REVOLUTION AND REFORM IN RUSSIA AND IRAN MODERNISATION AND POLITICS IN REVOLUTIONARY STATES INTERNATIONAL LIBRARY OF POLITICAL STUDIES

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Revolution And Reform In Russia And Iran

Author : Ghoncheh Tazmini
ISBN : 9781848855540
Genre : History
File Size : 60.39 MB
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Originally presented as the author's thesis (Ph.D--University of Kent, Canterbury).
Category: History

Flood Planning

Author : Jeroen Warner
ISBN : 9780857731500
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 28.54 MB
Format : PDF
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Floods are amongst the most common and most devastating natural disasters. A major flood may cause the death of thousands, sometimes millions, of people and cause immense damage. It may also challenge a government’s legitimacy if warning measures or flood protection systems are perceived as having been inadequate. In the wake of such an event, the pressure to initiate flood protection schemes that will provide security is enormous, and politicians promise quick solutions in the national interest. Jeroen Warner looks at a number of such projects from around the world - from the Middle East, South Asia and Western Europe - aimed at the prevention of serious flooding. Each provoked a level of controversy unforeseen by its initiators, with the result that projects were shelved, modified, were not completed, or simply failed at the first test. Even a well organized participation process with joint or open planning did not exempt planners from the difficult political dynamics that arose. Flood politics are not like ordinary politics. They are about life and death, and a flood event may legitimize extraordinary measures in which normal rules do not apply. The author shows how projects created in response to such situations inevitably become politicised as different stakeholders seek to promote their interests. The result is a pioneering book that provides the first comprehensive account of the politics and decision-making surrounding flood planning and of the lessons to be learned.
Category: Political Science

Welfare Policy Under New Labour

Author : Andrew Connell
ISBN : 9780857719263
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 22.77 MB
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The day after New Labour took office in May 1997, Frank Field’s appointment as Minister for Welfare Reform was high on the government’s news agenda. Yet, by August 1998, Field was out of office and welfare reform was heading in a very different direction from the one that he had so carefully planned in opposition. What had happened in those fifteen months to bring this about?_x000D_ _x000D_ Drawing on interviews with key participants and new archival research, this book looks in depth at the factors shaping the direction of welfare reform policy following New Labour’s ascent to power. It suggests that a commitment to welfare reform was perhaps the most symbolically important New Labour policy, and traces the differing perspectives on reform associated with Field and with Gordon Brown. Ultimately, it argues that Brown’s perspective prevailed for two reasons. As a minister, Field misunderstood the nature of core executive politics; but more fundamentally, Field’s ideas were based on an understanding of individual liberty and autonomy which was incompatible with New Labour’s discourse of the active state. _x000D_ _x000D_ Andrew Connell uses the beginnings of welfare reform under New Labour as an example to show how the interplay of ideas, actors, and structural imperatives and resources can shape and constrain the options of an ambitious reforming party in the transition from opposition to government. It also includes a unique systematic critical analysis of Field’s political and social philosophy and its relation to his Christian beliefs, and makes the case for him as a consistent thinker in the English ethical socialist tradition. Readers with an interest in welfare reform, New Labour, the British core executive, or the relationship between ideas and policy will find this a fascinating exposition of a period of recent policy history whose legacy is still with us today.
Category: Philosophy

The Philosophy Politics And Religion Of British Democracy

Author : Robert Crowcroft
ISBN : 9780857720498
Genre : History
File Size : 65.32 MB
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Maurice Cowling was one of the most controversial historians and thinkers of the last 40 years and a key figure in modern British Conservatism. His work on intellectual and political history challenged conventional understanding of the political process and the liberal and secular ideas which have been so pervasive in modern Britain. Here leading scholars disclose Cowling’s vision of British democracy and place it within its broader intellectual context. _x000D_ _x000D_ Cowling's work assaulted conventional assumptions about modern thought and stressed the value of a specifically Conservative approach for understanding past and contemporary predicaments. His writings on political history challenged existing understandings of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and delineated the motivations and power of the political elite. His studies in intellectual history constructed a bold critique of modern liberalism and highlighted the enduring importance of Christianity in British society._x000D_ _x000D_ Robert Crowcroft, S.J.D. Green and Richard Whiting here bring together perspectives from religion, philosophy and politics to focus on Cowling’s work and its context, looking at the connection between Cowling and the leading Conservative philosopher Michael Oakeshott, the impact of Cowling’s ideas about the nature of politics and the way they are reported through journalism, and the relationship between Conservatism and Liberalism. They consider Cowling’s views on the scope of historical understandings and whether the tools most frequently used to understand political activity are the most valuable for doing so. Further, they evaluate the place of Christianity in social thought and how Cowling’s Conservative ideas might inform future patterns of thought._x000D_ _x000D_ This book therefore provides a powerful multi-disciplinary explanation of Conservative thought about public life in modern Britain, and sheds light upon the interface between philosophy, politics, religion and British democracy.
Category: History

