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Prisoner S Dilemma

Author : William Poundstone
ISBN : 9780307763785
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 66.30 MB
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Should you watch public television without pledging?...Exceed the posted speed limit?...Hop a subway turnstile without paying? These questions illustrate the so-called "prisoner's dilemma", a social puzzle that we all face every day. Though the answers may seem simple, their profound implications make the prisoner's dilemma one of the great unifying concepts of science. Watching players bluff in a poker game inspired John von Neumann—father of the modern computer and one of the sharpest minds of the century—to construct game theory, a mathematical study of conflict and deception. Game theory was readily embraced at the RAND Corporation, the archetypical think tank charged with formulating military strategy for the atomic age, and in 1950 two RAND scientists made a momentous discovery. Called the "prisoner's dilemma," it is a disturbing and mind-bending game where two or more people may betray the common good for individual gain. Introduced shortly after the Soviet Union acquired the atomic bomb, the prisoner's dilemma quickly became a popular allegory of the nuclear arms race. Intellectuals such as von Neumann and Bertrand Russell joined military and political leaders in rallying to the "preventive war" movement, which advocated a nuclear first strike against the Soviet Union. Though the Truman administration rejected preventive war the United States entered into an arms race with the Soviets and game theory developed into a controversial tool of public policy—alternately accused of justifying arms races and touted as the only hope of preventing them. A masterful work of science writing, Prisoner's Dilemma weaves together a biography of the brilliant and tragic von Neumann, a history of pivotal phases of the cold war, and an investigation of game theory's far-reaching influence on public policy today. Most important, Prisoner's Dilemma is the incisive story of a revolutionary idea that has been hailed as a landmark of twentieth-century thought.
Category: Mathematics

Von Neumann Morgenstern And The Creation Of Game Theory

Author : Robert Leonard
ISBN : 9780521562669
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 70.73 MB
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A reconstruction of the creation of game theory in the twentieth century by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern.
Category: Business & Economics

Two Person Game Theory

Author : Anatol Rapoport
ISBN : 9780486281094
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 45.91 MB
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Clear, accessible treatment of mathematical models for resolving conflicts in politics, economics, war, business, and social relationships. Topics include strategy, game tree and game matrix, and much more. Minimal math background required. 1970 edition.
Category: Mathematics

John Von Neumann

Author : Norman Macrae
ISBN : 082182676X
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 48.12 MB
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Von Neumann is a well-known name in mathematics and was a very controversial figure because of his political views. Attractive four-color cover. This is a biography, and should do well in a number of different subject areas beyond mathematics (can be promoted in the general sciences areas).
Category: Biography & Autobiography

Labyrinths Of Reason

Author : William Poundstone
ISBN : 030776379X
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 45.69 MB
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This sharply intelligent, consistently provocative book takes the reader on an astonishing, thought-provoking voyage into the realm of delightful uncertainty--a world of paradox in which logical argument leads to contradiction and common sense is seemingly rendered irrelevant. From the Trade Paperback edition.
Category: Philosophy

John Von Neumann And The Origins Of Modern Computing

Author : William Aspray
ISBN : 0262518856
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 54.15 MB
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John von Neumann (1903-1957) was unquestionably one of the most brilliant scientists of the twentieth century. He made major contributions to quantum mechanics and mathematical physics and in 1943 began a new and all-too-short career in computer science. William Aspray provides the first broad and detailed account of von Neumann's many different contributions to computing. These, Aspray reveals, extended far beyond his well-known work in the design and construction of computer systems to include important scientific applications, the revival of numerical analysis, and the creation of a theory of computing.Aspray points out that from the beginning von Neumann took a wider and more theoretical view than other computer pioneers. In the now famous EDVAC report of 1945, von Neumann clearly stated the idea of a stored program that resides in the computer's memory along with the data it was to operate on. This stored program computer was described in terms of idealized neurons, highlighting the analogy between the digital computer and the human brain. Aspray describes von Neumann's development during the next decade, and almost entirely alone, of a theory of complicated information processing systems, or automata, and the introduction of themes such as learning, reliability of systems with unreliable components, self-replication, and the importance of memory and storage capacity in biological nervous systems; many of these themes remain at the heart of current investigations in parallel or neurocomputing.Aspray allows the record to speak for itself. He unravels an intricate sequence of stories generated by von Neumann's work and brings into focus the interplay of personalities centered about von Neumann. He documents the complex interactions of science, the military, and business and shows how progress in applied mathematics was intertwined with that in computers.William Aspray is Director of the Center for the History of Electrical Engineering at The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Category: Biography & Autobiography

The World The Game Theorists Made

Author : Paul Erickson
ISBN : 9780226097176
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 51.61 MB
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Today, game theory is central to our understanding of capitalist markets, the evolution of social behavior in animals, and much more. Both the social and biological sciences have seemingly fused around the game. Yet the ascendancy of game theory and theories of rational choice more generally remains a rich source of misunderstanding. To gain a better grasp of the widespread dispersion of game theory and the mathematics of rational choice, Paul Erickson uncovers its history during the poorly understood period between the publication of John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern s seminal "Theory of Games and Economic Behavior" in 1944 and the theory s revival in economics in the 1980s. "The World the Game Theorists Made "reveals how the mathematics of rational choice was a common, flexible language that could facilitate wide-ranging debate on some of the great issues of the time. Because it so actively persists in the sciences and public life, assessing the significance of game theory for the postwar sciences is especially critical now."
Category: Business & Economics

Game Theory And The Law

Author : Douglas G. Baird
ISBN : 0674341112
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 42.39 MB
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This book is the first to apply the tools of game theory and information economics to advance our understanding of how law works. The book highlights the basic mechanisms at work and lays out a natural progression in the sophistication of the game concepts and legal problems considered. 47 line illustrations.
Category: Mathematics

The Compleat Strategyst

Author : J. D. Williams
ISBN : 9780486136844
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 20.7 MB
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Only a basic understanding of arithmetic is needed to grasp these strategy games with two or more sets of inimical interests and a limitless array of zero-sum payoffs.
Category: Mathematics

Theory Of Games And Economic Behavior Commemorative Edition

Author : John von Neumann
ISBN : 9780691130613
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 61.87 MB
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First published in 1944, this book, co-written by an economist & a mathematician, conceived a groundbreaking theory of economic & social organisation based on a theory of games of strategy. The result was a revolution in economics & game theory has since emerged as a major tool of analysis in many other fields.
Category: Business & Economics