions explored in this book with a particular focus on the two most significant turning points in modern Iraqi sectarian relations: the uprisings of March 1991 and the fall of the Ba'ath in 2003. Haddad explores how sectarian identities are negotiated and seeks finally to put to rest the alarmist and reductionist accounts that seek either to portray all things Iraqi in sectarian terms or to reduce sectarian identity to irrelevance.
Category: History