RELATIVISM

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Relativism

Author : Maria Baghramian
ISBN : 9781134719501
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 32.72 MB
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'It's all relative'. In a world of increasing cultural diversity, it can seem that everything is indeed relative. But should we concede that there is no such thing as right and wrong, and no objective truth? Can we reconcile relativism and pluralism? Relativism surveys the different varieties of relativism and the arguments for and against them, and examines why relativism has survived for two thousand years despite all the criticisms levelled against it. Beginning with a historical overview of relativism, from Pythagoras in ancient Greece to Derrida and postmodernism, Maria Baghramian explores the resurgence of relativism throughout the history of philosophy. She then turns to the arguments for and against the many subdivisions of relativism, including Kuhn and Feyerabend's ideas of relativism in science, Rorty's relativism about truth, and the conceptual relativism of Quine and Putnam. Baghramian questions whether moral relativism leads to moral indifference or even nihilism, and whether feminist epistemology's concerns about the very notion of objectivity can be considered a form of relativism. She concludes the relativism debate by assessing the recent criticisms such as Quine's argument from translation and Davidson's claim that even the motivations behind relativism are unintelligible. Finding these criticisms lacking, Baghramian proposes a moderate form of pluralism which addresses the legitimate worries that give rise to relativism without incurring charges of nihilism or anarchy. Relativism is essential reading for anyone interested in contemporary philosophy, sociology and politics.
Category: Philosophy

Relativism

Author : Paul O'Grady
ISBN : 9781317489832
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 38.1 MB
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The issue of relativism looms large in many contemporary discussions of knowledge, reality, society, religion, culture and gender. Is truth relative? To what extent is knowledge dependent on context? Are there different logics? Do different cultures and societies see the world differently? And is reality itself something that is constructed? This book offers a path through these debates. O'Grady begins by clarifying what exactly relativism is and how it differs from scepticism and pluralism. He then examines five main types of cognitive relativism: alethic relativism, logical relativism, ontological relativism; epistemological relativism, and relativism about rationality. Each is clearly distinguised and the arguments for and against each are assessed. O'Grady offers a welcome survey of recent debates, engaging with the work of Davidson, Devitt, Kuhn, Putnam, Quine, Rorty, Searle, Winch and Wittgenstein, among others, and he offers a distinct position of his own on this hotly contested issue.
Category: Philosophy

Relativism

Author : Michael Krausz
ISBN : 9780231144117
Genre : Philosophy
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The essays in this volume grapple with one of the most intriguing, enduring, and far-reaching philosophical problems of our age. Relativism comes in many varieties. It is often defined as the belief that truth, goodness, or beauty is relative& mdash;relative, that is, to some context or frame of reference& mdash;and that no absolute standards can adjudicate between competing reference frames. This anthology captures the significance and range of relativistic doctrines, rehearsing their virtues and vices and reflecting a spectrum of attitudes toward relativism. Invoking diverse philosophical orientations, these doctrines concern conceptions of relativism in relation to pluralism and moral relativism; facts and conceptual schemes; realism and objectivity; solidarity and rationality; universalism and foundationalism; and feminism and poststructuralism. The thirty-three essays in this book include nine original works and many classical articles.
Category: Philosophy

Relativism

Author : Francis J. Beckwith
ISBN : 9780801058066
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 33.42 MB
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A critique of moral relativism, the belief that there exists no objective moral standards that apply to every place, person, and time.
Category: Philosophy

Aspects Of Relativism

Author : James E. Bayley
ISBN : 0819185973
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 36.8 MB
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In this book nine philosophers and one literary critic address aspects of the relativism issue currently of philosophic interest. Contents: Relativism in Literature and Literary Criticism: The Case of Frankenstein, Paul Sherwin; The Relativity of Interpretation, Charles Evans; Relativity and Justification, Michael Levin; Reality Relativism, Michael Levin; The Relativism of Objectivity, Anthony M. Ungar; Externalism and Rationality, Robert G. Meyers; Aristotle on Protagorean Relativism, Josiah B. Gould; Feminist Epistemology and the Question of Relativism, Claudia Murphy; Relativism and Diversity, Kenneth Stern; and Formulating the Moral Relativism Issue, James E. Bayley.
Category: Literary Criticism

The Many Faces Of Relativism

Author : Maria Baghramian
ISBN : 9781317701644
Genre : Philosophy
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This book is a study of relativism as a dominant intellectual preoccupation of our time. Relativism asks how we are to find a way out of intractable differences of perspectives and disagreements in various domains. Standards of truth, rationality, and ethical right and wrong vary greatly and there are no universal criteria for adjudicating between them. In considering this problem, relativism suggests that what is true or right can only be determined within variable contexts of assessment. This book brings together articles published in the International Journal of Philosophical Studies over a period of 17 years, as well as in a Special Issue of the journal published in 2004. The chapters in Section I discuss some of the main forms of relativism. Section II sheds light on the different motivations for relativism, assessing their strengths and weaknesses. Section III provides a detailed examination of the vexed question of whether Ludwig Wittgenstein, in his later work, supported relativism. The varied responses to this important question shed light on the issues discussed in Sections I and II. This collection is a lively and engaging resource for scholars interested in the crucial impact relativism has had on the way we think about the meaning of truth, and what is right and wrong. The chapters in this book were originally published in the International Journal of Philosophical Studies.
Category: Philosophy

Between Relativism And Fundamentalism

Author : Peter L. Berger
ISBN : 9780802863874
Genre : Religion
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Our contemporary culture is dominated by two extremes relativism and fundamentalism. Neither is desirable: relativism claims that all questions of truth are irrelevant, whereas fundamentalism insists on sole possession of absolute truth. Internationally renowned sociologist of religion Peter Berger has gathered a group of scholars to consider how, from out of different traditions, one can define a middle position between both extremes. / After an extensive introductory overview by Berger, three essays ( sociological descriptions ) give an objective picture of how relativism and fundamentalism play out in today s world. In the second part ( theological directions ) authors from several different Christian traditions and one conservative Jewish tradition flesh out a normative middle ground that is neither relativist they affirm specific truth claims nor fundamentalist their affirmations include tolerance of the claims of others.
Category: Religion

Moral Relativism And Reasons For Action

Author : Robert Streiffer
ISBN : 041593852X
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 61.64 MB
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First Published in 2003. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Category: Philosophy

Integrity And Moral Relativism

Author : Samuel Fleischacker
ISBN : 9004095268
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 78.89 MB
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"Integrity and Moral Relativism" draws on literary, philosophical and historical resources to demonstrate how Western society can use its own traditions to distinguish legitimate from illegitimate cross-cultural judgement, and legitimate from illegitimate cultural self-criticism. As long as there is a language for these possibilities, the book argues, an individual can see ethics as culturally based without compromising his or her own integrity.
Category: Philosophy