Nationalism And Identity In Romania

Author : Radu Cinpoes
ISBN : 9780857720306
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 79.65 MB
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The collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe produced a fundamental change in the political map of Europe. In Romania, nationalism re-emerged forcefully and continued to rally political support against the context of a long and difficult transition to democracy. In Nationalism and Identity in Romania, Radu Cinpoes charts Romania’s development as a state from its eighteenth century roots to its post-communist formation, identifying the reasons for the strength and resilience of nationalism in the state and how, after 1989, extreme right-wing party The Greater Romania Party gained particular strength as a major political power. _x000D_ _x000D_ Cinpoes argues that the persuasive appeal of the party and its nationalist ideals rested on a reiteration of nationalism and identity which had been embedded in Romanian ideological discourse by earlier nationalist formations. He demonstrates how nationalist discourse in Romania has in general been characterised by a continuity of certain themes, such as language, origins and ancestry, historical continuity, leadership, morality and religion. He also explores the darker side of nationalism: that which demonises the internal and external ‘other, the invective rhetoric against Romanian Jews and Gypsies, as well as that directed towards Hungarians in the region. _x000D_ _x000D_ While the success of The Greater Romania Party has diminished particularly since Romania’s accession to the EU in 2007, this book reveals how this recurring articulation of nationalism and identity has shown extraordinary resilience and adaptability over time, arguing that it is by no means inconceivable that a new party could become the organisational focus of this discourse. Nationalism and Identity in Romania provides important analysis on the history and politics of post-Communist societies in Europe, and the development of nationalist movements in general. _x000D_
Category: Political Science

British Conservatism

Author : Peter Dorey
ISBN : 9780857718853
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 90.91 MB
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Defence of inequality has always been a core principle of the Conservative Party in Britain. Yet the Conservatives have enjoyed great electoral success in a British society marked by widespread inequalities of wealth and income. This important new book initially examines the intellectual and political arguments which Conservatives use to justify inequality, including Conservative ideas about human nature, the apparent inevitability of inequality as indicated by historical trends and the way in which Conservatives link economic inequality with individual freedom. This study also notes how Conservatives themselves disagree over how much inequality is desirable or acceptable. Should inequality be unlimited, in order to promote liberty, incentives and rewards? Or should inequality be kept within certain bounds to prevent social breakdown and political upheaval? These debates within the Conservative Party have become even more relevant since Margaret Thatcher’s leadership in the 1980s, and they continue today as David Cameron pledges to heal a ‘broken society’. This book ends by examining how the Conservative Party has attracted considerable support from less well-off sections of British society, those who might otherwise have been expected to support political parties promoting equality._x000D_ _x000D_ This wide-ranging study will be particularly valuable to students interested in the ideas and debates surrounding British Conservatism, past and present. It will also be of great interest to readers wanting to understand how the Conservative Party proved so successful electorally during most the twentieth century, to the extent that it attracted the support of up to one-third of the working class, thereby deflecting the potential challenge of socialism. Indeed, the Conservative Party has enjoyed significant opinion poll leads over Labour in recent years, in spite of a growing gulf between rich and poor and deepening inequality.
Category: Political Science

The Labour Party In Britain And Norway

Author : David Redvaldsen
ISBN : 9781848855403
Genre : History
File Size : 33.78 MB
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In this compelling and thoughtful analysis of the Labour parties of Britain and Norway, David Redvaldsen offers an insight into the successes and failures of these two parties as they faced the challenges of the economic and political situation of the interwar era and their relentless pursuit of power.
Category: History

