PROTEASES STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

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Proteases Structure And Function

Author : Klaudia Brix
ISBN : 9783709108857
Genre : Science
File Size : 75.88 MB
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Proteolysis is an irreversible posttranslational modification affecting each and every protein from its biosynthesis to its degradation. Limited proteolysis regulates targeting and activity throughout the lifetime of proteins. Balancing proteolysis is therefore crucial for physiological homeostasis. Control mechanisms include proteolytic maturation of zymogens resulting in active proteases and the shut down of proteolysis by counteracting endogenous protease inhibitors. Beyond the protein level, proteolytic enzymes are involved in key decisions during development that determine life and death – from single cells to adult individuals. In particular, we are becoming aware of the subtle role that proteases play in signaling events within proteolysis networks, in which the enzymes act synergistically and form alliances in a web-like fashion. Proteases come in different flavors. At least five families of mechanistically distinct enzymes and even more inhibitor families are known to date, many family members are still to be studied in detail. We have learned a lot about the diversity of the about 600 proteases in the human genome and begin to understand their physiological roles in the degradome. However, there are still many open questions regarding their actions in pathophysiology. It is in this area where the development of small molecule inhibitors as therapeutic agents is extremely promising. Approaching proteolysis as the most important, irreversible post-translational protein modification essentially requires an integrated effort of complementary research disciplines. In fact, proteolytic enzymes seem as diverse as the scientists working with these intriguing proteins. This book reflects the efforts of many in this exciting field of research where team and network formations are essential to move ahead.
Category: Science

Acid Proteases Structure Function And Biology

Author : Jordan Tang
ISBN : 9781475707199
Genre : Science
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In the past ten years, a number of proceedings of symposia on the structure and function of proteolytic enzymes have been pub lished. Their coverage of acid proteases has been limited, mainly due to the lack of significant new information on the structure of these enzymes. In the last four years, however, the primary and tertiary structures of a number of acid proteases have been deter mined, prompting the need to discuss the meanings of the old data and the possibilities for new experimentations. It was for this purpose that the "Conference on Acid Proteases: Structure, Function, and Biology" was organized. It took place at the University of Oklahoma on November 21-24, 1976. This book is a collection of the main lectures delivered at the Conference. Acid Proteases, by definition refers to a group of proteases having an optimal pH in acidic solutions. The classic examples are pepsin and chymosin. Some catalytic features are obviously shared by these proteases, most notably, their inhibition by pepstatin. The use of active center-directed inactivators such as diazoacetyl norleucine methyl ester and 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane has shown that two catalytic aspartyl residues are present in most of these enzymes. These apparent cornmon features have prompted the suggestion by several investigators to name this group of enzymes "aspartyl proteases" or "carboxyl proteases".
Category: Science

Structure Function Relationships Of Proteolytic Enzymes

Author : P. Desnuelle
ISBN : 9781483261171
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.29 MB
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Structure–Function Relationships of Proteolytic Enzymes provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of proteolytic enzymes. This book presents the historical role of proteolytic enzyme as a group in protein and enzyme chemistry. Organized into 23 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the results obtained from investigation on the chymotrypsinogens of porcine origin. This text then examines the differences of amino acid sequence between chymotrypsin, trypsin, and elastase that affect the substrate binding site, which reflect the specificity differences between these enzymes. Other chapters consider the kinetic parameters related to the trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of several model peptides. This book discusses as well the acetylation of trypsin, which result in functional consequences varying from complete inactivation to promotion of activity. The final chapter deals with the physical properties of stem bromelain in comparison with the data for three other sulfhydryl proteases of plant origin. This book is a valuable resource for enzymologists, microbiologists, and biochemists.
Category: Science

Proteases

Author : Vito Turk
ISBN : 3764357894
Genre : Biochemistry
File Size : 61.7 MB
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This book provides an account of the recent advances in our understanding of the role of proteases under physiological and pathological conditions. It reviews the contributions that have been made in the fields of biochemistry, molecular biology, medicine, agriculture and ecology. In addition there is an account of the growing number of practical applications in biotechnology, reflecting the fact that peptidases are major targets for medical and agricultural purposes. The book shows how the numerous protease structures are essential for drug design. The contributions place special emphasis on cysteine, aspartic and metalloproteases and their role in physiological and certain pathological states. Another focus is the classification and nomenclature of peptidases and a review of those proteases currently under the most intensive investigation. The book provides an informative introduction for teachers and newcomers to the field, such as graduate students, while providing a valuable source of material and ideas for the academic and industrial researcher in areas including biochemistry, medicine, agriculture and biotechnology.
Category: Biochemistry

