SCIENCE COLD WAR AND THE AMERICAN STATE

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Science Cold War And The American State

Author : Allan A. Needell
ISBN : 9781135852795
Genre : History
File Size : 61.37 MB
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This book illuminates how Berkner became a model that produced the scientist/advisor/policymaker that helped build post-war America. It does so by providing a detailed account of the personal and professional beliefs of one of the most influential figures in the American scientific community; a figure that helped define the political and social climates that existed in the United States during the Cold War.
Category: History

Competing With The Soviets

Author : Audra J. Wolfe
ISBN : 9781421407715
Genre : Science
File Size : 33.94 MB
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For most of the second half of the twentieth century, the United States and its allies competed with a hostile Soviet Union in almost every way imaginable except open military engagement. The Cold War placed two opposite conceptions of the good society before the uncommitted world and history itself, and science figured prominently in the picture. Competing with the Soviets offers a short, accessible introduction to the special role that science and technology played in maintaining state power during the Cold War, from the atomic bomb to the Human Genome Project. The high-tech machinery of nuclear physics and the space race are at the center of this story, but Audra J. Wolfe also examines the surrogate battlefield of scientific achievement in such diverse fields as urban planning, biology, and economics; explains how defense-driven federal investments created vast laboratories and research programs; and shows how unfamiliar worries about national security and corrosive questions of loyalty crept into the supposedly objective scholarly enterprise. Based on the assumption that scientists are participants in the culture in which they live, Competing with the Soviets looks beyond the debate about whether military influence distorted science in the Cold War. Scientists’ choices and opportunities have always been shaped by the ideological assumptions, political mandates, and social mores of their times. The idea that American science ever operated in a free zone outside of politics is, Wolfe argues, itself a legacy of the ideological Cold War that held up American science, and scientists, as beacons of freedom in contrast to their peers in the Soviet Union. Arranged chronologically and thematically, the book highlights how ideas about the appropriate relationships among science, scientists, and the state changed over time. -- Michael D. Gordin, Princeton University
Category: Science

Ocean Science And The British Cold War State

Author : Samuel A. Robinson
ISBN : 9783319730967
Genre : Science
File Size : 27.41 MB
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This book focuses on the activities of the scientific staff of the British National Institute of Oceanography during the Cold War. Revealing how issues such as intelligence gathering, environmental surveillance, the identification of ‘enemy science’, along with administrative practice informed and influenced the Institute’s Cold War program. In turn, this program helped shape decisions taken by Government, military and the civil service towards science in post-war Britain. This was not simply a case of government ministers choosing to patronize particular scientists, but a relationship between politics and science that profoundly impacted on the future of ocean science in Britain.
Category: Science

Man Medicine And The State

Author : Wolfgang Uwe Eckart
ISBN : 351508794X
Genre : History
File Size : 74.61 MB
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This anthology unites articles about different aspects of scientific human experiments in the course of World War I to the 1960s. The majority of them deals with the development of medicine and life sciences as well as the national research promotion under the Nazi regime and during World War II. Studies on human experiments of French, Japanese, and US-American research enlarge the perspective on a problem of obviously international range. These empirical studies are supplemented by articles on the legal evaluation of this behaviour of scientists, as well as on the resulting movement to formulate binding transnational ethical codes on behalf of human experiments.
Category: History

In The Shadow Of The Garrison State

Author : Aaron L. Friedberg
ISBN : 9781400842919
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 26.95 MB
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War--or the threat of war--usually strengthens states as governments tax, draft soldiers, exert control over industrial production, and dampen internal dissent in order to build military might. The United States, however, was founded on the suspicion of state power, a suspicion that continued to gird its institutional architecture and inform the sentiments of many of its politicians and citizens through the twentieth century. In this comprehensive rethinking of postwar political history, Aaron Friedberg convincingly argues that such anti-statist inclinations prevented Cold War anxieties from transforming the United States into the garrison state it might have become in their absence. Drawing on an array of primary and secondary sources, including newly available archival materials, Friedberg concludes that the "weakness" of the American state served as a profound source of national strength that allowed the United States to outperform and outlast its supremely centralized and statist rival: the Soviet Union. Friedberg's analysis of the U. S. government's approach to taxation, conscription, industrial planning, scientific research and development, and armaments manufacturing reveals that the American state did expand during the early Cold War period. But domestic constraints on its expansion--including those stemming from mean self-interest as well as those guided by a principled belief in the virtues of limiting federal power--protected economic vitality, technological superiority, and public support for Cold War activities. The strategic synthesis that emerged by the early 1960s was functional as well as stable, enabling the United States to deter, contain, and ultimately outlive the Soviet Union precisely because the American state did not limit unduly the political, personal, and economic freedom of its citizens. Political scientists, historians, and general readers interested in Cold War history will value this thoroughly researched volume. Friedberg's insightful scholarship will also inspire future policy by contributing to our understanding of how liberal democracy's inherent qualities nurture its survival and spread.
Category: Political Science

