RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS FUNDAMENTAL THEORIES OF PHYSICS

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Author : M. Sachs
ISBN : 9789400946644
Genre : Science
File Size : 54.86 MB
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This monograph is a sequel to my earlier work, General Relativity and Matter [1], which will be referred to henceforth as GRM. The monograph, GRM, focuses on the full set of implications of General Relativity Theory, as a fundamental theory of matter in all domains, from elementary particle physics to cosmology. It is shown there to exhibit an explicit unification of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of force with the inertial manifestations of matter, expressing the latter explicitly in terms of a covariant field theory within the structure of this general theory. This monograph will focus, primarily, on the special relativistic limit of the part of this general field theory of matter that deals with inertia, in the domain where quantum mechanics has been evoked in contemporary physics as a funda mental explanation for the behavior of elementary matter. Many of the results presented in this book are based on earlier published works in the journals, which will be listed in the Bibliography. These results will be presented here in an expanded form, with more discussion on the motivation and explanation for the theoretical development of the subject than space would allow in normal journal articles, and they will be presented in one place where there would then be a more unified and coherent explication of the subject.

Author : Tommy Ohlsson
ISBN : 9781139504324
Genre : Science
File Size : 84.65 MB
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Quantum physics and special relativity theory were two of the greatest breakthroughs in physics during the twentieth century and contributed to paradigm shifts in physics. This book combines these two discoveries to provide a complete description of the fundamentals of relativistic quantum physics, guiding the reader effortlessly from relativistic quantum mechanics to basic quantum field theory. The book gives a thorough and detailed treatment of the subject, beginning with the classification of particles, the Klein–Gordon equation and the Dirac equation. It then moves on to the canonical quantization procedure of the Klein–Gordon, Dirac and electromagnetic fields. Classical Yang–Mills theory, the LSZ formalism, perturbation theory, elementary processes in QED are introduced, and regularization, renormalization and radiative corrections are explored. With exercises scattered through the text and problems at the end of most chapters, the book is ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in theoretical physics.

Author : Paul Strange
ISBN : 0521565839
Genre : Science
File Size : 70.23 MB
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This graduate text introduces relativistic quantum theory, emphasising its important applications in condensed matter physics. Basic theory, including special relativity, angular momentum and particles of spin zero are first reprised. The text then goes on to discuss the Dirac equation, symmetries and operators, and free particles. Physical consequences of solutions including hole theory and Klein's paradox are considered. Several model problems are solved. Important applications of quantum theory to condensed matter physics then follow. Relevant theory for the one electron atom is explored. The theory is then developed to describe the quantum mechanics of many electron systems, including Hartree-Fock and density functional methods. Scattering theory, band structures, magneto-optical effects and superconductivity are among other significant topics discussed. Many exercises and an extensive reference list are included. This clear account of relativistic quantum theory will be valuable to graduate students and researchers working in condensed matter physics and quantum physics.

Author : Nicola Cabibbo
ISBN : 9781498722315
Genre : Science
File Size : 48.44 MB
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Written by two of the most prominent leaders in particle physics, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics: An Introduction to Relativistic Quantum Fields provides a classroom-tested introduction to the formal and conceptual foundations of quantum field theory. Designed for advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level physics students, the text only requires previous courses in classical mechanics, relativity, and quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters of the book summarize the theory of special relativity and its application to the classical description of the motion of a free particle and a field. The authors then explain the quantum formulation of field theory through the simple example of a scalar field described by the Klein–Gordon equation as well as its extension to the case of spin 1⁄2 particles described by the Dirac equation. They also present the elements necessary for constructing the foundational theories of the standard model of electroweak interactions, namely quantum electrodynamics and the Fermi theory of neutron beta decay. Many applications to quantum electrodynamics and weak interaction processes are thoroughly analyzed. The book also explores the timely topic of neutrino oscillations. Logically progressing from the fundamentals to recent discoveries, this textbook provides students with the essential foundation to study more advanced theoretical physics and elementary particle physics. It will help them understand the theory of electroweak interactions and gauge theories. View the second book in this collection: Electroweak Interactions.

Author : Markus Reiher
ISBN : 9783527667581
Genre : Science
File Size : 62.71 MB
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Einstein proposed his theory of special relativity in 1905. For a long time it was believed that this theory has no significant impact on chemistry. This view changed in the 1970s when it was realized that (nonrelativistic) Schr?dinger quantum mechanics yields results on molecular properties that depart significantly from experimental results. Especially when heavy elements are involved, these quantitative deviations can be so large that qualitative chemical reasoning and understanding is affected. For this to grasp the appropriate many-electron theory has rapidly evolved. Nowadays relativistic approaches are routinely implemented and applied in standard quantum chemical software packages. As it is essential for chemists and physicists to understand relativistic effects in molecules, the first edition of "Relativistic Quantum Chemistry - The fundamental Theory of Molecular Science" had set out to provide a concise, comprehensive, and complete presentation of this theory. This second edition expands on some of the latest developments in this fascinating field. The text retains its clear and consistent style, allowing for a readily accessible overview of the complex topic. It is also self-contained, building on the fundamental equations and providing the mathematical background necessary. While some parts of the text have been restructured for the sake of clarity a significant amount of new content has also been added. This includes, for example, an in-depth discussion of the Brown-Ravenhall disease, of spin in current-density functional theory, and of exact two-component methods and its local variants. A strength of the first edition of this textbook was its list of almost 1000 references to the original research literature, which has made it a valuable reference also for experts in the field. In the second edition, more than 100 additional key references have been added - most of them considering the recent developments in the field. Thus, the book is a must-have for everyone entering the field, as well as for experienced researchers searching for a consistent review.

