PUBLIC VICES PRIVATE VIRTUES ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF MARKETIZATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

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Public Vices Private Virtues Assessing The Effects Of Marketization In Higher Education

Author : Pedro N. Teixeira
ISBN : 9789460914669
Genre : Education
File Size : 61.49 MB
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Recent years have seen the strengthening of a discourse that emphasises the virtues of markets, competition and private initiative, vis-à-vis the vices of public intervention in higher education. This volume presents a timely reflection about the effects this increasing marketization has been producing in many higher education systems worldwide. The various chapters of this volume analyse the impact of markets at the system level, with significant attention being devoted to the changes in modes of regulation, the strengthening of aspects such as privatization and inter-institutional competition in higher education systems, and the closer interaction between higher education and its economic environment. Several of the contributors devote attention as well to the implications of market forces for institutional change, notably regarding issues such as mission, organizational structure and governance and the way marketization is affecting the internal distribution of power and the definition of priorities. Finally, the volume includes several chapters focusing on the different markets of higher education, such as the academic labour market, undergraduate and postgraduate education, and research markets. Altogether these chapters provide important insights concerning the many national and institutional contexts in which the marketization of higher education has been taking place around the world.
Category: Education

The Changing Russian University

Author : Tatiana Maximova-Mentzoni
ISBN : 9780415540186
Genre : Education
File Size : 68.30 MB
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When the Soviet Union collapsed universities were freed from state control and left to themselves. This forced universities to be much more market-oriented. This book explores this transformation from the end of the Soviet Union until the present. Based on extensive original research, the book charts the struggles of universities, showing how chaos and decline came to what had been one of the triumphs of the Soviet Union – a higher education system which provided a high standard of advanced education to large numbers of people and made major research achievements. The book shows how a lack of funds, lack of commercial experience and the ending of former means of support such as strong university-state industry links brought about huge disruption; how universities responded with a range of measures such as charging for tutoring and examinations, handling research on a commercial basis and new forms of co-operation; and how all this impacted on subjects of study and on underlying ideas about what a university is for. The book argues that the shock to the system in Russia was so severe that the Russian case serves as an excellent 'survival guide' to universities experiencing similar changes in other parts of the world. By investigating the phenomenon of Russian universities becoming more market-oriented the book contributes to developing further the marketization concept. It summarizes the existing knowledge in this field of study, offers a new framework for analysis of the phenomenon of university marketization and discusses the marketization of Russian universities in the light of comparative studies.
Category: Education

Knowledge Production In European Universities

Author : Kwiek Marek
ISBN : 9783631624036
Genre : Education
File Size : 63.19 MB
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The book studies transformations of European universities in the context of globalization and Europeanization, the questioning of the foundations of the «Golden Age» of the Keynesian welfare state, public sector reforms, demographic changes, the massification and diversification of higher education, and the emergence of knowledge economies. Such phenomena as academic entrepreneurialism and diversified channels of knowledge exchange in European universities are linked to transformations of the state and changes in public sector services. The first, contextual part of the book studies the changing state/university relationships, and the second, empirically-informed part draws from several recent large-scale comparative European research projects.
Category: Education

Rethinking The Public Private Mix In Higher Education

Author : Pedro Teixeira
ISBN : 9789463009119
Genre : Education
File Size : 43.20 MB
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In recent decades, we have seen the emergence of private higher education as a global reality. Although there are specific reasons for its appearance in each system, there is also a significant degree of commonality in the context and purposes surrounding the rise of private higher education as an important factor in many systems. The analysis of private higher education has tended to be focused at the national level, often highlighting national peculiarities and variations. In this volume the authors move forward by proposing a unifying and coherent, but flexible, theoretical framework that may be applied in different countries and diverse systems. Hence, the overall goal of this book is to provide a framework for a better understanding of the public-private mix of higher education and a set of policy guidelines in dealing with the expansion of private higher education from a comparative perspective. This analytical framework will be applied to four case-studies (Pakistan, Portugal, South Korea and Uruguay). These cases illustrate the diversity of contexts in the development of private higher education, though they also highlight important commonalities. Based on that analysis, we present some general recommendations to build a more effective policy-framework that takes advantage of the private sector in order to fulfill better the missions of the higher education system.
Category: Education

