RELATIVISM

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Relativism

Author : Maria Baghramian
ISBN : 9781134719501
Genre : Philosophy
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'It's all relative'. In a world of increasing cultural diversity, it can seem that everything is indeed relative. But should we concede that there is no such thing as right and wrong, and no objective truth? Can we reconcile relativism and pluralism? Relativism surveys the different varieties of relativism and the arguments for and against them, and examines why relativism has survived for two thousand years despite all the criticisms levelled against it. Beginning with a historical overview of relativism, from Pythagoras in ancient Greece to Derrida and postmodernism, Maria Baghramian explores the resurgence of relativism throughout the history of philosophy. She then turns to the arguments for and against the many subdivisions of relativism, including Kuhn and Feyerabend's ideas of relativism in science, Rorty's relativism about truth, and the conceptual relativism of Quine and Putnam. Baghramian questions whether moral relativism leads to moral indifference or even nihilism, and whether feminist epistemology's concerns about the very notion of objectivity can be considered a form of relativism. She concludes the relativism debate by assessing the recent criticisms such as Quine's argument from translation and Davidson's claim that even the motivations behind relativism are unintelligible. Finding these criticisms lacking, Baghramian proposes a moderate form of pluralism which addresses the legitimate worries that give rise to relativism without incurring charges of nihilism or anarchy. Relativism is essential reading for anyone interested in contemporary philosophy, sociology and politics.
Category: Philosophy

Moral Relativism

Author : Steven Lukes
ISBN : 9781847653208
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 78.64 MB
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Do we as humans have no shared standards by which we can understand each other? Do we truly have divergent views about what constitutes good and evil, harm and welfare, dignity and humiliation, or is there some underlying commonality that wins out? These questions show up everywhere, from the debate over female circumcision to the UN Declaration of Human Rights. They become ever more pressing in an age of mass immigration, religious extremism and the rise of identity politics. So by what right do we judge particular practices as barbaric? Who are the real barbarians? This provocative book takes an enlightening look at what we believe, why we believe it and whether there really is an irreparable moral discord between 'us' and 'them'.
Category: Philosophy

Relativism

Author : Paul O'Grady
ISBN : 9781317489832
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 60.30 MB
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The issue of relativism looms large in many contemporary discussions of knowledge, reality, society, religion, culture and gender. Is truth relative? To what extent is knowledge dependent on context? Are there different logics? Do different cultures and societies see the world differently? And is reality itself something that is constructed? This book offers a path through these debates. O'Grady begins by clarifying what exactly relativism is and how it differs from scepticism and pluralism. He then examines five main types of cognitive relativism: alethic relativism, logical relativism, ontological relativism; epistemological relativism, and relativism about rationality. Each is clearly distinguised and the arguments for and against each are assessed. O'Grady offers a welcome survey of recent debates, engaging with the work of Davidson, Devitt, Kuhn, Putnam, Quine, Rorty, Searle, Winch and Wittgenstein, among others, and he offers a distinct position of his own on this hotly contested issue.
Category: Philosophy

Relativism

Author : Michael Krausz
ISBN : 9780231144117
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 66.73 MB
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The essays in this volume grapple with one of the most intriguing, enduring, and far-reaching philosophical problems of our age. Relativism comes in many varieties. It is often defined as the belief that truth, goodness, or beauty is relative& mdash;relative, that is, to some context or frame of reference& mdash;and that no absolute standards can adjudicate between competing reference frames. This anthology captures the significance and range of relativistic doctrines, rehearsing their virtues and vices and reflecting a spectrum of attitudes toward relativism. Invoking diverse philosophical orientations, these doctrines concern conceptions of relativism in relation to pluralism and moral relativism; facts and conceptual schemes; realism and objectivity; solidarity and rationality; universalism and foundationalism; and feminism and poststructuralism. The thirty-three essays in this book include nine original works and many classical articles.
Category: Philosophy

