RETHINKING EXPERTISE

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Rethinking Expertise

Author : Harry Collins
ISBN : 9780226113623
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 72.17 MB
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What does it mean to be an expert? In Rethinking Expertise, Harry Collins and Robert Evans offer a radical new perspective on the role of expertise in the practice of science and the public evaluation of technology. Collins and Evans present a Periodic Table of Expertises based on the idea of tacit knowledge—knowledge that we have but cannot explain. They then look at how some expertises are used to judge others, how laypeople judge between experts, and how credentials are used to evaluate them. Throughout, Collins and Evans ask an important question: how can the public make use of science and technology before there is consensus in the scientific community? This book has wide implications for public policy and for those who seek to understand science and benefit from it. “Starts to lay the groundwork for solving a critical problem—how to restore the force of technical scientific information in public controversies, without importing disguised political agendas.”—Nature “A rich and detailed ‘periodic table’ of expertise . . . full of case studies, anecdotes and intriguing experiments.”—Times Higher Education Supplement (UK)
Category: Social Science

Should The C4d Expert Survive Rethinking Expertise In Communication And Innovation

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1053739576
Genre :
File Size : 72.76 MB
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ABSTRACT: The notion of expertise in communication for development (C4D) is a complicated matter. While C4D is ideally framed as inter-disciplinary, this comes into conflict with the need to define and maintain boundaries around C4D expertise within organisations and agencies. In this viewpoint these tensions are unpacked with reference to recent ethnographies of aid and development institutions, and expanded upon by a reflection on intersections between C4D and the rising interest in innovation for development. The viewpoint proposes "communication for innovation", or "communicative innovation" as an urgent new research agenda for C4D.
Category:

Rethinking Journalism Again

Author : Chris Peters
ISBN : 9781317506409
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 86.28 MB
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It’s easy to make a rhetorical case for the value of journalism. Because, it is a necessary precondition for democracy; it speaks to the people and for the people; it informs citizens and enables them to make rational decisions; it functions as their watchdog on government and other powers that be. But does rehashing such familiar rationales bring journalism studies forward? Does it contribute to ongoing discussions surrounding journalism’s viability going forth? For all their seeming self-evidence, this book considers what bearing these old platitudes have in the new digital era. It asks whether such hopeful talk really reflects the concrete roles journalism now performs for people in their everyday lives. In essence, it poses questions that strike at the core of the idea of journalism itself. Is there a singular journalism that has one well-defined role in society? Is its public mandate as strong as we think? The internationally-renowned scholars comprising the collection address these recurring concerns that have long-defined the profession and which journalism faces even more acutely today. By discussing what journalism was, is, and (possibly) will be, this book highlights key contemporary areas of debate and tackles on-going anxieties about its future.
Category: Social Science

Inevitably Toxic

Author : Brinda Sarathy
ISBN : 9780822986232
Genre : Science
File Size : 48.56 MB
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Not a day goes by that humans aren’t exposed to toxins in our environment—be it at home, in the car, or workplace. But what about those toxic places and items that aren’t marked? Why are we warned about some toxic spaces' substances and not others? The essays in Inevitably Toxic consider the exposure of bodies in the United States, Canada and Japan to radiation, industrial waste, and pesticides. Research shows that appeals to uncertainty have led to social inaction even when evidence, e.g. the link between carbon emissions and global warming, stares us in the face. In some cases, influential scientists, engineers and doctors have deliberately "manufactured doubt" and uncertainty but as the essays in this collection show, there is often no deliberate deception. We tend to think that if we can’t see contamination and experts deem it safe, then we are okay. Yet, having knowledge about the uncertainty behind expert claims can awaken us from a false sense of security and alert us to decisions and practices that may in fact cause harm.
Category: Science

Science After The Practice Turn In The Philosophy History And Social Studies Of Science

Author : Léna Soler
ISBN : 9781317935360
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 89.29 MB
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In the 1980s, philosophical, historical and social studies of science underwent a change which later evolved into a turn to practice. Analysts of science were asked to pay attention to scientific practices in meticulous detail and along multiple dimensions, including the material, social and psychological. Following this turn, the interest in scientific practices continued to increase and had an indelible influence in the various fields of science studies. No doubt, the practice turn changed our conceptions and approaches of science, but what did it really teach us? What does it mean to study scientific practices? What are the general lessons, implications, and new challenges? This volume explores questions about the practice turn using both case studies and theoretical analysis. The case studies examine empirical and mathematical sciences, including the engineering sciences. The volume promotes interactions between acknowledged experts from different, often thought of as conflicting, orientations. It presents contributions in conjunction with critical commentaries that put the theses and assumptions of the former in perspective. Overall, the book offers a unique and diverse range of perspectives on the meanings, methods, lessons, and challenges associated with the practice turn.
Category: Philosophy

