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Pre Columbian Maya Graffiti

Author : Jaroslaw Zralka
ISBN : 8364449168
Genre : Graffiti
File Size : 38.43 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Graffiti have always been a popular means of expression for people from different social strata in ancient as well as modern societies. They constitute a rich source of information on both the daily life and religious activities of the people who created them. Although ancient graffiti are mostly known from the Old World, especially from the Roman Empire or Egypt, they were also very popular in the pre-Columbian world. Ancient Maya civilisation, which once thrived in the rainforests of Mexico and Central America, has an extremely extensive corpus of graffiti. Many Maya sites have graffiti of various types, including inscribed, painted, gouged, impressed and sketched with charcoal. Maya graffiti were usually executed on the plaster surfaces of architectural buildings: chiefly on walls, vaults, floors, as well as benches and other architectural elements. Most examples are figural images that usually represent people, animals, architectural buildings and geometrical designs. They may also depict supernatural beings, symbolic and religious objects and many other subjects, usually related to the socio-political and religious lives of the Maya elites. Despite architectural graffiti being broadly present in various Maya sites, they remain a relatively rarely studied phenomenon. Little interest has been shown in this kind of art and Maya graffiti tend to be published as minor appendices to larger archaeological reports. Moreover, in the case of many Maya sites, the graffiti were not even documented or recorded. This attitude of sidelining Maya graffiti stemmed from the fact that many scholars considered graffiti to be trivial scribbles or the inconsequential work of the Postclassic or Colonial populations squatting in Maya palaces and temples after they had been abandoned by their original inhabitants. Such long held views in the field are changing; recent studies by various scholars have shown that the meaning of graffiti is far more complex and sophisticated than previously thought. The current view is that graffiti were made by various authors in different periods of time and by people representing different social groups. This book constitutes a comprehensive treatment of the subject of graffiti and provides comparative iconographic data on graffiti from various Maya sites. It also has ample and up-to-date information about graffiti, including its dating, meaning, techniques of rendition and function.
Category: Graffiti

Who Where And Why

Author : Slawomir Rzepka
ISBN : 8391594181
Genre : History
File Size : 34.95 MB
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Category: History


Author : Gavin Menzies
ISBN : 9781448154838
Genre : History
File Size : 31.25 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
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On 8 March 1421, the largest fleet the world had ever seen set sail from China. The ships, some nearly five hundred feet long, were under the command of Emperor Zhu Di's loyal eunuch admirals. Their mission was 'to proceed all the way to the end of the earth to collect tribute from the barbarians beyond the seas' and unite the world in Confucian harmony. Their journey would last for over two years and take them around the globe but by the time they returned home, China was beginning its long, self-imposed isolation from the world it had so recently embraced. And so the great ships were left to rot and the records of their journey were destroyed. And with them, the knowledge that the Chinese had circumnavigated the globe a century before Magellan, reached America seventy years before Columbus, and Australia three hundred and fifty years before Cook... The result of fifteen years research, 1421 is Gavin Menzies' enthralling account of the voyage of the Chinese fleet, the remarkable discoveries he made and the persuasive evidence to support them: ancient maps, precise navigational knowledge, astronomy and the surviving accounts of Chinese explorers and the later European navigators as well as the traces the fleet left behind - from sunken junks to the votive offerings left by the Chinese sailors wherever they landed, giving thanks to Shao Lin, goddess of the sea. Already hailed as a classic, this is the story of an extraordinary journey of discovery that not only radically alters our understanding of world exploration but also rewrites history itself.
Category: History

The Origin Of Consciousness In The Breakdown Of The Bicameral Mind

Author : Julian Jaynes
ISBN : 9780547527543
Genre : Science
File Size : 77.33 MB
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At the heart of this classic, seminal book is Julian Jaynes's still-controversial thesis that human consciousness did not begin far back in animal evolution but instead is a learned process that came about only three thousand years ago and is still developing. The implications of this revolutionary scientific paradigm extend into virtually every aspect of our psychology, our history and culture, our religion -- and indeed our future.
Category: Science

Unwelcome And Unlawful

Author : Raymond F. Gregory
ISBN : 0801442508
Genre : Law
File Size : 45.21 MB
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Nearly every American woman will, at some point during her working life, be sexually harassed, according to Raymond F. Gregory, a lawyer specializing in employment and discrimination law. Unwelcome and Unlawful provides information for those victims as well as for those suffering same-sex harassment and for male victims of sexual harassment. Gregory analyzes sexual harassment from the perspective of existing federal law and describes the legal rights that may be asserted by victims of harassment to obtain either injunctive or monetary relief. Conduct of a sexual nature that occurs in normal workplace socialization is generally not unlawful, but it will be considered to have crossed the line of legality if it is unwelcome and is sufficiently severe or pervasive to undermine an employee's work life. Questions typically arising in a sexual harassment case include: *What types of workplace conduct are classified as sexually harassing? *When is sexual conduct considered unwelcome? *When is sexual conduct perceived as severe or pervasive? *What are the obligations of an employee to report acts of sexual harassment? *If sexual harassment is proven, what monetary damages and other relief may the victim expect to be awarded? *When is an employer liable for acts of sexual harassment committed by its workers and supervisors? *What privacy rights does an employee claiming sexual harassment have? By clarifying little-understood aspects of the law barring sexual harassment, the author presents an indispensable resource for victims seeking to learn what to expect from the legal system if they contest the actions of their harassers in the courts.
Category: Law

Bronze Age America

Author : Barry Fell
ISBN : 0316277711
Genre : History
File Size : 78.35 MB
Format : PDF
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Based on recent archaeological discoveries, this study explores the theory that Bronze-Age Swedes visited North America around the St. Lawrence River and that some Nordics migrated west, intermarrying with the Dakota tribes to form the Sioux nation
Category: History