RATIONAL POINTS AND ARITHMETIC OF FUNDAMENTAL GROUPS

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Author : Jakob Stix
ISBN : 9783642306747
Genre : Mathematics
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The section conjecture in anabelian geometry, announced by Grothendieck in 1983, is concerned with a description of the set of rational points of a hyperbolic algebraic curve over a number field in terms of the arithmetic of its fundamental group. While the conjecture is still open today in 2012, its study has revealed interesting arithmetic for curves and opened connections, for example, to the question whether the Brauer-Manin obstruction is the only one against rational points on curves. This monograph begins by laying the foundations for the space of sections of the fundamental group extension of an algebraic variety. Then, arithmetic assumptions on the base field are imposed and the local-to-global approach is studied in detail. The monograph concludes by discussing analogues of the section conjecture created by varying the base field or the type of variety, or by using a characteristic quotient or its birational analogue in lieu of the fundamental group extension.

Author : Jakob Stix
ISBN : 9783642239052
Genre : Mathematics
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In the more than 100 years since the fundamental group was first introduced by Henri Poincaré it has evolved to play an important role in different areas of mathematics. Originally conceived as part of algebraic topology, this essential concept and its analogies have found numerous applications in mathematics that are still being investigated today, and which are explored in this volume, the result of a meeting at Heidelberg University that brought together mathematicians who use or study fundamental groups in their work with an eye towards applications in arithmetic. The book acknowledges the varied incarnations of the fundamental group: pro-finite, l-adic, p-adic, pro-algebraic and motivic. It explores a wealth of topics that range from anabelian geometry (in particular the section conjecture), the l-adic polylogarithm, gonality questions of modular curves, vector bundles in connection with monodromy, and relative pro-algebraic completions, to a motivic version of Minhyong Kim's non-abelian Chabauty method and p-adic integration after Coleman. The editor has also included the abstracts of all the talks given at the Heidelberg meeting, as well as the notes on Coleman integration and on Grothendieck's fundamental group with a view towards anabelian geometry taken from a series of introductory lectures given by Amnon Besser and Tamás Szamuely, respectively.

The arithmetic and geometry of moduli spaces and their fundamental groups are a very active research area. This book offers a complete overview of developments made over the last decade. The papers in this volume examine the geometry of moduli spaces of curves with a function on them. The main players in Part 1 are the absolute Galois group $G_{\mathbb Q}$ of the algebraic numbers and its close relatives. By analyzing how $G_{\mathbb Q}$ acts on fundamental groups defined by Hurwitz moduli problems, the authors achieve a grand generalization of Serre's program from the 1960s.Papers in Part 2 apply $\theta$-functions and configuration spaces to the study of fundamental groups over positive characteristic fields. In this section, several authors use Grothendieck's famous lifting results to give extensions to wildly ramified covers. Properties of the fundamental groups have brought collaborations between geometers and group theorists. Several Part 3 papers investigate new versions of the genus 0 problem. In particular, this includes results severely limiting possible monodromy groups of sphere covers. Finally, Part 4 papers treat Deligne's theory of Tannakian categories and arithmetic versions of the Kodaira-Spencer map. This volume is geared toward graduate students and research mathematicians interested in arithmetic algebraic geometry.

Author : John Coates
ISBN : 9781139505659
Genre : Mathematics
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Number theory currently has at least three different perspectives on non-abelian phenomena: the Langlands programme, non-commutative Iwasawa theory and anabelian geometry. In the second half of 2009, experts from each of these three areas gathered at the Isaac Newton Institute in Cambridge to explain the latest advances in their research and to investigate possible avenues of future investigation and collaboration. For those in attendance, the overwhelming impression was that number theory is going through a tumultuous period of theory-building and experimentation analogous to the late 19th century, when many different special reciprocity laws of abelian class field theory were formulated before knowledge of the Artin–Takagi theory. Non-abelian Fundamental Groups and Iwasawa Theory presents the state of the art in theorems, conjectures and speculations that point the way towards a new synthesis, an as-yet-undiscovered unified theory of non-abelian arithmetic geometry.

Author : Björn Engquist
ISBN : 9783642564789
Genre : Mathematics
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This is a book guaranteed to delight the reader. It not only depicts the state of mathematics at the end of the century, but is also full of remarkable insights into its future de- velopment as we enter a new millennium. True to its title, the book extends beyond the spectrum of mathematics to in- clude contributions from other related sciences. You will enjoy reading the many stimulating contributions and gain insights into the astounding progress of mathematics and the perspectives for its future. One of the editors, Björn Eng- quist, is a world-renowned researcher in computational sci- ence and engineering. The second editor, Wilfried Schmid, is a distinguished mathematician at Harvard University. Likewi- se the authors are all foremost mathematicians and scien- tists, and their biographies and photographs appear at the end of the book. Unique in both form and content, this is a "must-read" for every mathematician and scientist and, in particular, for graduates still choosing their specialty. Limited collector's edition - an exclusive and timeless work. This special, numbered edition will be available until June 1, 2000. Firm orders only.