Tacit And Explicit Knowledge

Author : Harry Collins
ISBN : 9780226113821
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 75.54 MB
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Much of what humans know we cannot say. And much of what we do we cannot describe. For example, how do we know how to ride a bike when we can’t explain how we do it? Abilities like this were called “tacit knowledge” by physical chemist and philosopher Michael Polanyi, but here Harry Collins analyzes the term, and the behavior, in much greater detail, often departing from Polanyi’s treatment. In Tacit and Explicit Knowledge, Collins develops a common conceptual language to bridge the concept’s disparate domains by explaining explicit knowledge and classifying tacit knowledge. Collins then teases apart the three very different meanings, which, until now, all fell under the umbrella of Polanyi’s term: relational tacit knowledge (things we could describe in principle if someone put effort into describing them), somatic tacit knowledge (things our bodies can do but we cannot describe how, like balancing on a bike), and collective tacit knowledge (knowledge we draw that is the property of society, such as the rules for language). Thus, bicycle riding consists of some somatic tacit knowledge and some collective tacit knowledge, such as the knowledge that allows us to navigate in traffic. The intermixing of the three kinds of tacit knowledge has led to confusion in the past; Collins’s book will at last unravel the complexities of the idea. Tacit knowledge drives everything from language, science, education, and management to sport, bicycle riding, art, and our interaction with technology. In Collins’s able hands, it also functions at last as a framework for understanding human behavior in a range of disciplines.
Category: Social Science

Rethinking Career Studies

Author : Hugh Gunz
ISBN : 9781107057470
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 67.6 MB
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Provides a comprehensive introduction to career studies, bridging the numerous scholarly discourses that share an interest in the field.
Category: Business & Economics

Citizens Experts And The Environment

Author : Frank Fischer
ISBN : 0822326221
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 60.93 MB
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The tension between professional expertise and democratic governance has become increasingly significant in Western politics. Environmental politics in particular is a hotbed for citizens who actively challenge the imposition of expert theories that ignore particular local knowledge that can help to relate technical facts to social values. In Citizens, Experts, and the Environment Frank Fischer explores this often strained interaction between technical environmental experts and citizen participants and proposes a new model of politics based on participatory inquiry and citizen-expert synergy. Where information ideologues see the modern increase in information as capable of making everyone smarter, others see the emergence of a society divided between those with and those without knowledge. Suggesting realistic strategies to bridge this divide, Fischer calls for meaningful non-expert involvement in policymaking and shows how the deliberations of ordinary citizens can help solve complex social and environmental problems by contributing non-technical knowledge to the professionals' expertise. While incorporating theoretical critiques of positivism and methodology, he also offers hard evidence to demonstrate that the ordinary citizen is capable of a great deal more participation than is generally recognised. Recent situations in Copenhagen, Denmark; Woburn, Massachusetts; and Kerala, India, serve as models of the participatory inquiry he proposes, showing how the local knowledge of citizens is invaluable to policy formation. In his conclusion Fischer moves his model from the context of environmental issues to the larger societal issues of deliberative structures and participatory democracy. This study will interest political scientists, public policy practitioners, sociologists, scientists, environmentalists, activists, urban planners, and public administrators along with those interested in understanding the relationship between democracy and science in a modern technological society.
Category: Political Science

One Century Of Karl Jaspers General Psychopathology

Author : Giovanni Stanghellini
ISBN : 9780191506475
Genre : Medical
File Size : 68.94 MB
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2013 sees the centenary of Jaspers' foundation of psychopathology as a science in its own right. In 1913 Karl Jaspers published his psychiatric opus magnum - the Allgemeine Psychopathologie (General Psychopathology). Jaspers was working at a time much like our own - with rapid expansion in the neurosciences, and responding to the philosophical challenges that this raised. The idea inspiring his book was very simple: to bring order into the chaos of abnormal psychic phenomena by rigorous description, definition and classification, and to empower psychiatry with a valid and reliable method to assess and make sense of abnormal human subjectivity. After almost one century, many of the concepts challenged by Jaspers are still at issue, and Jaspers' investigation is even now the ground for analyses and discussions. With a new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) imminent, many of the issues concerning methodology and diagnosis are still the subject of much discussion and debate. This volume brings together leading psychiatrists and philosophers to discuss and evaluate the impact of this volume, its relevance today, and the legacy it left. "Jaspers' General Psychopathology is not an easy text to read. Especially nowadays, in the Internet era, it may appear in several parts obscure, convoluted, or repetitive. This is why the present volume has the potential to be not only attractive to scholars, but also extremely useful for young psychiatrists and busy clinicians. It may represent for them a 'guide' to the reading of that ponderous text, helping them to extract the key messages that are likely to resonate with, and at the same time enrich, their clinical practice and theoretical reflection." - From the Introduction by Mario Maj
Category: Medical

Re Tayloring Management

Author : Dr Christina Evans
ISBN : 9781472401656
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 52.9 MB
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Over a century has passed and yet there is growing evidence that knowledge workers across the globe today are as constrained by F.W. Taylor's much-maligned The Principles of Scientific Management, as factory workers were in the early twentieth century. Re-Tayloring Management looks critically at Taylor's philosophy on management and contrasts it with other perspectives that have since emerged, along with the professionalization of management and the growth in business and management education. The contributors demonstrate that despite the complexity and uncertainty that organizations face, instead of designing work systems where knowledge and service workers have the freedom to apply knowledge and skills at the point they are most needed, managers are obsessed with maintaining tighter control. This approach conflicts with contemporary job design principles, which emphasise ‘job crafting’, whereby individuals are encouraged to craft their role in a way that is congruent with their identity. Drawing on insights from academics with diverse backgrounds and interests, and organised around 'past', 'present' and 'future' themes, this book is a thought-provoking read for professional managers, as well as for postgraduate students and academics teaching and researching organizational studies and management.
Category: Business & Economics