PRINCIPLES OF GEOARCHAEOLOGY A NORTH AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE

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Principles Of Geoarchaeology

Author : Michael R. Waters
ISBN : 0816517703
Genre : Science
File Size : 87.89 MB
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Geoarchaeological studies can significantly enhance interpretations of human prehistory by allowing archaeologists to decipher from sediments and soils the effects of earth processes on the evidence of human activity. While a number of previous books have provided broad geographic and temporal treatments of geoarchaeology, this new volume presents a single author's view intended for North American archaeologists. Waters deals with those aspects of geoarchaeologyÑstratigraphy, site formation processes, and landscape reconstructionÑmost fundamental to archaeology, and he focuses on the late Quaternary of North America, permitting in-depth discussions of the concepts directly applicable to that research. Assuming no prior geologic knowledge on the part of the reader, Waters provides a background in fundamental geological processes and the basic tools of geoarchaeology. He then proceeds to relate specific physical processes, microenvironments, deposits, and landforms associated with riverine, desert, lake, glacial, cave, coastal, and other environments to archaeological site formation, location, and context. This practical volume illustrates the contributions of geoarchaeological investigations and demonstrates the need to make such studies an integral part of archaeological research. The text is enhanced by more than a hundred line drawings and photographs. CONTENTS 1. Research Objectives of Geoarchaeology 2. Geoarchaeological Foundations: The Archaeological Site Matrix: Sediments and Soils / Stratigraphy / The Geoarchaeological Interpretation of Sediments, Soils, and Stratigraphy 3. Alluvial Environments: Streamflow / Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition / Alluvial Environments: Rivers, Arroyos, Terraces, and Fans / Alluvial Landscapes Evolution and the Archaeological Record / Alluvial Landscape Reconstruction 4. Eolian Environments: Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition / Sand Dunes / Loess and Dust / Stone Pavements / Eolian Erosion / Volcanic Ash (Tephra) 5. Springs, Lakes, Rockshelters, and Other Terrestrial Environments: Springs / Lakes / Slopes / Glaciers / Rockshelters and Caves 6. Coastal Environments: Coastal Processes / Late Quaternary Sea Level Changes / Coastal Environments / Coastal Landscape Evolution and the Archaeological Record / Coastal Landscape Reconstruction 7. The Postburial Disturbance af Archaeological Site Contexts: Cryoturbation / Argilliturbation / Graviturbation / Deformation / Other Physical Disturbances / Floralturbation / Faunalturbation 8. Geoarchaeological Research Appendix A: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating the Effects of Fluvial Landscape Evolution on the Archaeological Record Appendix B: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating Site-Specific Synchronic and Diachronic Alluvial Landscape Reconstructions Appendix C: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating Regional Synchronic and Diachronic Alluvial Landscape Reconstructions
Category: Science

Geological Methods For Archaeology

Author : Norman Herz
ISBN : 9780195090246
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 46.5 MB
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This book discusses the application of geological methods and theory to archaeology. Written as a survey text covering appropriate methods and techniques taken from geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and geochronology, it shows the student the practicality and importance of each technique's use in solving archaeological problems. Specific techniques are illustrated by practical results obtained from the authors' use on archaeological digs. With an international geographical scope, the book draws on sites from both hemispheres, including the Franchthi Cave in Greece, St. Catherines Island in the U.S., the Roman site of Drand in France, and Monte Verde, Chile. The authors also address applications in less traditional areas such as underwater, historical, industrial, and conservation archaeology.
Category: Social Science

The Way The Wind Blows

Author : Roderick J. McIntosh
ISBN : 9780231505789
Genre : Science
File Size : 66.1 MB
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Scientists and policymakers are beginning to understand in ever-increasing detail that environmental problems cannot be understood solely through the biophysical sciences. Environmental issues are fundamentally human issues and must be set in the context of social, political, cultural, and economic knowledge. The need both to understand how human beings in the past responded to climatic and other environmental changes and to synthesize the implications of these historical patterns for present-day sustainability spurred a conference of the world's leading scholars on the topic. The Way the Wind Blows is the rich result of that conference. Articles discuss the dynamics of climate, human perceptions of and responses to the environment, and issues of sustainability and resiliency. These themes are illustrated through discussions of human societies around the world and throughout history.
Category: Science