Author : K. Böröczky
ISBN : 3540008209
Genre : Mathematics
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Exploring the connections between arithmetic and geometric properties of algebraic varieties has been the object of much fruitful study for a long time, especially in the case of curves. The aim of the Summer School and Conference on "Higher Dimensional Varieties and Rational Points" held in Budapest, Hungary during September 2001 was to bring together students and experts from the arithmetic and geometric sides of algebraic geometry in order to get a better understanding of the current problems, interactions and advances in higher dimension. The lecture series and conference lectures assembled in this volume give a comprehensive introduction to students and researchers in algebraic geometry and in related fields to the main ideas of this rapidly developing area.

Author : Joseph H. Silverman
ISBN : 0387943250
Genre : Mathematics
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In "The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves," the author presented the basic theory culminating in two fundamental global results, the Mordell-Weil theorem on the finite generation of the group of rational points and Siegel's theorem on the finiteness of the set of integral points. This book continues the study of elliptic curves by presenting six important, but somewhat more specialized topics: I. Elliptic and modular functions for the full modular group. II. Elliptic curves with complex multiplication. III. Elliptic surfaces and specialization theorems. IV. NA(c)ron models, Kodaira-N ron classification of special fibres, Tate's algorithm, and Ogg's conductor-discriminant formula. V. Tate's theory of q-curves over p-adic fields. VI. NA(c)ron's theory of canonical local height functions.

This book is devoted to the study of rational and integral points on higher dimensional algebraic varieties. It contains research papers addressing the arithmetic geometry of varieties which are not of general type, with an em phasis on how rational points are distributed with respect to the classical, Zariski and adelic topologies. The book gives a glimpse of the state of the art of this rapidly expanding domain in arithmetic geometry. The techniques involve explicit geometric con structions, ideas from the minimal model program in algebraic geometry as well as analytic number theory and harmonic analysis on adelic groups. In recent years there has been substantial progress in our understanding of the arithmetic of algebraic surfaces. Five papers are devoted to cubic surfaces: Basile and Fisher study the existence of rational points on certain diagonal cubics, Swinnerton-Dyer considers weak approximation and Broberg proves upper bounds on the number of rational points on the complement to lines on cubic surfaces. Peyre and Tschinkel compare numerical data with conjectures concerning asymptotics of rational points of bounded height on diagonal cubics of rank ~ 2. Kanevsky and Manin investigate the composition of points on cubic surfaces. Satge constructs rational curves on certain Kummer surfaces. Colliot-Thelene studies the Hasse principle for pencils of curves of genus 1. In an appendix to this paper Skorobogatov produces explicit examples of Enriques surfaces with a Zariski dense set of rational points.

Author : Clay Mathematics Institute. Summer School
ISBN : 9780821844762
Genre : Mathematics
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This book is based on survey lectures given at the 2006 Clay Summer School on Arithmetic Geometry at the Mathematics Institute of the University of Gottingen. Intended for graduate students and recent Ph.D.'s, this volume will introduce readers to modern techniques and outstanding conjectures at the interface of number theory and algebraic geometry. The main focus is rational points on algebraic varieties over non-algebraically closed fields. Do they exist? If not, can this be proven efficiently and algorithmically? When rational points do exist, are they finite in number and can they be found effectively? When there are infinitely many rational points, how are they distributed? For curves, a cohesive theory addressing these questions has emerged in the last few decades. Highlights include Faltings' finiteness theorem and Wiles's proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. Key techniques are drawn from the theory of elliptic curves, including modular curves and parametrizations, Heegner points, and heights. The arithmetic of higher-dimensional varieties is equally rich, offering a complex interplay of techniques including Shimura varieties, the minimal model program, moduli spaces of curves and maps, deformation theory, Galois cohomology, harmonic analysis, and automorphic functions. However, many foundational questions about the structure of rational points remain open, and research tends to focus on properties of specific classes of varieties.

Author : Richard Thomas
ISBN : 9781470435783
Genre : Geometry, Algebraic
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This is Part 2 of a two-volume set. Since Oscar Zariski organized a meeting in 1954, there has been a major algebraic geometry meeting every decade: Woods Hole (1964), Arcata (1974), Bowdoin (1985), Santa Cruz (1995), and Seattle (2005). The American Mathematical Society has supported these summer institutes for over 50 years. Their proceedings volumes have been extremely influential, summarizing the state of algebraic geometry at the time and pointing to future developments. The most recent Summer Institute in Algebraic Geometry was held July 2015 at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, sponsored by the AMS with the collaboration of the Clay Mathematics Institute. This volume includes surveys growing out of plenary lectures and seminar talks during the meeting. Some present a broad overview of their topics, while others develop a distinctive perspective on an emerging topic. Topics span both complex algebraic geometry and arithmetic questions, specifically, analytic techniques, enumerative geometry, moduli theory, derived categories, birational geometry, tropical geometry, Diophantine questions, geometric representation theory, characteristic and -adic tools, etc. The resulting articles will be important references in these areas for years to come.