ROCK QUALITY SEISMIC VELOCITY ATTENUATION AND ANISOTROPY

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Rock Quality Seismic Velocity Attenuation And Anisotropy

Author : Nick Barton
ISBN : 0203964454
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 44.47 MB
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Seismic measurements take many forms, and appear to have a universal role in the Earth Sciences. They are the means for most easily and economically interpreting what lies beneath the visible surface. There are huge economic rewards and losses to be made when interpreting the shallow crust or subsurface more, or less accurately, as the case may be. This book describes seismic behaviour at many scales and from numerous fields in geophysics, tectonophysics and rock physics, and from civil, mining and petroleum engineering. Addressing key items for improved understanding of seismic behaviour, it often interprets seismic measurements in rock mechanics terms, with particular attention to the cause of attenuation, its inverse seismic quality, and the anisotropy of fracture compliances and stiffnesses. Reviewed behaviour stretches over ten orders of magnitude, from micro-crack compliance in laboratory tests to cross-continent attenuation. Between these extremes lie seismic investigation of rock joints, boreholes, block tests, dam and bridge foundations, quarry blasting, canal excavations, hydropower and transportation tunnels, machine bored TBM tunnels, sub-sea sediment and mid-ocean ridge measurements, where the emphasis is on velocity-depth-age models. Attenuation of earthquake coda-waves is also treated, including in-well measurements. In the later chapters, there is a general emphasis on deeper, higher stress, larger scale applications of seismic, such as shear-wave splitting for interpreting the attenuation, anisotropy and orientation of permeable 'open' fracture sets in petroleum reservoirs, and the 4D seismic effects of water-flood, oil production and compaction. The dispersive or frequency dependence of most seismic measurements and their dependence on fracture dimensions and fracture density is emphasized. The possibility that shear displacement may be required to explain permeability at depth is quantified. This book is cross-disciplinary, non-mathematical and phenomenological in nature, containing a wealth of figures and a wide review of the literature from many fields in the Earth Sciences. Including a chapter of conclusions and an extensive subject index, it is a unique reference work for professionals, researchers, university teachers and students working in the fields of geophysics, civil, mining and petroleum engineering. It will be particularly relevant to geophysicists, engineering geologists and geologists who are engaged in the interpretation of seismic measurements in rock and petroleum engineering.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Rock Mechanics For Resources Energy And Environment

Author : Marek Kwasniewski
ISBN : 9781482229073
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 28.39 MB
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This book contains the Proceedings of EUROCK 2013 – The 2013 ISRM International Symposium, which was held on 23-26 September 2013 in Wrocław, Poland. The Symposium was organized by the ISRM National Group POLAND and the Institute of Geotechnics and Hydrotechnics of the Wrocław Institute of Technology. The focus of the Symposium was on recent developments in the field of rock mechanics with an emphasis on the application of rock mechanics to the extraction of natural resources, securing energy supplies and protecting of the environment surrounding rock that is subjected to engineering activities. The main topics, which were covered in the 150 papers (including six keynote papers) that make up this book are: rock mass characterization, laboratory and in-situ testing, constitutive models and numerical modeling, mathematical modeling of THM processes in rocks, mine design and ground control, underground storage and waste disposal, slope and open pit stability, dynamic phenomena in rock masses, design methodology in rock engineering, mechanical breakage of rocks, rock tunnel excavation and support, petroleum rock mechanics and geological CO2 sequestration. The book also includes the 2013 ISRM Franklin Lecture by A. Goricki on the engineering aspects of geotechnical tunnel design. The book will be of interest and value to rock mechanics researchers as well as to professionals who are involved in the various branches of rock engineering.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Rock Mechanics In Civil And Environmental Engineering

