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Probabilistic Techniques In Exposure Assessment

Author : Alison C. Cullen
ISBN : 0306459574
Genre : Medical
File Size : 50.83 MB
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At this time when regulatory agencies are accepting and actively encouraging probabilistic approaches and the attribution of overall uncertainty among inputs to support Value of Information analyses, a comprehensive sourcebook on methods for addressing variability and uncertainty in exposure analysis is sorely needed. This need is adroitly met in Probabilistic Techniques in Exposure Assessment. A host of expert contributors provide a straightforward introduction to the practical tools for addressing variability and uncertainty in support of environmental and human health decision making. 151 graphs, plots, charts, and figures supplement a broad range of detailed and practical examples.
Category: Medical

Occupational And Residential Exposure Assessment For Pesticides

Author : Claire A. Franklin
ISBN : 0471489891
Genre : Medical
File Size : 49.66 MB
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This timely publication concentrates on the exposure to pesticidesby agricultural workers and residential users of pesticides throughinhalation and physical contact. The book discusses more recently discovered risks such aspesticides on indoor carpets and includes new trends in datainterpretation. Occupational & Residential Exposure Assessment forPesticides complements the other title on pesticide exposure inthe series - Pesticide Residues in Drinking Water, byHamilton/Crossley and is a must for all professionals in thePesticide Industry as well as academics.
Category: Medical

Probabilistic Exposure Assessment Of Sun Care Products

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1052060537
Genre :
File Size : 64.28 MB
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Abstract: The aim of this study has been to assess the consumption and the exposure to 6 types of sun care products: sunscreen cream, sunscreen milk, sunscreen spray, sunscreen stick, moisturizing cream with SPF and after-sun milk. Consumption data were obtained from 75 clinical safety studies conducted on 3001 subjects: 371 children aged 3–9, 149 children aged 10–14 and 2481 adults aged more than 15. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method. Strength of the study include stratification of consumption and exposure data according to sex and age, as well as other important points such as the galenic form, the site of application and the value of the sun protection factor. Highlights: The aim of the study was to assess the consumption and the exposure to sun care products. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for six products. Exposure was assessed by sex and by age classes in children and adults.

Application Of Uncertainty Analysis To Ecological Risks Of Pesticides

Author : William J. Warren-Hicks
ISBN : 1439807353
Genre : Science
File Size : 34.63 MB
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While current methods used in ecological risk assessments for pesticides are largely deterministic, probabilistic methods that aim to quantify variability and uncertainty in exposure and effects are attracting growing interest from industries and governments. Probabilistic methods offer more realistic and meaningful estimates of risk and hence, potentially, a better basis for decision-making. Application of Uncertainty Analysis to Ecological Risks of Pesticides examines the applicability of probabilistic methods for ecological risk assessment for pesticides and explores their appropriateness for general use. The book presents specific methods leading to probabilistic decisions concerning the registration and application of pesticides and includes case studies illustrating the application of statistical methods. The authors discuss Bayesian inference, first-order error analysis, first-order (non-hierarchical) Monte Carlo methods, second-order Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods, interval analysis, and probability bounds analysis. They then examine how these methods can be used in assessments for other environmental stressors and contaminants. There are many methods of analyzing variability and uncertainty and many ways of presenting the results. Inappropriate use of these methods leads to misleading results, and experts differ on what is appropriate. Disagreement about which methods are appropriate will result in wasted resources, conflict over findings, and reduced credibility with decision makers and the public. There is, therefore, a need to reach a consensus on how to choose and use appropriate methods, and to present this in the form of guidance for prospective users. Written in a clear and concise style, the book examines how to use probabilistic methods within a risk-based decision paradigm.
Category: Science

