PREHISTORIC TEXTILES THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLOTH IN THE NEOLITHIC AND BRONZE AGES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE AEGEAN

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Prehistoric Textiles

Author : E. J. W. Barber
ISBN : 069100224X
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 85.23 MB
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This pioneering work revises our notions of the origins and early development of textiles in Europe and the Near East. Using innovative linguistic techniques, along with methods from palaeobiology and other fields, it shows that spinning and pattern weaving began far earlier than has been supposed. Prehistoric Textiles made an unsurpassed leap in the social and cultural understanding of textiles in humankind's early history. Cloth making was an industry that consumed more time and effort, and was more culturally significant to prehistoric cultures, than anyone assumed before the book's publication. The textile industry is in fact older than pottery--and perhaps even older than agriculture and stockbreeding. It probably consumed far more hours of labor per year, in temperate climates, than did pottery and food production put together. And this work was done primarily by women. Up until the Industrial Revolution, and into this century in many peasant societies, women spent every available moment spinning, weaving, and sewing. The author, Elizabeth Wayland Barber, demonstrates command of an almost unbelievably disparate array of disciplines--from historical linguistics to archaeology and paleobiology, from art history to the practical art of weaving. Her passionate interest in the subject matter leaps out on every page. Barber, a professor of linguistics and archaeology, developed expert sewing and weaving skills as a small girl under her mother's tutelage. One could say she had been born and raised to write this book. Because modern textiles are almost entirely made by machines, we have difficulty appreciating how time-consuming and important the premodern textile industry was. This book opens our eyes to this crucial area of prehistoric human culture.
Category: Social Science

Prehistoric Textiles

Author : E. J. W. Barber
ISBN : 0691035970
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 33.88 MB
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This pioneering work revises our notions of the origins and early development of textiles in Europe and the Near East. Using innovative linguistic techniques, along with methods from palaeobiology and other fields, it shows that spinning and pattern weaving began far earlier than has been supposed. Prehistoric Textiles made an unsurpassed leap in the social and cultural understanding of textiles in humankind's early history. Cloth making was an industry that consumed more time and effort, and was more culturally significant to prehistoric cultures, than anyone assumed before the book's publication. The textile industry is in fact older than pottery--and perhaps even older than agriculture and stockbreeding. It probably consumed far more hours of labor per year, in temperate climates, than did pottery and food production put together. And this work was done primarily by women. Up until the Industrial Revolution, and into this century in many peasant societies, women spent every available moment spinning, weaving, and sewing. The author, Elizabeth Wayland Barber, demonstrates command of an almost unbelievably disparate array of disciplines--from historical linguistics to archaeology and paleobiology, from art history to the practical art of weaving. Her passionate interest in the subject matter leaps out on every page. Barber, a professor of linguistics and archaeology, developed expert sewing and weaving skills as a small girl under her mother's tutelage. One could say she had been born and raised to write this book. Because modern textiles are almost entirely made by machines, we have difficulty appreciating how time-consuming and important the premodern textile industry was. This book opens our eyes to this crucial area of prehistoric human culture.
Category: Social Science