Relativism And The Foundations Of Liberalism

Author : Graham Long
ISBN : 9781845402686
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 21.49 MB
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Moral relativism is often regarded as both fatally flawed and incompatible with liberalism. This book aims to show why such criticism is misconceived. First, it argues that relativism provides a plausible account of moral justification. Drawing on the contemporary relativist and universalist analyses of thinkers such as Harman, Nagel and Habermas, it develops an alternative account of ‘coherence relativism’. Turning to liberalism, the book argues that moral relativism is not only consistent with the claims of contemporary liberalism, but underpins those claims. The political liberalism of Rawls and Barry is founded on an unacknowledged commitment to a relativist account of justification. In combining these two elements, the book offers a new understanding of relativism, and demonstrates its relevance for contemporary liberal thought.
Category: Philosophy

Ethical Relativism And Universalism

Author : Saral Jhingran
ISBN : 8120818202
Genre : Ethical relativism
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The present work addresses itself to one of the most hotly debated issues in contemporary ethics-relativism. Relativism has become a formidable argument in Western socio-moral thought under the impact of postmodern writings. The author presents a detailed critique of various relativist and postmodernist theses, without rejecting some of their empirically justified observations. She underscores the fact that the intercultural communication which has been going on since time immemorial puts a question mark to the postmodernist theories of indeterminacy of translation, incommensurability of various conceptual frameworks etc. The author supports cognitivism in ethics according to which the moral properties of the object of moral judgement do in some way determine or `cause` that judgment. This view is not to be confused with any realist ontological commitment. She asserts that universalizability is the necessary condition of all rational judgments, including the moral ones. The author also discusses the relationship between self and others; and in this context she draws upon the insights of ancient Indian thinkers. She proposes that minimum moral principles and maxims can be agreed upon through reasoning and intercultural discourse.
Category: Ethical relativism

Relativism

Author : Francis J. Beckwith
ISBN : 9780801058066
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 44.68 MB
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A critique of moral relativism, the belief that there exists no objective moral standards that apply to every place, person, and time.
Category: Philosophy

Aspects Of Relativism

Author : James E. Bayley
ISBN : 0819185973
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 36.79 MB
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In this book nine philosophers and one literary critic address aspects of the relativism issue currently of philosophic interest. Contents: Relativism in Literature and Literary Criticism: The Case of Frankenstein, Paul Sherwin; The Relativity of Interpretation, Charles Evans; Relativity and Justification, Michael Levin; Reality Relativism, Michael Levin; The Relativism of Objectivity, Anthony M. Ungar; Externalism and Rationality, Robert G. Meyers; Aristotle on Protagorean Relativism, Josiah B. Gould; Feminist Epistemology and the Question of Relativism, Claudia Murphy; Relativism and Diversity, Kenneth Stern; and Formulating the Moral Relativism Issue, James E. Bayley.
Category: Literary Criticism

The Challenge Of Relativism

Author : Patrick J.J. Phillips
ISBN : 9781441178855
Genre : Philosophy
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Offering a comprehensive overview and introduction to the concept of relativism and relativistic arguments this book surveys important relativist philosophers, both classical and modern.
Category: Philosophy

Between Relativism And Fundamentalism

Author : Peter L. Berger
ISBN : 9780802863874
Genre : Religion
File Size : 26.24 MB
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Our contemporary culture is dominated by two extremes relativism and fundamentalism. Neither is desirable: relativism claims that all questions of truth are irrelevant, whereas fundamentalism insists on sole possession of absolute truth. Internationally renowned sociologist of religion Peter Berger has gathered a group of scholars to consider how, from out of different traditions, one can define a middle position between both extremes. / After an extensive introductory overview by Berger, three essays ( sociological descriptions ) give an objective picture of how relativism and fundamentalism play out in today s world. In the second part ( theological directions ) authors from several different Christian traditions and one conservative Jewish tradition flesh out a normative middle ground that is neither relativist they affirm specific truth claims nor fundamentalist their affirmations include tolerance of the claims of others.
Category: Religion