Author : George M. Fredrickson
ISBN : 9781400873678
Genre : History
File Size : 21.11 MB
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Are antisemitism and white supremacy manifestations of a general phenomenon? Why didn't racism appear in Europe before the fourteenth century, and why did it flourish as never before in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries? Why did the twentieth century see institutionalized racism in its most extreme forms? Why are egalitarian societies particularly susceptible to virulent racism? What do apartheid South Africa, Nazi Germany, and the American South under Jim Crow have in common? How did the Holocaust advance civil rights in the United States? With a rare blend of learning, economy, and cutting insight, George Fredrickson surveys the history of Western racism from its emergence in the late Middle Ages to the present. Beginning with the medieval antisemitism that put Jews beyond the pale of humanity, he traces the spread of racist thinking in the wake of European expansionism and the beginnings of the African slave trade. And he examines how the Enlightenment and nineteenth-century romantic nationalism created a new intellectual context for debates over slavery and Jewish emancipation. Fredrickson then makes the first sustained comparison between the color-coded racism of nineteenth-century America and the antisemitic racism that appeared in Germany around the same time. He finds similarity enough to justify the common label but also major differences in the nature and functions of the stereotypes invoked. The book concludes with a provocative account of the rise and decline of the twentieth century's overtly racist regimes--the Jim Crow South, Nazi Germany, and apartheid South Africa--in the context of world historical developments. This illuminating work is the first to treat racism across such a sweep of history and geography. It is distinguished not only by its original comparison of modern racism's two most significant varieties--white supremacy and antisemitism--but also by its eminent readability.
Category: History

Black Rights White Wrongs

Author : Charles W. Mills
ISBN : 9780190245443
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 58.27 MB
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Liberalism is the political philosophy of equal persons - yet liberalism has denied equality to those it saw as sub-persons. Liberalism is the creed of fairness - yet liberalism has been complicit with European imperialism and African slavery. Liberalism is the classic ideology of Enlightenment and political transparency - yet liberalism has cast a dark veil over its actual racist past and present. In sum, liberalism's promise of equal rights has historically been denied to blacks and other people of color. In Black Rights/White Wrongs: The Critique of Racial Liberalism, political philosopher Charles Mills challenges mainstream accounts that ignore this history and its current legacy in self-conceivedly liberal polities today. Mills argues that rather than bracket as an anomaly the role of racism in the development of liberal theory, we should see it as shaping that theory in fundamental ways. As feminists have urged us to see the dominant form of liberalism as a patriarchal liberalism, so too Mills suggests we should see it as a racialized liberalism. It is unsurprising, then, if contemporary liberalism has yet to deliver on the recognition of black rights and the correction of white wrongs. These essays look at racial liberalism, past and present: "white ignorance" as a guilty ignoring of social reality that facilitates white racial domination; Immanuel Kant's role as the most important liberal theorist of both personhood and sub-personhood; the centrality of racial exploitation in the United States; and the evasion of white supremacy in John Rawls's "ideal theory" framing of social justice and in the work of most other contemporary white political philosophers. Nonetheless, Mills still believes that a deracialized liberalism is both possible and desirable. He concludes by calling on progressives to "Occupy liberalism!" and develop accordingly a radical liberalism aimed at achieving racial justice.
Category: Social Science

Die Kommunikations Wissens Und Handlungsr Ume Der Henriette Herz 1764 1847

Author : Ulrike Wels
ISBN : 9783847006244
Genre : History
File Size : 22.83 MB
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Sowohl in der populären Wahrnehmung als auch in der Forschung wird Henriette Herz vor allem als »Berliner Salonière« und »Schöne Jüdin« wahrgenommen. Die Beiträge dieses Bandes eröffnen neue und differenzierte Perspektiven auf ihr Leben und Werk. Anliegen des Bandes ist, die Kommunikations-, Wissens- und Handlungsräume, in denen sich Henriette Herz bewegte und die sie zugleich selbst schuf bzw. mit prägte, unter interdisziplinären Fragestellungen zu untersuchen. Das Bild von Henriette Herz als Symbolfigur der Berliner Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte wird so um wesentliche Aspekte erweitert und es werden weitere wichtige Zugänge zur sonst gut erforschten Literaturgeschichte um 1800 und zu deren Rezeption eröffnet. Not only in research but also in the common mind, Henriette Herz is perceived above all as a "Berlin salonière" and a "beautiful Jew". The entries within this volume open up new and distinctive perspectives on her life and work. By asking interdisciplinary questions, this volume investigates the dimensions of communication, knowledge and action within which Henriette Herz moved, and which she herself created or shaped. The image of Henriette Herz as a symbolic figure of Berlin’s cultural and intellectual history is thus broadened by key aspects, whilst further significant insights into an otherwise well-researched literary history ca. 1800 and its reception are revealed.
Category: History

The Oxford Encyclopedia Of Women In World History

Author : Bonnie G. Smith
ISBN : 9780195148909
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 81.91 MB
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The Encyclopedia of Women in World History captures the experiences of women throughout world history in a comprehensive, 4-volume work. Although there has been extensive research on women in history by region, no text or reference work has comprehensively covered the role women have played throughout world history.The past thirty years have seen an explosion of research and effort to present the experiences and contributions of women not only in the Western world but across the globe. Historians have investigated womens daily lives in virtually every region and have researched the leadership roles women have filled across time and region. They have found and demonstrated that there is virtually no historical, social, or demographic change in which women have not been involved and by which their lives have not been affected. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History benefits greatly from these efforts and experiences, and illuminates how women worldwide have influenced and been influenced by these historical, social, and demographic changes.The Encyclopedia contains over 1,250 signed articles arranged in an A-Z format for ease of use. The entries cover six main areas: biographies; geography and history; comparative culture and society, including adoption, abortion, performing arts; organizations and movements, such as the Egyptian Uprising, and the Paris Commune; womens and gender studies; and topics in world history that include slave trade, globalization, and disease. With its rich and insightful entries by leading scholars and experts, this reference work is sure to be a valued, go-to resource for scholars, college and high school students, and general readers alike.
Category: Biography & Autobiography