Reforming Higher Education

Author : Christine Musselin
ISBN : 9789400770287
Genre : Education
File Size : 26.98 MB
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This book analyzes the reforms that led to a differentiated landscape of higher education systems after university practices and governance were considered poorly adapted to contemporary settings and to their new missions. This has led to a growing institutional differentiation in many higher education systems. This differentiation has certainly contributed to making the institutional landscape more diverse across and within higher education systems. This book covers this diversity. Each part corresponds to a different but complementary way of looking at reforms and highlights what can be learnt on specific cases by adopting a specific perspective. The first part analyzes the ongoing reforms and their evolution, identifies their internal contradictions, as well as the redefinitions and reorientations they experience, and reveals the ideas, representations, ideologies and theories on which they are built. The second part includes comparison between countries but also other comparative perspectives such as how one reform is developed in different regions of the same country, as well as how comparable reforms are declined to different sectors. The last part addresses the impact of the reforms. What is known about the effectiveness of such instruments on higher education systems? This part shows that reforms provoke new power games and reconfigure power relations.
Category: Education

International Trends In University Governance

Author : Michael Shattock
ISBN : 9781317668206
Genre : Education
File Size : 41.86 MB
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Governance is becoming increasingly important in universities just as it is in the wider world of commerce and banking. Historically, universities were run by their academic communities but as mass higher education has taken root, as university research has become a critical element in national economies and as the demand for more accountability both financial and in academic performance has grown, pressure has mounted for a ‘modernisation’ of governance structures. One aspect of ‘modernisation’, particularly important in many European systems, and in Japan, has been the decision by governments to give institutions greater autonomy, more control over their budgets and legal responsibility for the employment of their staff. International trends to introduce greater competition between institutions, to encourage greater institutional differentiation and give greater play to market forces has led to an emphasis on leadership, a more systematic involvement of external stakeholders and a more ‘corporate style of governance. At the same time this has often led to a sense of loss of collegiality, a redistribution of authority and a growing gap between the ‘centre’ and the ‘periphery’ within universities. This book analyses governance change in nine major higher education systems, Australia, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, the UK and the USA, each account being the result of independent research by a leading authority in the field and describes how a convergence of governance structures has been mediated by the historical, cultural, political and social characteristics of the different systems. Michael Shattock is a leading authority on university governance; this study offers the most up to date account of governance reform in a range of higher education systems, an analysis of the common trends and an assessment of their impact on the idea of a university. It will be essential reading for academics, postgraduates and practitioners in higher education.
Category: Education

The Ssci Syndrome In Higher Education

Author : Chuing Prudence Chou
ISBN : 9789462094079
Genre : Education
File Size : 24.8 MB
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As a result of the world class university rankings, many governments adopt public incentives and sanctions to push universities to excel. Above all, the better faculty research publication in SSCI and SCI journals, the more resources and social prestige universities will obtain. This timely book attempts to relate these dilemmas in Taiwan to many non-English speaking counterparts which also struggle with the worldwide SSCI syndrome. As Taiwan’s higher education system, similar to that of some other countries, has been recently devastated by the SSCI-based quantitative evaluations of academic performance in terms of its adverse impacts on the balances between teaching vs. research; qualitative vs. quantitative evaluations; globally oriented, English vs. locally oriented, non-English publications; and publications in academic journals vs. books, The SSCI Syndrome in Higher Education is a long overdue study that offers a systematic, comprehensive coverage of the above-mentioned SSCI syndrome on the dynamics of Taiwan’s academe. This book definitely helps fill an important gap in the literature on Taiwan’s higher education system. Tsung Chi Professor of Politics, Occidental College, USA Prudence Chou’s book addresses an academy on crisis caused by the ceaseless hype over university rankings. It further confirms that who comes out on top depends on who is doing the ranking. To save the heart and soul out of the Taiwanese academy, this book makes a cogent argument for culturally-responsive research in the social sciences and humanities. Gerard A. Postiglione Professor and Head, Division of Policy, Administration and Social Sciences Director, Wah Ching Center of Research on Education in China, The University of Hong Kong A spectre is haunting almost all universities in the world, including Taiwan — the spectre of “indexization.” Academics, particularly social scientists are panting from the pressure of globally spread neoliberal ideology and market-based principles. Collegiality on campus in the good old days has declined, and managerialism gained power instead. Competitive funding and university rankings are excessively emphasized, and research results are required to be internationalized, i.e., published in English. Although this book is a case study of so-called SSCI syndrome in Taiwan, the problems and challenges as well as prescription contained here are common to all academics, especially those in the non-English speaking countries positioned as “peripheral.” Yutaka Otsuka Professor of Hiroshima University, President of Japan Comparative Education Society The danger with SSCI syndrome is that it encourages social studies in nonwestern societies to dissociate themselves from local contexts, reflecting a particular view of what is claimed to be ‘universal’ that is informed only by the Western (especially English-speaking) world. It raises the question of what counts as ‘scholarship’ and defines what knowledge is and who may claim competence in it. This volume serves us well as a timely reminder of such a great danger. Rui Yang Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong
Category: Education

