RETHINKING THE THREE R S IN ANIMAL RESEARCH

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Rethinking The Three R S In Animal Research

Author : Jan Lauwereyns
ISBN : 9783319893006
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 86.71 MB
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This work challenges the current reliance on "The Three R's" or Replacement, Reduction and Refinement which direct most animal research in the behavioral sciences. The author argues that these principles that were developed in the 1950's to guide the use of animals in research studies are outdated. He suggests that the notions of refinement and reduction are often ill-defined and can be useful only in cases where replacement is impossible.
Category: Psychology

Reducing Refining And Replacing The Use Of Animals In Toxicity Testing

Author : Dave Allen
ISBN : 9781849736527
Genre : Medical
File Size : 77.79 MB
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Toxicity testing is used to assess the safety or hazards presented by substances such as industrial chemicals, consumer products, and pharmaceuticals. At present, many methods involve laboratory animals. Alternative procedures, some involving human cell-based technologies, are now being developed which reduce, refine, or replace animal usage and minimize the pain and distress caused. These new tests must protect public health and the environment at least as well as currently accepted methods. This book describes the ever-expanding "toolbox" of methods available to assess toxicity. Such techniques often result from our growing understanding of the biochemical and cellular pathways that mediate toxicity mechanisms. This permits evaluations of information generated from several sources to generate a "weight of evidence." By combining in silico, in vitro, and ex vivo methods with technologies that rely on biochemical- and cell-based in vitro assays, toxicologists are developing mechanistically based alternatives to live animal experimentation. This text also explores the complexities associated with adequate validation, and the assessment of test reliability and relevance. It provides an essential reference source for postgraduates, academics and industrialists working in this rapidly changing area.
Category: Medical

Rethinking Columbus

Author : Bill Bigelow
ISBN : 9780942961201
Genre : Education
File Size : 34.46 MB
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Rethinking Columbus: the next 500 years, edited by Bill Bigelow and Bob Peterson is a resource guide for teachers and community activists which includes 90 essays, poems, short stories, interviews, historical vignettes, and lesson plans that re-evaluate the legacy of Columbus.
Category: Education

The Welfare Of Animals Used In Research

Author : Robert C. Hubrecht
ISBN : 1119967074
Genre : Medical
File Size : 53.65 MB
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The Welfare of Animals used in Research: Practice and Ethics gives a complete and balanced overview of the issues surrounding the use of animals in scientific research. The focus of the book is on the animal welfare implications and ethics of animals in research. It covers the topics with sufficient depth to show a real understanding of varied and complex subjects, but conveys the information in a beautifully reader–friendly manner. Key features: Provides those who are not working in the field with a reasonable understanding as to why and how animals are used in research. Gives an introduction to the ethical issues involved in using animals, and explains how these are addressed in practice. Details the advances in animal welfare and the use and development of the 3Rs principles, and how these have become fundamental to the everyday use and regulation of animals used in research. The focus is on principles making it suitable for an international audience. This book is a useful introduction to the issues involved in laboratory animal welfare for those who intend to work in research involving animals. It is also useful to prospective animal care staff and animal welfare scientists, and to those involved in ethical review. It will help inform debate amongst those who are not involved in experimentation but who are interested in the issues. Published as a part of the prestigious Wiley–Blackwell UFAW Animal Welfare series. UFAW, founded 1926, is an internationally recognised, independent, scientific and educational animal welfare charity. For full details of all titles available in the series, please visit the UFAW Animal Welfare series website.
Category: Medical

Biomedical Ethics For Engineers

Author : Daniel Vallero
ISBN : 0080476104
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 80.48 MB
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Biomedical Ethics for Engineers provides biomedical engineers with a new set of tools and an understanding that the application of ethical measures will seldom reach consensus even among fellow engineers and scientists. The solutions are never completely technical, so the engineer must continue to improve the means of incorporating a wide array of societal perspectives, without sacrificing sound science and good design principles. Dan Vallero understands that engineering is a profession that profoundly affects the quality of life from the subcellular and nano to the planetary scale. Protecting and enhancing life is the essence of ethics; thus every engineer and design professional needs a foundation in bioethics. In high-profile emerging fields such as nanotechnology, biotechnology and green engineering, public concerns and attitudes become especially crucial factors given the inherent uncertainties and high stakes involved. Ethics thus means more than a commitment to abide by professional norms of conduct. This book discusses the full suite of emerging biomedical and environmental issues that must be addressed by engineers and scientists within a global and societal context. In addition it gives technical professionals tools to recognize and address bioethical questions and illustrates that an understanding of the application of these measures will seldom reach consensus even among fellow engineers and scientists. · Working tool for biomedical engineers in the new age of technology · Numerous case studies to illustrate the direct application of ethical techniques and standards · Ancillary materials available online for easy integration into any academic program
Category: Technology & Engineering

Biomedical Engineering E Mega Reference

Author : Buddy D. Ratner
ISBN : 0123746477
Genre : Science
File Size : 21.84 MB
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A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing * A fully searchable Mega Reference Ebook, providing all the essential material needed by Biomedical and Clinical Engineers on a day-to-day basis. * Fundamentals, key techniques, engineering best practice and rules-of-thumb together in one quick-reference. * Over 2,500 pages of reference material, including over 1,500 pages not included in the print edition
Category: Science

Payback

Author : David P. Barash
ISBN : 0199752982
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 45.65 MB
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From the child taunted by her playmates to the office worker who feels stifled in his daily routine, people frequently take out their pain and anger on others, even those who had nothing to do with the original stress. The bullied child may kick her puppy, the stifled worker yells at his children: Payback can be directed anywhere, sometimes at inanimate things, animals, or other people. In Payback, the husband-and wife team of evolutionary biologist David Barash and psychiatrist Judith Lipton offer an illuminating look at this phenomenon, showing how it has evolved, why it occurs, and what we can do about it. Retaliation and revenge are well known to most people. We all know what it is like to want to get even, get justice, or take revenge. What is new in this book is an extended discussion of redirected aggression, which occurs not only in people but other species as well. The authors reveal that it's not just a matter of yelling at your spouse "because" your boss yells at you. Indeed, the phenomenon of redirected aggression--so-called to differentiate it from retaliation and revenge, the other main forms of payback--haunts our criminal courts, our streets, our battlefields, our homes, and our hearts. It lurks behind some of the nastiest and seemingly inexplicable things that otherwise decent people do, from road rage to yelling at a crying baby. And it exists across boundaries of every kind--culture, time, geography, and even species. Indeed, it's not just a human phenomenon. Passing pain to others can be seen in birds and horses, fish and primates--in virtually all vertebrates. It turns out that there is robust neurobiological hardware and software promoting redirected aggression, as well as evolutionary underpinnings. Payback may be natural, the authors conclude, but we are capable of rising above it, without sacrificing self-esteem and social status. They show how the various human responses to pain and suffering can be managed--mindfully, carefully, and humanely.
Category: Psychology

The Animal Research War

Author : P. Conn
ISBN : 9780230611993
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 89.33 MB
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This thoughtful and surprising book analyzes the effect of animal extremism on the world's scientists, their institutions, and professional societies. The Animal Research War traces the evolution of the animal rights movement, profiles its leadership, and reveals the truth behind university animal research.
Category: Political Science

Rethinking India S Past

Author : R. S. Sharma
ISBN : 0198068298
Genre : History
File Size : 34.70 MB
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Covering a long span, from the Vedic period to twelfth century AD, this volume explores key aspects of early Indian history political ideas and institutions; economic patterns and developments; social orders and ractices; and the transition from ancient to medieval.
Category: History