Regional Settlement Demography In Archaeology

Author : C. Adam Berrey
ISBN : 0989824942
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 81.92 MB
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Archaeological analysis at the regional scale investigates the past by studying how people distributed themselves and their activities across a landscape of hundreds or thousands of square kilometers. Archaeological field survey methods developed over half a century combine with powerful new quantitative tools for spatial analysis (including GIS) to unleash new potential for identifying and studying ancient local communities and regional polities. Varied approaches to estimating regional population sizes in both relative and absolute terms are synthesized and their advantages and disadvantages assessed. Tools for quantitative analysis of regional demographic data are presented. Field survey methods developed around the world are compiled from widely scattered sources and best practices for collecting archaeological data to sustain demographic analysis are delineated. Concepts for improved sampling design in regional survey work are derived from fundamental statistical principles. In conclusion, promising directions for future methodological development are identified.
Category: Social Science

Mediterranean Archaeological Landscapes

Author : Effie F. Athanassopoulos
ISBN : 9781934536285
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 63.17 MB
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The Mediterranean landscape record is recognized for its length and richness and the opportunity it offers to study the interaction between humans and their landscape. This volume explores a variety of current archaeological issues in the context of specific landscapes from southern Spain through Greece and Cyprus to Jordan and from antiquity to recent times. Over the last 25 years, researchers have initiated a dramatic expansion in theoretical approaches—both anthropological and classical. Over the same time span, a huge volume of field survey projects has been carried out in the Mediterranean arena. The contributors to Mediterranean Archaeological Landscapes take stock of what has been learned, identify lacunae, and consider new approaches to our understanding of the rich surface landscape record of the Mediterranean. Their goal is to explore theoretically diverse interpretative themes and the methods that make those approachable.
Category: Social Science

James River Chiefdoms

Author : Martin D. Gallivan
ISBN : 080322186X
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 44.72 MB
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James River Chiefdoms explores puzzling discrepancies between the ethnohistoric and archaeological records of the Powhatan and Monacan societies Jamestown colonists met in 1607. The colonists described the coastal Powhatans and the Monacans of the James River interior in terms that evoke the anthropological notion of a chiefdom, but the Chesapeake region?s archaeological record lacks elements typically associated with complex polities.øIn an effort to account for these apparent incongruities, Martin D. Gallivan synthesizes ethnohistoric accounts with the archaeology of thirty-five Native settlements dating from A.D. 1?1610 to identify and illuminate social changes largely undetected by previous research. A comparative, quantitative analysis of residential archaeology in the James River Valley highlights a rearrangement of daily practices within Native villages between 1200 and 1500. James River villagers reorganized their domestic production, settlements, and regional interactions to create new funds of power within social settings perched between communally oriented cultural practices and exclusionary political strategies. During the early-seventeenth-century colonial encounter, Native leaders were thus positioned to employ strategies that, for a time, eclipsed communal decision-making structures in the Chesapeake.øJames River Chiefdoms presents a novel perspective on an important chapter in the history of Native peoples in eastern North America and on early colonial America. It offers an innovative interpretive approach to Native American culture history and the emergence of hierarchical political organizations in the Americas.
Category: Business & Economics

Darwin And Archaeology

Author : John P. Hart
ISBN : 0897898796
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 90.7 MB
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Collectively clarifying today's debates, this volume illuminates the rich diversity of current thought among those who insist that Darwinism is key to progressive archeology.
Category: Social Science

Handbook Of South American Archaeology

Author : Helaine Silverman
ISBN : 0387749071
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 89.48 MB
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Perhaps the contributions of South American archaeology to the larger field of world archaeology have been inadequately recognized. If so, this is probably because there have been relatively few archaeologists working in South America outside of Peru and recent advances in knowledge in other parts of the continent are only beginning to enter larger archaeological discourse. Many ideas of and about South American archaeology held by scholars from outside the area are going to change irrevocably with the appearance of the present volume. Not only does the Handbook of South American Archaeology (HSAA) provide immense and broad information about ancient South America, the volume also showcases the contributions made by South Americans to social theory. Moreover, one of the merits of this volume is that about half the authors (30) are South Americans, and the bibliographies in their chapters will be especially useful guides to Spanish and Portuguese literature as well as to the latest research. It is inevitable that the HSAA will be compared with the multi-volume Handbook of South American Indians (HSAI), with its detailed descriptions of indigenous peoples of South America, that was organized and edited by Julian Steward. Although there are heroic archaeological essays in the HSAI, by the likes of Junius Bird, Gordon Willey, John Rowe, and John Murra, Steward states frankly in his introduction to Volume Two that “arch- ology is included by way of background” to the ethnographic chapters.
Category: Social Science

