ROCK STRESS AND ITS MEASUREMENT

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Rock Stress And Its Measurement

Author : B. Amadei
ISBN : 9789401153461
Genre : Science
File Size : 32.53 MB
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Rock masses are initially stressed in their current in situ state of stress and to a lesser natural state. Whether one is interested in the extent on the monitoring of stress change. formation of geological structures (folds, faults, The subject of paleostresses is only briefly intrusions, etc. ), the stability of artificial struc discussed. tures (tunnels, caverns, mines, surface excava The last 30 years have seen a major advance our knowledge and understanding of rock tions, etc. ), or the stability of boreholes, a in the in situ or virgin stress field, stress. A large body of data is now available on knowledge of along with other rock mass properties, is the state of stress in the near surface of the needed in order to predict the response of rock Earth's crust (upper 3-4km of the crust). masses to the disturbance associated with those Various theories have been proposed regarding structures. Stress in rock is usually described the origin of in situ stresses and how gravity, within the context of continuum mechanics. It is tectonics, erosion, lateral straining, rock fabric, defined at a point and is represented by a glaciation and deglaciation, topography, curva second-order Cartesian tensor with six compo ture of the Earth and other active geological nents. Because of its definition, rock stress is an features and processes contribute to the current enigmatic and fictitious quantity creating chal in situ stress field.
Category: Science

Stress Field Of The Earth S Crust

Author : Arno Zang
ISBN : 1402084447
Genre : Science
File Size : 51.93 MB
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Stress Field of the Earth’s Crust is based on lecture notes prepared for a course offered to graduate students in the Earth sciences and engineering at University of Potsdam. In my opinion, it will undoubtedly also become a standard reference book on the desk of most scientists working with rocks, such as geophysicists, structural geologists, rock mechanics experts, as well as geotechnical and petroleum en- neers. That is because this book is concerned with what is probably the most pe- liar characteristic of rock – its initial stress condition. Rock is always under a natural state of stress, primarily a result of the gravitational and tectonic forces to which it is subjected. Crustal stresses can vary regionally and locally and can reach in places considerable magnitudes, leading to natural or man-made mechanical failure. P- existing stress distinguishes rock from most other materials and is at the core of the discipline of “Rock Mechanics”, which has been developed over the last century. Knowledge of rock stress is fundamental to understanding faulting mechanisms and earthquake triggering, to designing stable underground caverns and prod- tive oil fields, and to improving mining methods and geothermal energy extraction, among others. Several books have been written on the subject, but none has atte- ted to be as all-encompassing as the one by Zang and Stephansson.
Category: Science

In Situ Rock Stress Measurement Interpretation And Application

Author : Abhinav Mishra
ISBN : 1681174049
Genre :
File Size : 85.45 MB
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Understanding in-situ rock stress is important in the exploration and engineering involving rock masses for mining, hydropower, tunneling, oil and gas production, and stone quarrying. Traditional methods of determining these stresses have not developed substantially to keep pace with the increasing utilization of rock masses. Contributed by a group of leading experts, this book addresses new developments in numerical modeling and advanced measuring techniques. In-Situ Rock Stress: Measurement, Interpretation and Application reflect the development in this field, covering measuring techniques, interpretation methods, and application of the in-situ stress in engineering practice. Estimate of the in-situ rock stress state can be realized by direct or indirect methods. Although the indirect method has developed rapidly in recent years, the direct field measurement is still by far dominating. Great improvements have been achieved with the 'traditional' field tests by overcoring and hydraulic fracturing, whilst the recently developed methods become matured. In addition, ideas of new methods and new instruments will make the stress estimate easier, less expensive and more reliable.
Category:

Rock Anisotropy And The Theory Of Stress Measurements

Author : Bernard Amadei
ISBN : 9783642820403
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 67.22 MB
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Any undisturbed rock mass is subject to natural stresses inclu ding gravitational stresses due to the mass of the overburden and possibly tectonic stresses due to the straining of the earth's crust and remanent stresses due to past tectonism. Knowledge of the in situ stress field must be integrated into any rock engineering design along with general rock mass characteristics such as de for mability, strength, permeability and time dependent behavior. For example, the choice of optimum orientation and shape of deep underground caverns or complex underground works will be controlled by the orientation and the magnitude of the in situ stress @ield if it is necessary to minimize stress concentration problems. Long term variation of the in situ stress field may also help to evaluate the potential hazard of earthquake occurences. The magnitude and orientation of the stress field ata point within a rock mass can be measured but there is no known method by which the state of stress at a point can be accurately determined by instruments located remotely. In general, measurements are made inside boreholes, on outcrops or on the internal surfaces of under ground cavities. Most of the measuring techniques intentionally disturb the state of stress in the rock and then measure consequent strains and displacements. Measured strains or displacements are then related to the stresses through assumptions of material behavior. A common procedure is to assume that the rock mass is linearly elastic, isotropic, continuous and homogeneous.
Category: Mathematics

Rock Stress And Earthquakes

Author : Furen Xie
ISBN : 9780203836101
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 36.20 MB
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The evaluation of in-situ rock stress is not only important in the exploration and engineering involving rock masses for mining, hydropower, tunneling, oil and gas production, and stone quarrying, but also in the geodynamics and earthquake prediction. The methods of determining these stresses for shallow crust in the engineering practice, including hydraulic fracture method, stress relief method, and acoustic emission method, have not developed substantially to satisfy the increasing utilization of rock masses. The geophysical methods for stresses determination of deep crust only determine the stress fields of deep crust qualitatively. Contributed by a group of leading experts from engineering and geophysical community, Rock Stress and Earthquakes addresses new developments in numerical modeling and advanced measuring techniques in engineering practices, and build new connections between traditional and geophysical methods, which will both benefit earthquake prediction based on the concept of the crustal stresses. Rock Stress and Earthquakes reflects the developments in this area, covering measuring techniques, interpretation methods, and the application of in-situ stress in engineering practice and geophysics, and is of interest to academics and engineers in rock mechanics, geophysics, geology, and seismology.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Stress Regimes In The Lithosphere