Mycotoxins In Food

Author : Naresh Magan
ISBN : 1855737337
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 56.41 MB
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Leading researchers in the field are discovering that mycotoxins pose a significant health risk in both animal feed and foods for human consumption. However, the pace of distributing current information on their findings has been lagging until now. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, this book summarizes the wealth of the world's most recent research on how to assess the risks from mycotoxins, detect particular mycotoxins and control them at differing stages in the supply chain. The contributors address risk assessment techniques, sampling methods, modeling, and detection techniques used to measure the risk of mycotoxin contamination and also provide current regulations governing mycotoxin limits in food. They discuss the use of HACCP systems and mycotoxin control at different stages in the supply chain. Chapters include case studies, which demonstrate how these controls work for particular products. The last section of the book details particular mycotoxins, form ochratoxin A and patulinto to zearalenone and fumonisins.
Category: Business & Economics

The Triazine Herbicides

Author : Janis Mc Farland, Ph.D.
ISBN : 9780080559636
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 54.39 MB
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Over the past 50 years, triazines have made a great impact on agriculture and world hunger by assisting in the development of new farming methods, providing greater farming and land use capabilities, and increasing crop yields. Triazines are registered in over 80 countries and save billions of dollars a year. The Triazine Herbicides is the one book that presents a comprehensive view of the total science and agriculture of these chemicals. With emphasis on how the chemicals are studied and developed, reviewed, and used at the agricultural level this book provides valuable insight into the benefits of triazine herbicides for sustainable agriculture. * Presents previously unpublished information on the discovery, development and marketing of herbicides * Includes a vital section on the origin, use, economics and fate of triazine herbicides * Covers benefits of triazines in corn and sorghum, sugarcane, citrus, fruit and nut crops * Establishes best management practice and environmental benefits of use in conservation tillage
Category: Technology & Engineering

Public Health Risk Assessment For Human Exposure To Chemicals

Author : K. Asante-Duah
ISBN : 1402009216
Genre : Medical
File Size : 52.61 MB
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In fact, with the control and containment of most infectious conditions and diseases of the past millennium having been achieved in most developed countries, and with the resultant increase in life expectancies, much more attention seems to have shifted to degenerative health problems. Many of the degenerative health conditions have been linked to thousands of chemicals regularly encountered in human living and occupational/work environments. It is important, therefore, that human health risk assessments are undertaken on a consistent basis - in order to determine the potential impacts of the target chemicals on public health.
Category: Medical

Health Risk Assessment For Exposure To Nitrate In Drinking Water From Village Wells In Semarang Indonesia

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1052053923
Genre :
File Size : 85.19 MB
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Abstract: The levels of nitrate in 52 drinking water wells in rural Central Java, Indonesia were evaluated in April 2014, and the results were used for a health risk assessment for the local populations by using probabilistic techniques. The concentrations of nitrate in drinking water had a range of 0.01–84mg/L, a mean of 20mg/L and a medium of 14mg/L. Only two of the 52 samples exceeded the WHO guideline values of 50mg/L for infant methaemoglobinaemia. The hazard quotient values as evaluated against the WHO guideline value at the 50 and 95 percentile points were HQ50 at 0.42 and HQ95 at 1.2, respectively. These indicated a low risk of infant methaemoglobinaemia for the whole population, but some risk for the sensitive portion of the population. The HQ50 and HQ95 values based on WHO acceptable daily intake dose for adult male and female were 0.35 and 1.0, respectively, indicating a generally a low level of risk. A risk characterisation linking birth defects to nitrate levels in water consumed during the first three months of pregnancy resulted in a HQ50/50 values of 1.5 and a HQ95/5 value of 65. These HQ values indicated an elevated risk for birth defects, in particular for the more sensitive population. A sanitation improvement program in the study area had a positive effect in reducing nitrate levels in wells and the corresponding risk for public health. For example, the birth defect HQ50/50 values for a subset of wells surveyed in both 2014 and 2015 was reduced from 1.1 to 0.71. Abstract : Probabilistic risk assessment was used to predict health effects of nitrate in Indonesia groundwaters and demonstrates the potential of improved sanitation to reduce the incidence of associated health effects.