Prehistoric Ancient Near Eastern Aegean Textiles And Dress

Author : Marie-Louise Nosch
ISBN : 9781782977223
Genre : Crafts & Hobbies
File Size : 30.11 MB
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Textile and dress production, from raw materials to finished items, has had a significant impact on society from its earliest history. The essays in this volume offer a fresh insight into the emerging interdisciplinary research field of textile and dress studies by discussing archaeological, iconographical and textual evidence within a broad geographical and chronological spectrum. The thirteen chapters explore issues, such as the analysis of textile tools, especially spindle whorls, and textile imprints for reconstructing textile production in contexts as different as Neolithic Transylvania, the Early Bronze Age North Aegean and the Early Iron Age Eastern Mediterranean; the importance of cuneiform clay tablets as a documentary source for both drawing a detailed picture of the administration of a textile industry and for addressing gender issues, such as the construction of masculinity in the Sumerian kingdoms of the 3rd millennium BC; and discussions of royal and priestly costumes and clothing ornaments in the Mesopotamian kingdom of Mari and in Mycenaean culture. Textile terms testify to intensive exchanges between Semitic and Indo-European languages, especially within the terminology of trade goods. The production and consumption of textiles and garments are demonstrated in 2nd millennium Hittite Anatolia; from 1st millennium BC Assyria, a cross-disciplinary approach combines texts, realia and iconography to produce a systematic study of golden dress decorations; and finally, the important discussion of fibres, flax and wool, in written and archaeological sources is evidence for delineating the economy of linen and the strong symbolic value of fibre types in 1st millennium Babylonia and the Southern Levant. The volume is part of a pair together with Greek and Roman Textiles and Dress: An Interdisciplinary Anthology edited by Mary Harlow and Marie-Louise Nosch.
Category: Crafts & Hobbies

The Oxford Handbook Of The Bronze Age Aegean

Author : Eric H. Cline
ISBN : 9780190240752
Genre : History
File Size : 58.24 MB
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The Greek Bronze Age, roughly 3000 to 1000 BCE, witnessed the flourishing of the Minoan and Mycenean civilizations, the earliest expansion of trade in the Aegean and wider Mediterranean Sea, the development of artistic techniques in a variety of media, and the evolution of early Greek religious practices and mythology. The period also witnessed a violent conflict in Asia Minor between warring peoples in the region, a conflict commonly believed to be the historical basis for Homer's Trojan War. The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean provides a detailed survey of these fascinating aspects of the period, and many others, in sixty-six newly commissioned articles. Divided into four sections, the handbook begins with Background and Definitions, which contains articles establishing the discipline in its historical, geographical, and chronological settings and in its relation to other disciplines. The second section, Chronology and Geography, contains articles examining the Bronze Age Aegean by chronological period (Early Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age). Each of the periods are further subdivided geographically, so that individual articles are concerned with Mainland Greece during the Early Bronze Age, Crete during the Early Bronze Age, the Cycladic Islands during the Early Bronze Age, and the same for the Middle Bronze Age, followed by the Late Bronze Age. The third section, Thematic and Specific Topics, includes articles examining thematic topics that cannot be done justice in a strictly chronological/geographical treatment, including religion, state and society, trade, warfare, pottery, writing, and burial customs, as well as specific events, such as the eruption of Santorini and the Trojan War. The fourth section, Specific Sites and Areas, contains articles examining the most important regions and sites in the Bronze Age Aegean, including Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, Knossos, Kommos, Rhodes, the northern Aegean, and the Uluburun shipwreck, as well as adjacent areas such as the Levant, Egypt, and the western Mediterranean. Containing new work by an international team of experts, The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean represents the most comprehensive, authoritative, and up-to-date single-volume survey of the field. It will be indispensable for scholars and advanced students alike.
Category: History

Seals Craft And Community In Bronze Age Crete

Author : Emily S. K. Anderson
ISBN : 9781316839508
Genre : Social Science
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Generations of scholars have grappled with the origins of 'palace' society on Minoan Crete, seeking to explain when and how life on the island altered monumentally. Emily Anderson turns light on the moment just before the palaces, recognizing it as a remarkably vibrant phase of socio-cultural innovation. Exploring the role of craftspersons, travelers and powerful objects, she argues that social change resulted from creative work that forged connections at new scales and in novel ways. This study focuses on an extraordinary corpus of sealstones which have been excavated across Crete. Fashioned of imported ivory and engraved with images of dashing lions, these distinctive objects linked the identities of their distant owners. Anderson argues that it was the repeated but pioneering actions of such diverse figures, people and objects alike, that dramatically changed the shape of social life in the Aegean at the turn of the second millennium BCE.
Category: Social Science