State And Market In Higher Education Reforms

Author : Hans G. Schuetze
ISBN : 9789460918001
Genre : Education
File Size : 39.51 MB
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Universities have never been static. Even so, it is fair to say they have experienced a most radical transformation in the past twenty years. During this period, the role and responsibility of the state generally have been broadly limited while allowing ‘market forces’--private ownership and control--more influence. But even where the state is still the main provider or funder, it relies increasingly on ‘market mechanisms’, for example contractual relations between state and institutions, competition among providers for resources, and external assessment of ‘outputs’ which means the results or impact of what universities do, in particular teaching and research. The new terminology speaks of price and competition, inputs and outputs, resources, cost and benefits, demand and supply, provider and customer, consumers and investors, quality control and accountability. Education, and post-secondary education especially are increasingly seen as matters for markets. Formal post-secondary education becomes a service, commercialized and traded across national borders. This volume on changing relationship between state and market, contains, besides an introductory analytic overview of the issues, accounts from different countries, regions, and thematic perspectives. Chapter authors describe and analyze government reforms and other developments that have directly or indirectly affected this relationship. Although the geographical focus is on North America, especially Mexico, South East Asia and Europe, the phenomenon is not limited to these regions and countries but worldwide.
Category: Education

International Encyclopedia Of Higher Education Systems And Institutions

Author : Jung Cheol Shin
ISBN : 9401789045
Genre : Education
File Size : 43.51 MB
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This authoritative reference source covers all higher education themes in a comprehensive, accessible and comparative way. It maps the field for the twenty first century reflecting the massive changes that have occurred and the challenges ahead for future research. It provides a rich diversity of scholarly perspectives and covers the entire spectrum of higher education from a geographical, a topical and disciplinary perspective. It is unrivaled in its capacity to go beyond national boundaries and provides indispensible comparative analyses. The major reference works available about higher education have been published more than two decades ago and since then higher education has undergone major changes that have resulted in a much larger, diverse, global, and multidimensional reality. One of the main trends has been relentless expansion on a worldwide scale. This has led to mass higher education becoming a reality across continents, substantial growth in the number of countries with universal access to higher education, and great diversification of the student body. The tremendous increase in the international links in higher education, through issues such as training, students’ mobility, staff mobility, research activities, is another major change. The consequence is a global dimension that is strongly associated with the intensification of international networks in which institutions and researchers explore, create and share knowledge. As a result of the changes and trends, higher education has increasingly become part of debates that highlight its complexity as an institution that combines relevant political, social, economic, and cultural purposes and dimensions. Asked to play important and varied economic and social roles, higher education has had to reshape its priorities, and organizational and decision-making structures. The growth and increased complexity of the field have both led to more attention being paid to all aspects of higher education and to the expansion of research.
Category: Education

New Languages And Landscapes Of Higher Education

Author : Peter Scott
ISBN : 9780198787082
Genre :
File Size : 38.4 MB
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The landscapes of higher education have been changing rapidly, with enormous growths in participation rates in many countries across the world, and major developments and changes within institutions. But the languages that we need to conceptualise and understand these changes have not been keeping pace. The central argument in this book is that new ways of thinking about higher education, the new languages of its title, are needed to understand the role of universities and colleges in contemporary society and culture and the global economy, new landscapes. Over-reliance on existing conceptualisations of higher education, has made it difficult to understand fully the nature of 21st-century higher education. It may also have encouraged a view that there is no alternative to the development of more marketized forms of higher education. The analysis offered suggests that the future is much more open. It argues that familiar categories, normally accepted as givens, are actually more fluid. 'Systems' of higher education, whether expressed through direct public funding or through regulatory regimes, are being eroded. 'Institutions', often assumed to be to be given enhanced agency by more corporate forms of management and governance), are no longer powerful actors, if they ever were. 'Research', often corralled by assessment and management systems, is becoming more diffuse and distributed. 'Learning', supposedly more focused on skill outcomes and employability, retains a more broadly educative function. The 'publicness' of higher education has not disappeared as public funding has diminished, but taken on new forms. With contributions from leading figures, drawn from a wide range of countries, this book provides an authoritative analysis of many of the major issues which dominate discussion with respect to policy, practice and research in the field of higher education, and it can expect to become a major source book for all who are interested in the development of higher education in the 21st Century.
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