Author : Jian Zhao
ISBN : 9780203840696
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 76.75 MB
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During the last two decades rock mechanics in Europe has been undergoing some major transformation. The reduction of mining activities in Europe affects heavily on rock mechanics teaching and research at universities and institutes. At the same time, new emerging activities, notably, underground infrastructure construction, geothermal energy development, radioactive waste and CO2 repository, and natural hazard management, are creating new opportunities of research and engineering. Rock mechanics today is closely associated with, and indeed part of, construction, energy, and environmental engineering. Rock Mechanics in Civil and Environmental Engineering collects 200 papers presented at the European Rock Mechanics Symposium EUROCK 2010, covering recent developments in rock mechanics. Topics include: rock mechanics theory, rock dynamics and rate dependent behaviour, laboratory and field test techniques, numerical modelling methods, and rock mechanics applications to engineering design, tunnel excavation and support, slope stabilisation, radioactive waste repository, petroleum and hydropower energy, earthquake and natural hazard management. The book will be invaluable to academics and engineers involved and interested in rock mechanics and rock.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Wave Fields In Real Media

Author : José M. Carcione
ISBN : 008046890X
Genre : Science
File Size : 82.48 MB
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This book examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, where ideal means an elastic (lossless), isotropic and single-phase medium, and real means an anelastic, anisotropic and multi-phase medium. The analysis starts by introducing the relevant stress-strain relation. This relation and the equations of momentum conservation are combined to give the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. The book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and solids - may also find this text useful. * Presents the fundamentals of wave propagation in anisotropic, anelastic and porus media * Contains a new chapter on the analogy between acoustic and electromagnetic waves, incorporating the subject of electromagnetic waves * Emphasizes geophysics, particularly, seismic exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs, which is essential for exploration and production of oil
Category: Science

Physical Properties Of Rocks

Author : Juergen H. Schön
ISBN : 9780081004234
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.79 MB
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The interpretation of geophysical data in exploration geophysics, well logging, engineering, mining and environmental geophysics requires knowledge of the physical properties of rocks and their correlations. Physical properties are a "key" for combined interpretation techniques. The study of rock physics provides an interdisciplinary treatment of physical properties, whether related to geophysical, geotechnical, hydrological or geological methodology. Physical Properties of Rocks, 2nd Edition, describes the physical fundamentals of rock properties, based on typical experimental results and relevant theories and models. It provides readers with all relevant rock properties and their interrelationships in one concise volume. Furthermore, it guides the reader through experimental and theoretical knowledge in order to handle models and theories in practice. Throughout the book the author focuses on the problems of applied geophysics with respect to exploration and the expanding field of applications in engineering and mining geophysics, geotechnics, hydrology and environmental problems, and the properties under the conditions of the upper Earth crust. Physical Properties of Rocks, Second Edition, guides readers through a systematic presentation of all relevant physical properties and their interrelationships in parallel with experimental and theoretical basic knowledge and a guide for handling core models and theories
Category: Science

Harmonising Rock Engineering And The Environment

Author : Qihu Qian
ISBN : 9780203135259
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 36.81 MB
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Harmonising Rock Mechanics and the Environment comprises the proceedings (invited and contributed papers) of the 12th ISRM International Congress on Rock Mechanics (Beijing, China, 18-21 October 2011). The contributions cover the entire scope of rock mechanics and rock engineering, with an emphasis on the critical role of both disciplines in sustainable development and environmental preservation. The main topics include (but are not limited to): • Site investigation and field observation. • Rock material and rock mass properties testing (laboratory and in situ). • Analysis techniques and design methods, modeling and numerical methods. • Information system, artificial intelligence and other advanced techniques. • Rock engineering in hazardous geo-environments. • Rock breakage and excavation techniques. • Underground storage of petroleum, gas, CO2, and nuclear waste disposal. Harmonising Rock Mechanics and the Environment will appeal to professionals, engineers and academics in rock mechanics, rock engineering, tunnelling, mining, earthquake engineering, rock dynamics and geotechnical engineering.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Rock Failure Mechanisms