Choosing The Labour Leader

Author : Timothy Heppell
ISBN : 9780857718501
Genre : History
File Size : 43.42 MB
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The means by which Labour Party leaders acquire their position determines their legitimacy and their authority over the parliamentary Labour Party and within the wider Labour movement. Understanding the rules governing Labour Party leadership selection and rejection, and the changing means by which respective leaders have been selected, is essential to an understanding of the development of Labour Party politics over the last fifty years. However, despite its centrality to the ideological, political and electoral identity of the Labour Party, the existing literature on Labour Party studies makes only limited reference to the means by which successive leaders actually acquired the party leadership._x000D_ _x000D_ Drawing together debates on the method of party leadership selection and the ideological positioning of leadership candidates, this book considers the candidates and campaigning strategies for each of the eight party leadership elections from the election of Harold Wilson in 1963 to Gordon Brown in 2007. Within this the ideological influences of the shift in the method of selecting the Labour Party leader, from an elite parliamentary ballot to a mass participatory Electoral College, are considered. In charting the decline of the left, Timothy Heppell here considers how the outcome of democratisation has been the intensification of the security of tenure of the incumbent, and the reverse of their intended effect of making the party leader more accountable to the wider Labour movement. _x000D_ _x000D_ Given the bypassing of the Electoral College to anoint Gordon Brown in 2007, and the debates surrounding his authority and legitimacy as Labour Party leader thereafter, this book offers a comprehensive and timely examination of Labour Party leadership elections from Wilson to Brown.
Category: History

Emergence Of Nationalist Politics In Morocco

Author : Daniel Zisenwine
ISBN : 9780857718532
Genre : History
File Size : 42.57 MB
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The end of World War II intensified Morocco's nationalist struggle against French colonial rule, with the establishment of the Istiqlal (independence) party and the Moroccan Sultan's emergence as a national leader. These developments, however, were not a linear process that ended with the party securing a prominent political position. The Emergence of Nationalist Politics in Morocco presents a far more turbulent portrayal, with its detailed account of the Istiqlal's emergence in the 1940s. It provides an in-depth study of the rise of Morocco's leading nationalist party, along with a focus on the weakness of Moroccan political parties, evident already in the early years of the struggle against French colonialism._x000D_ _x000D_ Drawing on a wide range of previously unpublished Moroccan, French and American sources, Daniel Zisenwine presents the background to the party's establishment, its initial actions and demands, and an extensive discussion of its social activities aimed at mobilizing the Moroccan public in the anti-colonial struggle. Combining a social and political history of the Istiqlal, he examines the party's relationship with the Moroccan Sultan and analyzes the Moroccan monarchy's position. The book's later chapters focus on the French decision to exile the Moroccan Sultan in 1953, in an effort to quell the rising nationalist sentiment. This event was a turning point in Moroccan nationalist politics, unleashing widespread public anger. By that time, the Istiqlal had emerged as the leading nationalist political organization, but remained subordinate to the monarchy's leadership, even as it continued to shape Moroccan politics._x000D_ _x000D_ The Emergence of Nationalist Politics in Morocco offers new insights on the roots of contemporary Morocco's peculiar political tradition, which underscores the monarchy's centrality. It offers answers and approaches to scholars, students, and the general reader interested in international politics, the Maghreb, and particularly the inner workings of this pivotal North African kingdom.
Category: History

Revolutions And The Collapse Of The Monarchy

Author : Zhand Shakibi
ISBN : 184511292X
Genre : History
File Size : 84.24 MB
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What caused revolution among the last major monarchies of the modern period? Why were Louis XVI, Nicholas II and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi all overthrown and was this the result of their historical background or individual action? This powerful and original book is the first comparative study of the implosion of the monarchical regimes in Bourbon France, Romanov Russia and Pahlavi Iran. Seeking to understand fully the causes and timing of the French, Russian and Iranian revolutions, Shakibi examines the complex interaction between the personality and behavior of the monarchs and the different problems faced by their regimes which turned a potentially revolutionary situation into the revolutions which engulfed France in the eighteenth century, Russia in 1917 and Iran in 1978-8. Drawing on a huge amount of primary and archival research throughout the world, Revolutions and the Collapse of the Monarchy argues that it is human agency which often provides the vital spark which produces revolution. An ambitious and important counter-blast to traditional theories of revolution.
Category: History