* Which problems do arise within relativistic enhancements of the Schrödinger theory, especially if one adheres to the usual one-particle interpretation? * To what extent can these problems be overcome? * What is the physical necessity of quantum field theories? In many textbooks, only insufficient answers to these fundamental questions are provided by treating the relativistic quantum mechanical one-particle concept very superficially and instead introducing field quantization as soon as possible. By contrast, this book emphasizes particularly this point of view (relativistic quantum mechanics in the ''narrow sense''): it extensively discusses the relativistic one-particle view and reveals its problems and limitations, therefore illustrating the necessity of quantized fields in a physically comprehensible way. The first two chapters contain a detailed presentation and comparison of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac theory, always with a view to the non-relativistic theory. In the third chapter, we consider relativistic scattering processes and develop the Feynman rules from propagator techniques. This is where the indispensability of quantum field theory reasoning becomes apparent and basic quantum field theory concepts are introduced. This textbook addresses undergraduate and graduate Physics students who are interested in a clearly arranged and structured presentation of relativistic quantum mechanics in the "narrow sense" and its connection to quantum field theories. Each section contains a short summary and exercises with solutions. A mathematical appendix rounds out this excellent textbook on relativistic quantum mechanics.

Author : Kai S Lam
ISBN : 9789813107489
Genre : Science
File Size : 57.27 MB
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This textbook is mainly for physics students at the advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate levels, especially those with a theoretical inclination. Its chief purpose is to give a systematic introduction to the main ingredients of the fundamentals of quantum theory, with special emphasis on those aspects of group theory (spacetime and permutational symmetries and group representations) and differential geometry (geometrical phases, topological quantum numbers, and Chern–Simons Theory) that are relevant in modern developments of the subject. It will provide students with an overview of key elements of the theory, as well as a solid preparation in calculational techniques.

Author : Edward Anderson
ISBN : 9783319588483
Genre : Science
File Size : 61.63 MB
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This book is a treatise on time and on background independence in physics. It first considers how time is conceived of in each accepted paradigm of physics: Newtonian, special relativity, quantum mechanics (QM) and general relativity (GR). Substantial differences are moreover uncovered between what is meant by time in QM and in GR. These differences jointly source the Problem of Time: Nine interlinked facets which arise upon attempting concurrent treatment of the QM and GR paradigms, as is required in particular for a background independent theory of quantum gravity. A sizeable proportion of current quantum gravity programs - e.g. geometrodynamical and loop quantum gravity approaches to quantum GR, quantum cosmology, supergravity and M-theory - are background independent in this sense. This book's foundational topic is thus furthermore of practical relevance in the ongoing development of quantum gravity programs. This book shows moreover that eight of the nine facets of the Problem of Time already occur upon entertaining background independence in classical (rather than quantum) physics. By this development, and interpreting shape theory as modelling background independence, this book further establishes background independence as a field of study. Background independent mechanics, as well as minisuperspace (spatially homogeneous) models of GR and perturbations thereabout are used to illustrate these points. As hitherto formulated, the different facets of the Problem of Time greatly interfere with each others' attempted resolutions. This book explains how, none the less, a local resolution of the Problem of Time can be arrived at after various reconceptualizations of the facets and reformulations of their mathematical implementation. Self-contained appendices on mathematical methods for basic and foundational quantum gravity are included. Finally, this book outlines how supergravity is refreshingly different from GR as a realization of background independence, and what background independence entails at the topological level and beyond.

Author : Young Suh Kim
ISBN : 9789400945586
Genre : Science
File Size : 83.61 MB
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Special relativity and quantum mechanics, formulated early in the twentieth century, are the two most important scientific languages and are likely to remain so for many years to come. In the 1920's, when quantum mechanics was developed, the most pressing theoretical problem was how to make it consistent with special relativity. In the 1980's, this is still the most pressing problem. The only difference is that the situation is more urgent now than before, because of the significant quantity of experimental data which need to be explained in terms of both quantum mechanics and special relativity. In unifying the concepts and algorithms of quantum mechanics and special relativity, it is important to realize that the underlying scientific language for both disciplines is that of group theory. The role of group theory in quantum mechanics is well known. The same is true for special relativity. Therefore, the most effective approach to the problem of unifying these two important theories is to develop a group theory which can accommodate both special relativity and quantum mechanics. As is well known, Eugene P. Wigner is one of the pioneers in developing group theoretical approaches to relativistic quantum mechanics. His 1939 paper on the inhomogeneous Lorentz group laid the foundation for this important research line. It is generally agreed that this paper was somewhat ahead of its time in 1939, and that contemporary physicists must continue to make real efforts to appreciate fully the content of this classic work.