Practical And Theoretical Geoarchaeology

Author : Paul Goldberg
ISBN : 9781118688199
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 42.29 MB
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Practical and Theoretical Geoarchaeology provides an invaluable overview of geoarchaeology and how it can be used effectively in the study of archaeological sites and contexts. Taking a pragmatic and functional approach, this book presents: a fundamental, broad-based perspective of the essentials of modern geoarchaeology in order to demonstrate the breadth of the approaches and the depth of the problems that it can tackle. the rapid advances made in the area in recent years, but also gives the reader a firm grasp of conventional approaches. covers traditional topics with the emphasis on landscapes, as well as anthropogenic site formation processes and their investigation. provides guidelines for the presentation of field and laboratory methods and the reporting of geoarchaeological results. essential reading for archaeology undergraduate and graduate students, practicing archaeologists and geoscientists who need to understand and apply geoarchaeological methodologies. Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at: www.blackwellpublishing.com/goldberg “This is one of the best textbooks that I have read in years. I enjoyed reviewing it, and found it well-written and thorough in its coverage of the traditional earth science aspects of geoarchaeology. The non-traditional aspects were intriguing and equally thorough... I predict that this book will become the textbook of choice for geoarchaeology classes for several years.” Geomorphology 101 (2008) 740–743
Category: Technology & Engineering

Remote Sensing In Archaeology

Author : Jay K. Johnson
ISBN : 9780817353438
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 44.70 MB
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The coming of age of a technology first developed in the 1950s. All the money spent by the United States space program is not spent looking at the stars. NASA is composed of a vast and varied network of scientists across the academic spectrum involved in research and development programs that have wide application on planet Earth. Several of the leaders in the field of remote sensing and archaeology were recently brought together for a NASA-funded workshop in Biloxi, Mississippi. The workshop was organized specifically to show these archaeologists and cultural resource managers how close we are to being able to “see” under the dirt in order to know where to excavate before ever putting a shovel in the ground. As the book that resulted from this workshop demonstrates, this fantasy is quickly becoming a reality. In this volume, eleven archaeologists reveal how the broad application of remote sensing, and especially geophysical techniques, is altering the usual conduct of dirt archaeology. Using case studies that both succeeded and failed, they offer a comprehensive guide to remote sensing techniques on archaeological sites throughout North America. Because this new technology is advancing on a daily basis, the book is accompanied by a CD intended for periodic update that provides additional data and illustrations. with contributions by: R. Berle Clay, Lawrence B. Conyers, Rinita A. Dalan, Marco Giardino, Thomas J. Green, Michael L. Hargrave, Bryan S. Haley, Jay K. Johnson, Kenneth L. Kvamme, J. J. Lockhart, Lewis Somers
Category: Social Science

Behavioral Archaeology

Author : Michael B. Schiffer
ISBN : NWU:35556041259235
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 30.61 MB
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Behavioral archaeology offers a way of examining the past by highlighting human engagement with the material culture of the time. 'Behavioral Archaeology: Principles and Practice' offers a broad overview of the methods and theories used in this approach to archaeology. Opening with an overview of the history and key concepts, the book goes on to systematically cover both principles and practice: the philosophy of science and the scientific method; artifacts and human behavior; archaeological inference; formation processes of the archaeological record; technological change; behavioral change; and ritual and religion. Detailed case studies show the relevance of behavioral method and theory to the wider field of archaeological studies. The book will be invaluable to students of archaeology and anthropology.
Category: Social Science

Sediments In Archaeological Context

Author : Julie K. Stein
ISBN : UOM:39015050793069
Genre : Science
File Size : 81.36 MB
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Almost Every Artifact in archaeological analysis originates in or on the ground. While there are elaborate methods for extracting and analyzing artifacts, treatment of the material within which they are located is often unsophisticated and does not include systematic analysis.Sediments in Archaeological Context is concerned with the analysis of this matrix and the potential use of sediments to answer archaeological questions. Describing sediments and sampling them in appropriate ways do not replace the study of artifacts, but they can provide additional, useful information regarding a site complex, its physical environment, and the relations of artifacts to each other.Each chapter in the volume considers sediments within a specific context. Topics include sediments found in a variety of environments: cultural environments, rockshelter and cave environments, dryland alluvial environments, humid alluvial environments, lake environments, shoreline environments, and spring and wetland environments.Sediments in Archaeological Context is intended for every archaeologist who investigates sites in depositional contexts.
Category: Science

Archaeology As Human Ecology

Author : Karl W. Butzer
ISBN : 0521288770
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 25.8 MB
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Archaeology as Human Ecology is a new introduction to concepts and methods in archaeology. It deals not with artifacts, but with sites, settlements, and subsistence. It is essential reading for students, research workers, and all concerned with archaeological method and theory.
Category: Social Science

Environmental Archaeology

Author : Keith Wilkinson
ISBN : 0752419315
Genre : History
File Size : 67.79 MB
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Environmental Archaeology provides a pragmatic introduction to the subject, taking the reader step-by-step through approaches, methods and theoretical frameworks used by archaeologists, with a focus throughout on interpretation.
Category: History

Archaeology As A Process

Author : Michael John O'Brien
ISBN : UVA:X004862328
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 21.52 MB
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Archaeology as a Process traces the intellectual history of Americanist archaeology in terms of the research groups that were at the forefront of these various approaches, concentrating as much on the archaeologists as it does on method and theory, thus setting it apart from other treatments published in the last fifteen years.
Category: Social Science