Side By Side Survey

Author : Susan Alcock
ISBN : 9781785704765
Genre : History
File Size : 84.2 MB
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Twenty years ago one of the editors of this volume, John Cherry of the University of Michigan, looked forward to a day when the 'Frogs round the Pond' (active intensive survey projects working around the Mediterranean) could produce real insights into the development of human societies by comparing and synthesizing the data they had collected. Despite the theoretical advances in survey methodology that have been discussed and implemented since that date, few scholars (with the exception of Sue Alcock, the other editor - also at Michigan) have attempted to use survey data to answer the real questions social historians have been asking. In this volume a number of prominent scholars re-commit to the original goal of intensive survey projects and discuss what original insights over twenty years of survey work have brought to our understanding of the Mediterranean world. Contents: Introduction (Susan E. Alcock and John F. Cherry); Intraregional and interregional comparison of occupation histories in three Italian regions; the RPC project (Peter Attema and Martijn van Leusen); A comparative perspective on settlement pattern and population change in Mesoamerican and Mediterranean civilizations (Richard E. Blanton); Site by site: Combining survey and excavation data to chart patterns of socio-political change in Bronze Age Crete (Tim Cunningham and Jan Driessen); Are the landscapes of Greek prehistory hidden? A comparative approach (Jack L. Davis); Accounting for ARS: fineware and sites in Sicily and Africa (Elizabeth Fentress, Sergio Fontana, Robert Bruce Hitchner, and Philip Perkins); Mapping and manuring: can we compare sherd density figures? (Michael Given); Mapping the Roman world: the contribution of field survey data (David Mattingly and Rob Witcher); Demography and survey (Robin Osborne); Problems and possibilities in comparative survey: a North African perspective (David L. Stone); Sample size matters! The paradox of global trends and local surveys (Nicola Terrenato); Side-by-Side and Back-to-Front: Exploring intra-regional Latitudinal and Longitudinal comparability in survey data. Three case studies from Metaponto, Southern Italy (Stephen Thompson); Solving the puzzle of the archaeological labyrinth: time perspectivism in Mediterranean surface archaeology (LuAnn Wandsnider); From nucleation to dispersal: trends in settlement pattern in the northern Fertile Crescent (T. J. Wilkinson, Jason Ur, and Jesse Casana); Comparative settlement patterns during the Bronze Age in the northeastern Peloponnesos (James C. Wright); Appendix. Internet resources for Mediterranean regional survey projects: a preliminary listing (Jennifer Gates, Susan E. Alcock, and John F. Cherry).
Category: History

Against Typological Tyranny In Archaeology

Author : Cristóbal Gnecco
ISBN : 9781461487241
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 52.18 MB
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The papers in this book question the tyranny of typological thinking in archaeology through case studies from various South American countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Argentina, and Brazil) and Antarctica. They aim to show that typologies are unavoidable (they are, after all, the way to create networks that give meanings to symbols) but that their tyranny can be overcome if they are used from a critical, heuristic and non-prescriptive stance: critical because the complacent attitude towards their tyranny is replaced by a militant stance against it; heuristic because they are used as means to reach alternative and suggestive interpretations but not as ultimate and definite destinies; and non-prescriptive because instead of using them as threads to follow they are rather used as constitutive parts of more complex and connective fabrics. The papers included in the book are diverse in temporal and locational terms. They cover from so called Formative societies in lowland Venezuela to Inca-related ones in Bolivia; from the coastal shell middens of Brazil to the megalithic sculptors of SW Colombia. Yet, the papers are related. They have in common their shared rejection of established, naturalized typologies that constrain the way archaeologists see, forcing their interpretations into well known and predictable conclusions. Their imaginative interpretative proposals flee from the secure comfort of venerable typologies, many suspicious because of their association with colonial political narratives. Instead, the authors propose novel ways of dealing with archaeological data.
Category: Social Science