Mechanisms Of Protease Action

Author : Laszlo Polgar
ISBN : 0849369010
Genre : Medical
File Size : 26.75 MB
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A uniform treatment of the four protease groups and a discussion of the differences and similarities in their action is presented in this important new publication. Serine, cysteine, aspartate, and zinc proteases are systematically discussed by nomenclature, evolution, specificity and their regulatory role. The chemistry of the peptide bond, including the catalysis of ester and peptide hydrolyses, is explained. For each protease group the emphasis is placed on the structure and function. Kinetics, enzyme modifications, isotope effects, subzero temperature investigations, nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, X-ray diffraction data, binding of transition-state analogs, zymogen activation, and site-specific mutagenesis are combined to rationalize the action of proteases. Both natural and synthetic inhibitors are considered because of their importance in mechanistic studies and drug design.
Category: Medical

Aspartic Acid Proteases As Therapeutic Targets

Author : Arun K. Ghosh
ISBN : 9783527641628
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30.19 MB
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In this ground-breaking practical reference, the family of aspartic acid proteases is described from a drug developer's perspective. The first part provides a general introduction to the family of aspartic acid proteases, their physiological functions, molecular structure and inhibition. Parts two to five present various case studies of successful protease inhibitor drug design and development, as well as current and potential uses of such inhibitors in pharmaceutical medicine, covering the major therapeutic targets HIV-1 protease, renin, beta-secretase, gamma-secretase,plasmepsins and fungal proteases. A ready reference aimed primarily at professionals in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as for anyone studying proteases and their function.
Category: Medical

Viral Proteases And Their Inhibitors

Author : Satya Prakash Gupta
ISBN : 9780128096826
Genre : Science
File Size : 63.14 MB
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Viral Proteases and Their Inhibitors provides a thorough examination of viral proteases from their molecular components, to therapeutic applications. As information on three dimensional structures and biological functions of these viral proteases become known, unexpected protein folds and unique mechanisms of proteolysis are realized. This book investigates how this facilitates the design and development of potent antiviral agents used against life-threatening viruses. Users will find descriptions of each virus that detail the structure and function of viral proteases, discuss the design and development of inhibitors, and analyze the structure-activity relationships of inhibitors. This book is ideal biochemists, virologists and those working on antiviral agents. Provides comprehensive, state-of-the-art coverage of virus infections, the virus lifecycle, and mechanisms of protease inhibition Analyzes structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of each viral protease Presents an in-depth view of the structure and function of viral proteases
Category: Science

Serine Proteases

Author : Isamu Chiba
ISBN : 1619426692
Genre : Science
File Size : 42.32 MB
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Proteases refer to a group of enzymes whose catalytic function is to hydrolyze(cleavage) peptide bonds of proteins. Proteases occur naturally in all organisms and are involved in a multitude of physiological reactions from simple digestion of food proteins to highly regulated cascades. In this book, the authors discuss the maturation and stabilization mechanisms of two hyperthermostable subtilisin-like serine proteases from thermococcus kodakarensis; serine protease-related innate immunity; fungal and bacterial serine proteases; and the physiological function and pathology of neurosin/kallikrein 6 in the central nervous system.
Category: Science

Retroviral Proteases

Author : Lawrence C. Kuo
ISBN : 0121821420
Genre : Medical
File Size : 90.8 MB
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Methods included in this volume apply to the expression and characterization of retroviral proteases and their inhibitor/substrate design.
Category: Medical

Cysteine Proteases Of Pathogenic Organisms

Author : Mark W. Robinson
ISBN : 1441984143
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30.48 MB
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Cysteine proteases expressed by pathogenic organisms play key roles in virulence including host entry, feeding and suppression of host immune responses. This book gives comprehensive coverage to all aspects of pathogen cysteine proteases and brings together numerous scientific advances which have been made over many years. Thus, the biochemistry, molecular biology and structure‐function relationships of these important pathogen enzymes are covered in detail. Written by leading researchers from Europe, Australia and North America, this book is essential reading for students and professionals interested in human medicine and infectious disease research.
Category: Medical