Author : Terry Engelder
ISBN : 9781400863150
Genre : Science
File Size : 86.9 MB
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The purpose of this book is to acquaint the geoscientist with issues associated with the debate over orientation and magnitude of stress in the lithosphere. Terry Engelder provides a broad understanding of the topic, while touching some of the specific details involved in the interpretation of stress data generated by the most commonly used measurement techniques. An understanding of stress in the lithosphere starts with an introduction to nomenclature based on three reference states of stress. Since rock strength governs differential stress magnitudes, stress regimes are identified according to the specific failure mechanism (crack propagation, shear rupture, ductile flow, or frictional slip) that controls the magnitude of stress at a particular time and place in the lithosphere. After introducing the various stress regimes, the author shows how their extent in the upper crust is demarcated by direct measurements of four types: hydraulic fracture, borehole-logging, strain-relaxation, and rigid-inclusion measurements. The relationship between lithospheric stress and the properties of rocks is then presented in terms of microcrack-related phenomena and residual stress. Lithospheric stress is also inferred from the analysis of earthquakes. Finally, lithospheric stress is placed in the context of large-scale stress fields and plate tectonics. Originally published in 1993. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Category: Science

Rock Quality Seismic Velocity Attenuation And Anisotropy

Author : Nick Barton
ISBN : 0203964454
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 20.85 MB
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Seismic measurements take many forms, and appear to have a universal role in the Earth Sciences. They are the means for most easily and economically interpreting what lies beneath the visible surface. There are huge economic rewards and losses to be made when interpreting the shallow crust or subsurface more, or less accurately, as the case may be. This book describes seismic behaviour at many scales and from numerous fields in geophysics, tectonophysics and rock physics, and from civil, mining and petroleum engineering. Addressing key items for improved understanding of seismic behaviour, it often interprets seismic measurements in rock mechanics terms, with particular attention to the cause of attenuation, its inverse seismic quality, and the anisotropy of fracture compliances and stiffnesses. Reviewed behaviour stretches over ten orders of magnitude, from micro-crack compliance in laboratory tests to cross-continent attenuation. Between these extremes lie seismic investigation of rock joints, boreholes, block tests, dam and bridge foundations, quarry blasting, canal excavations, hydropower and transportation tunnels, machine bored TBM tunnels, sub-sea sediment and mid-ocean ridge measurements, where the emphasis is on velocity-depth-age models. Attenuation of earthquake coda-waves is also treated, including in-well measurements. In the later chapters, there is a general emphasis on deeper, higher stress, larger scale applications of seismic, such as shear-wave splitting for interpreting the attenuation, anisotropy and orientation of permeable 'open' fracture sets in petroleum reservoirs, and the 4D seismic effects of water-flood, oil production and compaction. The dispersive or frequency dependence of most seismic measurements and their dependence on fracture dimensions and fracture density is emphasized. The possibility that shear displacement may be required to explain permeability at depth is quantified. This book is cross-disciplinary, non-mathematical and phenomenological in nature, containing a wealth of figures and a wide review of the literature from many fields in the Earth Sciences. Including a chapter of conclusions and an extensive subject index, it is a unique reference work for professionals, researchers, university teachers and students working in the fields of geophysics, civil, mining and petroleum engineering. It will be particularly relevant to geophysicists, engineering geologists and geologists who are engaged in the interpretation of seismic measurements in rock and petroleum engineering.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Rock Stress 03

Author : K. Sugawara
ISBN : 9058096394
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 34.89 MB
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This publication contains three special lectures, six keynote addresses and sixty-eight technical papers presented at the symposium. The wide variety of topics covered are grouped in the proceedings according to subject.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Vitrification In Assisted Reproduction Second Edition

Author : Michael Tucker
ISBN : 0415401631
Genre : Medical
File Size : 35.40 MB
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With the new classification of chronic myeloproliferative disorders, and the rise of interest in molecularly targeted therapies, this timely text brings together international experts on the topic to discuss the current technologies and their implications for the treatment of patients. This title comprehensively covers chronic myeloid leukemia and Ph-negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders and is an essential resource for all practitioners in Hematologic Oncology.
Category: Medical

Petrophysics

Author : Djebbar Tiab
ISBN : 9780128031896
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 61.16 MB
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Petrophysics: Theory and Practice of Measuring Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport Properties, Fourth Edition provides users with tactics that will help them understand rock-fluid interaction, a fundamental step that is necessary for all reservoir engineers to grasp in order to achieve the highest reservoir performance. The book brings the most comprehensive coverage on the subject matter, and is the only training tool for all reservoir and production engineers entering the oil and gas industry. This latest edition is enhanced with new real-world case studies, the latest advances in reservoir characterization, and a new chapter covering unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, including coverage on production techniques, reservoir characteristics, and the petrophysical properties of tight gas sands from NMR logs. Strengthened with a new chapter on shale oil and gas, adding the latest technological advances in the field today Covers topics relating to porous media, permeability, fluid saturation, well logs, Dykstra-Parson, capillary pressure, wettability, Darcy's law, Hooke's law, reservoir characterization, filter-cake, and more Updated with relevant practical case studies to enhance on the job training Continues its longstanding, 20-year history as the leading book on petrophysics
Category: Technology & Engineering