Author : Chun'An Tang
ISBN : 9780415498517
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 79.56 MB
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When dealing with rock in civil engineering, mining engineering and other engineering, the process by which the rock fails under load should be understood, so that safe structures can be built on and in the rock. However, there are many ways for loading rock and rock can have a variety of idiosyncracies. This reference book provides engineers and researchers with the essential knowledge for a clear understanding of the process of rock failure under different conditions. It contains an introductory chapter explaining the role of rock failure in engineering projects plus a summary of the theories governing rock failure and an explanation of the computer simulation method. It subsquently deals in detail with explaining, simulating and illustrating rock failure in laboratory and field. The concluding chapter discusses coupled modelling and the anticipated future directions for this type of computer simulation. An appendix describing the RFPA numerical model (Rock Failure Process Analysis program) is also included. About the Authors Chun'an Tang has a PhD in Mining Engineering and is a Professor at the School of Civil & Hydraulic Engineering at Dalian University of Technology in China. He is an advisor for design and stablity problem modelling in mining and civil rock engineeringand and Chairman of the China National Group of the International Society for Rock Mechanics. John Hudson is emeritus professor at Imperial College, London and is active as an independant consultant for Rock Engineering Consultants. He has a PhD in Rock Mechanics and completed over a 130 rock engineering consulting assignments in mining and civil engineering. He is a fellow at the Royal Academy of Engineering in the UK and President of the International Society for Rock Mechanics.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Handbook Of Borehole Acoustics And Rock Physics For Reservoir Characterization

Author : Vimal Saxena
ISBN : 9780128123324
Genre : Science
File Size : 65.62 MB
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The Handbook of Borehole Acoustics and Rock Physics for Reservoir Characterization combines in a single useful handbook the multidisciplinary domains of the petroleum industry, including the fundamental concepts of rock physics, acoustic logging, waveform processing, and geophysical application modeling through graphical examples derived from field data. It includes results from core studies, together with graphics that validate and support the modeling process, and explores all possible facets of acoustic applications in reservoir evaluation for hydrocarbon exploration, development, and drilling support. The Handbook of Borehole Acoustics and Rock Physics for Reservoir Characterization serves as a technical guide and research reference for oil and gas professionals, scientists, and students in the multidisciplinary field of reservoir characterization through the use of petrosonics. It overviews the fundamentals of borehole acoustics and rock physics, with a focus on reservoir evaluation applications, explores current advancements through updated research, and identifies areas of future growth. Presents theory, application, and limitations of borehole acoustics and rock physics through field examples and case studies Features "Petrosonic Workflows" for various acoustic applications and evaluations, which can be easily adapted for practical reservoir modeling and interpretation Covers the potential advantages of acoustic-based techniques and summarizes key results for easy geophysical application
Category: Science

Tbm Tunnelling In Jointed And Faulted Rock

Author : Nick R. Barton
ISBN : 9058093417
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 78.39 MB
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This practical guide describes the stage-by-stage development of a method for predicting the penetration rate (PR) and the advance rate (AR) for tunnel boring machines based on an expanded version of the Q-value, QTBM. The author analyzes 145 TBM tunnels that total 1,000km in length. He then develops simple formulae to estimate PR and AR from the QTBM value and to back-calculate QTBM from performance data. The book quantitatively explains actual advance rates as high as five m/hr for one day or as low as 0.005 m/hr for several months. It also covers logging methods, empirical TBM tunnel support design, and numerical verification of support.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Rock Mechanics Meeting Society S Challenges And Demands Two Volume Set

Author : Erik Eberhardt
ISBN : 9781439856574
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 69.95 MB
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Ore extraction through surface and underground mining continues to involve deeper excavations in more complex rock mass conditions. Communities and infrastructure are increasingly exposed to rock slope hazards as they expand further into rugged mountainous terrains. Energy needs are accelerating the development of new hydroelectric dams and exploitation of more complex hydrocarbon deposits, such as oil sands. Scientists and engineers are seeking to improve their understanding and management of our planet and its environment through the development of deep, underground laboratories and storage facilities. These two volumes serve as a comprehensive reference work, summarizing the current state-of-the-art in rock mechanics and rock engineering in Canada, the U.S. and beyond. The first volume of the proceedings presents papers describing new technologies, ideas and insights into fundamental rock mechanics. The second volume presents a collection of rock engineering case histories relevant to the major themes of the symposium: rock slope hazards, geotechnical infrastructure, surface and underground mining, and petroleum exploitation. Rock Mechanics: Meeting Society's Challenges and Demands comprises the Proceedings of the 1st Canada-U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, held in Vancouver, Canada, from May 27 to 31, 2007, as jointly organized by the Canadian Rock Mechanics Association (CARMA) and the American Rock Mechanics Association (ARMA).
Category: Technology & Engineering