Author : Albert Memmi
ISBN : 3610046961
Genre : Discrimination
File Size : 78.90 MB
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Category: Discrimination

Cognitive Perspectives On Israelite Identity

Author : Dermot Anthony Nestor
ISBN : 9780567468000
Genre : Religion
File Size : 23.29 MB
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Cognitive Perspectives on Israelite Identity breaks new ground in the study of ethnic identity in the ancient world through the articulation of an explicitly cognitive perspective. In presenting a view of ethnicity as an epistemological rather than an ontological entity, this work seeks to correct the pronounced tendency towards 'analytical groupism' in the academic literature. Challenging what Pierre Bourdieu has called 'our primary inclination to think the world in a substantialist manner,' this study seeks to break with the vernacular categories and 'commonsense primordialisms' encoded within the Biblical texts, whilst at the same time accounting for their tenacious hold on our social and political imagination. It is the recognition of the performative and reifying potential of these categories of ethno-political practice that disqualifies their appropriation as categories of social analysis.
Category: Religion

Becoming Christian

Author : Dennis Austin Britton
ISBN : 9780823257164
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 48.86 MB
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Becoming Christian argues that romance narratives of Jews and Muslims converting to Christianity register theological formations of race in post-Reformation England. The medieval motif of infidel conversion came under scrutiny as Protestant theology radically reconfigured how individuals acquire religious identities. Whereas Catholicism had asserted that Christian identity begins with baptism, numerous theologians in the Church of England denied the necessity of baptism and instead treated Christian identity as a racial characteristic passed from parents to their children. The church thereby developed a theology that both transformed a nation into a Christian race and created skepticism about the possibility of conversion. Race became a matter of salvation and damnation. Britton intervenes in critical debates about the intersections of race and religion, as well as in discussions of the social implications of romance. Examining English translations of Calvin, treatises on the sacraments, catechisms, and sermons alongside works by Edmund Spenser, John Harrington, William Shakespeare, John Fletcher, and Phillip Massinger, Becoming Christian demonstrates how a theology of race altered a nation's imagination and literary landscape.
Category: Literary Criticism

The Invention Of Racism In Classical Antiquity

Author : Benjamin H. Isaac
ISBN : 0691125988
Genre : History
File Size : 51.18 MB
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"The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity further suggests that an understanding of ancient attitudes toward other peoples shed light not only on Greco-Roman imperialism and the ideology of enslavement of foreigners in those societies (and on foreigners concomitant integration or non-integration), but also on the disintegration of the Roman Empire and on more recent imperialism as well."--BOOK JACKET.
Category: History

Multiracial Identity And Racial Politics In The United States

Author : Natalie Masuoka
ISBN : 9780190657475
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 35.80 MB
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While pundits point to multiracial Americans as new evidence of a harmonious ethnic melting pot, in reality mixed race peoples have long existed in the United States. Rather than characterize multiracial Americans as a "new" population, this book argues that instead we should view them as individuals who reflect a new culture of racial identification. Today, identities such as "biracial" or "swirlies" are evoked alongside those more established racial categories of white, black Asian and Latino. What is significant about multiracial identities is that they communicate an alternative viewpoint about race: that a person's preferred self-identification should be used to define a person's race. Yet this definition of race is a distinct contrast to historic norms which has defined race as a category assigned to a person based on certain social rules which emphasized things like phenotype, being "one-drop" of African blood or heritage. In Multiracial Identity and Racial Politics in the United States, Natalie Masuoka catalogues how this cultural shift from assigning race to perceiving race as a product of personal identification came about by tracing events over the course of the twentieth century. Masuoka uses a variety of sources including in-depth interviews, public opinion surveys and census data to understand how certain individuals embrace the agency of self-identification and choose to assert multiracial identities. At the same time, the book shows that the meaning and consequences of multiracial identification can only be understood when contrasted against those who identify as white, black Asian or Latino. An included case study on President Barack Obama also shows how multiracial identity narratives can be strategically used to reduce anti-black bias among voters. Therefore, rather than looking at multiracial Americans as a harbinger of dramatic change for American race relations, this Multiracial Identity and Racial Politics in the United States shows that narratives promoting multiracial identities are in direct dialogue with, rather than in replacement of, the longstanding racial order.
Category: Social Science

Diverse Nations

Author : Edgar E Robinson Professor of United States History Emeritus George M Fredrickson
ISBN : 9781317261094
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 87.11 MB
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One of the world's leading historians of race relations, George Fredrickson in his newest book probes the history of racial and ethnic diversity in the United States and other parts of the world. Diverse Nations explores recent interpretations of slavery and race relations in the United States and introduces comparative perspectives on Europe, South Africa, and Brazil. Notably, the book features groundbreaking work comparing ethnoracial pluralism in France and the United States. In contrast to the similarities of race relations in the United States and South Africa, which both drew rigid domestic color lines, the United States and France have historically diverged greatly in their approaches to racial difference. Yet both are influenced by a common heritage of revolutionary republicanism, extensive immigration, and cultural pluralism. Fredrickson's rich comparisons provide stimulating new insights into the continuing impacts of slavery and beliefs about race upon our increasingly pluralistic societies.
Category: Political Science