Tradition

Author : Jane Fejfer
ISBN : 9788763542586
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 67.84 MB
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Ordet tradition kan tillægges mange betydninger, og som begreb har det en lang historie bag sig i den vestlige kultur. Selve ordet stammer fra det latinske tradere, at overlevere, og er et vigtigt begreb, når man forsøger at tolke det antikke menneskes sociale relationer ud fra arkæologiske fund. Forandring kan ikke forklares uden man kender til og er bevidst om den materielle kultur set over en længere tidsperiode. Derfor søger arkæologer ved hjælp af longue durée-perspektivet at spore vedvarende forandringer i det arkæologiske materiale. Dette rigt illustrerede værk fører læseren fra det forhistoriske Santorini til senantikkens Rom, fra detaljerede tekstilbeskrivelser til prædikantlister hugget i sten, for at undersøge, hvordan tradition har spillet en rolle i overleveringen af kultur. Hver af bogens bidragydere undersøger et specifikt aspekt af traditionens afgørende rolle i forståelsen af, hvordan identitet skabes og bevares i antikkens verden. Kultiske ritualer, brugen af magiske objekter og symboler, offerfund i græske helligdomme, begravelsesportrætter og jernalderens keramik er blandt de mange elementer, der bliver beskrevet. Tradition viser, hvordan kultur er iboende i os alle, og hvordan handlinger og objekter spiller en afgørende rolle i kulturel kontinuitet og forandring. Med sin grundige tværfaglige tilgang til emnet tilfører Tradition ny viden til forståelsen af den klassiske og antikke verden. Bidragydere: Niels Bargfeldt/Cecilie Brøns/Jane Fejfer/Solvejg Hansen/Signe Isager/Ifke van Kam-pen/Arja Karivieri/Jens Krasilnikoff/Eva Mortensen/Christian Mühlenbock/Marjatta Nielsen/Nora Petersen/Rubina Raja/Sine Grove Saxkjær & Jan Kindberg Jacobsen/Stine Schierup/Lone Wriedt Sørensen/Christina Videbech/Kristina Winther-Jacobsen. Jane Fejfer er lektor i klassisk arkæologi på Københavns Universitet Mette Moltesen er tidligere museumsinspektør ved Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Annette Rathje er lektor emerita i klassisk arkæologi ved Københavns Universitet. Tradition – from the Latin tradere, literally to hand over or hand down – has many meanings and as a concept has a long history in Western culture. When using archaeological remains to interpret the social relations of people of Antiquity, tradition becomes an important concept. We cannot explain change without knowing and being conscious of la longue durée of material culture. Thus, over a long-term perspective archaeologists seek to trace a record of continual change. This lavishly illustrated book takes readers from prehistoric Santorini to Late Antique Rome and discusses the role of tradition in the transmission of culture and the creation, maintenance and negotiation of identity in the ancient world. Covering a wide array of subjects, including cultic rituals and the use of magical objects and symbols, votive traditions in Greek sanctuaries, funerary portraits, and Iron Age pottery, Tradition reveals how culture inheres in each and how actions and objects alike play a role in the continuation and change of culture. With its thoroughly interdisciplinary approach, Tradition breaks new ground in the studies of the classical and ancient world. Contributors: Niels Bargfeldt/Cecilie Brøns/Jane Fejfer/Solvejg Hansen/Signe Isager/Ifke van Kampen/Arja Karivieri/Jens Krasilnikoff/Eva Morten-sen/Christian Mühlenbock/Marjatta Nielsen/Nora Petersen/Rubina Raja/Sine Grove Saxkjær & Jan Kindberg Jacobsen/Stine Schierup/Lone Wriedt Sørensen/Christina Videbech/Kristina Winther-Jacobsen. Jane Fejfer is associate professor of classical archaeology at the University of Copenhagen. Mette Moltesen is former curator of Ancient Sculp-ture at Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in Copenhagen. Annette Rathje is associate professor emerita of classical archaeology at the University of Copenhagen.
Category: Social Science