American Science Fiction And The Cold War

Author : David Seed
ISBN : 9781135953829
Genre : Art
File Size : 47.56 MB
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First Published in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Category: Art

Oceanographers And The Cold War

Author : Jacob Darwin Hamblin
ISBN : 0295801859
Genre : Science
File Size : 40.38 MB
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Oceanographers and the Cold War is about patronage, politics, and the community of scientists. It is the first book to examine the study of the oceans during the Cold War era and explore the international focus of American oceanographers, taking into account the roles of the U.S. Navy, United States foreign policy, and scientists throughout the world. Jacob Hamblin demonstrates that to understand the history of American oceanography, one must consider its role in both conflict and cooperation with other nations. Paradoxically, American oceanography after World War II was enmeshed in the military-industrial complex while characterized by close international cooperation. The military dimension of marine science--with its involvement in submarine acoustics, fleet operations, and sea-launched nuclear missiles--coexisted with data exchange programs with the Soviet Union and global operations in seas without borders. From an uneasy cooperation with the Soviet bloc in the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58, to the NATO Science Committee in the late 1960s, which excluded the Soviet Union, to the U.S. Marine Sciences Council, which served as an important national link between scientists and the government, Oceanographers and the Cold War reveals the military and foreign policy goals served by U.S. government involvement in cooperative activities between scientists, such as joint cruises and expeditions. It demonstrates as well the extent to which oceanographers used international cooperation as a vehicle to pursue patronage from military, government, and commercial sponsors during the Cold War, as they sought support for their work by creating "disciples of marine science" wherever they could.
Category: Science

Oil Exploration Diplomacy And Security In The Early Cold War

Author : Roberto Cantoni
ISBN : 9781315531526
Genre : History
File Size : 65.53 MB
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The importance of oil for national military-industrial complexes appeared more clearly than ever in the Cold War. This volume argues that the confidential acquisition of geoscientific knowledge was paramount for states, not only to provide for their own energy needs, but also to buttress national economic and geostrategic interests and protect energy security. By investigating the postwar rebuilding and expansion of French and Italian oil industries from the second half of the 1940s to the early 1960s, this book shows how successive administrations in those countries devised strategies of oil exploration and transport, aiming at achieving a higher degree of energy autonomy and setting up powerful oil agencies that could implement those strategies. However, both within and outside their national territories, these two European countries had to confront the new Cold War balances and the interests of the two superpowers.
Category: History

The Cold War In Science Fiction Soviet And American Science Fiction Films In The 1950s

Author : Natalia Voinova
ISBN : 9783954895588
Genre : Computers
File Size : 71.48 MB
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This study will compare the USSR and the United States according to their cinematic use of science fiction in the late 1950s and 1960s in order to coincide with the period of de-Stalinisation and thaw in the USSR, and late McCarthyism in the United States. The genre provides an opportunity to express the two powers' scientific stand-off through fiction, and serves as a vehicle for the dissemination of ideas and propaganda. Post-1956 marks the time when the period of de-Stalinisation officially began and science fiction saw a carefully crafted rebirth for it served as a tool that could reflect the socialist ideal and quasi-religious faith in science that was promoted by the party. Science fiction uniquely demands for an imaginative view of the future, and therefore, corresponds with the Marxist- Leninist future-oriented ideology. For this period, the themes for American science fiction are hyperbolised monsters and invasion, and reflect the fear of the otherness of the Soviet Union, and its threat on domestic ideals. These themes are reflected in movies as 'Angry Red Planet', and 'Them!'. On the other hand, Soviet science fiction movies focus on the heroic Soviet man who frequently receives calls for help from outer space, and overcomes great trials to save those not living in utopia. This storyline is represented in 'Towards a Dream', and 'The Sky is calling'. The author gives special attention to the Soviet movie 'The Sky is calling' and the subsequent redubbed American version 'Battle beyond the Sun'. Further, she addresses alterations or plot, and subtle propaganda messages in the Soviet movies 'Planet of Storms', and the Hollywood remake 'Journey to the Prehistoric Planet'.
Category: Computers

The United States And Latin America In The 1990s

Author : Jonathan Hartlyn
ISBN : 9781469617220
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 69.25 MB
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A comprehensive examination of both unresolved tensions in inter-American relations and the specific problems facing U.S. and Latin American policymakers in the 1990s.--American Political Science Review "These well-integrated essays analyze the key issues in contemporary inter-American relations very clearly. The authors address their themes with subtlety and insight, in this first overall assessment of North-South relations in the Western Hemisphere during the post-Cold War period.--Christopher Mitchell, New York University "A superb contribution. . . . At a time when U.S.-Latin American relations face a critical turning point, policymakers would benefit from a careful reading of this fine book.--Eduardo A. Gamarra, Florida International University
Category: Political Science