The Oxford Encyclopedia Of Women In World History

Author : Bonnie G. Smith
ISBN : 9780195148909
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 66.11 MB
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The Encyclopedia of Women in World History captures the experiences of women throughout world history in a comprehensive, 4-volume work. Although there has been extensive research on women in history by region, no text or reference work has comprehensively covered the role women have played throughout world history.The past thirty years have seen an explosion of research and effort to present the experiences and contributions of women not only in the Western world but across the globe. Historians have investigated womens daily lives in virtually every region and have researched the leadership roles women have filled across time and region. They have found and demonstrated that there is virtually no historical, social, or demographic change in which women have not been involved and by which their lives have not been affected. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History benefits greatly from these efforts and experiences, and illuminates how women worldwide have influenced and been influenced by these historical, social, and demographic changes.The Encyclopedia contains over 1,250 signed articles arranged in an A-Z format for ease of use. The entries cover six main areas: biographies; geography and history; comparative culture and society, including adoption, abortion, performing arts; organizations and movements, such as the Egyptian Uprising, and the Paris Commune; womens and gender studies; and topics in world history that include slave trade, globalization, and disease. With its rich and insightful entries by leading scholars and experts, this reference work is sure to be a valued, go-to resource for scholars, college and high school students, and general readers alike.
Category: Biography & Autobiography

Designing Experimental Research In Archaeology

Author : Jeffrey R. Ferguson
ISBN : 1607320231
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 39.1 MB
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Designing Experimental Research in Archaeology is a guide for the design of archaeological experiments for both students and scholars. Experimental archaeology provides a unique opportunity to corroborate conclusions with multiple trials of repeatable experiments and can provide data otherwise unavailable to archaeologists without damaging sites, remains, or artifacts. Each chapter addresses a particular classification of material culture-ceramics, stone tools, perishable materials, composite hunting technology, butchering practices and bone tools, and experimental zooarchaeology-detailing issues that must be considered in the development of experimental archaeology projects and discussing potential pitfalls. The experiments follow coherent and consistent research designs and procedures and are placed in a theoretical context, and contributors outline methods that will serve as a guide in future experiments. This degree of standardization is uncommon in traditional archaeological research but is essential to experimental archaeology. The field has long been in need of a guide that focuses on methodology and design. This book fills that need not only for undergraduate and graduate students but for any archaeologist looking to begin an experimental research project.
Category: Social Science

Purpureae Vestes I Textiles Y Tintes Del Mediterr Neo En Poca Romana

Author : Carmen Alfaro Giner
ISBN : 9788437086835
Genre : Art
File Size : 51.67 MB
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Purpureae vestes estudia un element fonamental en la vida de qualsevol societat antiga com és el vestit i els colors utilitzats per a la seua ornamentació, especialment la púrpura. El luxe en el vestir implicava l'ús de materials com l'or per a la confecció de certs complements. Amb uns antecedents clarament orientals de recerca de la magnificència externa de reis i d'altres dignataris, el simbolisme del color en l'ornamentació personal va constituir, a les ciutats riberenques de la Mediterrània, un factor important de distinció social. Bé fossen de procedència vegetal, mineral o animal, els tints van donar sempre l'«ànima» als tèxtils. Per això, el poder imperial romà, en alguns períodes de la seua història, va controlar amb normes legals de major o menor duresa l'ús de determinats colors obtinguts a partir de gasteròpodes marins. L'obra tracta extensament els aspectes econòmics i tècnics relacionats amb l'elaboració i comercialització de vestits i teles per a altres usos (veles, adorns de la llar, etc.). A partir de diversos punts de vista, entre els que s'inclouen les dades arqueològiques o les referències etnograficocomparatives, s'hi incideix en les etapes de preparació de les fibres tèxtils, en les formes d'elaboració dels teixits més complexos a través de la reconstrucció experimental, en el treball dels pescadors i manufacturers que elaboraven en tallers costaners el tint més valorat, la púrpura, o en els qui treballaven en els tallers de la ciutat, així com en l'anàlisi i descripció detallada dels resultats extrets de les restes tèxtils aparegudes en jaciments, de l'Egipte romà sobretot, que ens mostren encara avui la riquesa i vivor dels seus colors.
Category: Art