PRE COLUMBIAN MAYA GRAFFITI CONTEXT DATING AND FUNCTION

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Pre Columbian Maya Graffiti

Author : Jaroslaw Zralka
ISBN : 8364449168
Genre : Graffiti
File Size : 51.58 MB
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Graffiti have always been a popular means of expression for people from different social strata in ancient as well as modern societies. They constitute a rich source of information on both the daily life and religious activities of the people who created them. Although ancient graffiti are mostly known from the Old World, especially from the Roman Empire or Egypt, they were also very popular in the pre-Columbian world. Ancient Maya civilisation, which once thrived in the rainforests of Mexico and Central America, has an extremely extensive corpus of graffiti. Many Maya sites have graffiti of various types, including inscribed, painted, gouged, impressed and sketched with charcoal. Maya graffiti were usually executed on the plaster surfaces of architectural buildings: chiefly on walls, vaults, floors, as well as benches and other architectural elements. Most examples are figural images that usually represent people, animals, architectural buildings and geometrical designs. They may also depict supernatural beings, symbolic and religious objects and many other subjects, usually related to the socio-political and religious lives of the Maya elites. Despite architectural graffiti being broadly present in various Maya sites, they remain a relatively rarely studied phenomenon. Little interest has been shown in this kind of art and Maya graffiti tend to be published as minor appendices to larger archaeological reports. Moreover, in the case of many Maya sites, the graffiti were not even documented or recorded. This attitude of sidelining Maya graffiti stemmed from the fact that many scholars considered graffiti to be trivial scribbles or the inconsequential work of the Postclassic or Colonial populations squatting in Maya palaces and temples after they had been abandoned by their original inhabitants. Such long held views in the field are changing; recent studies by various scholars have shown that the meaning of graffiti is far more complex and sophisticated than previously thought. The current view is that graffiti were made by various authors in different periods of time and by people representing different social groups. This book constitutes a comprehensive treatment of the subject of graffiti and provides comparative iconographic data on graffiti from various Maya sites. It also has ample and up-to-date information about graffiti, including its dating, meaning, techniques of rendition and function.
Category: Graffiti

Scribbling Through History

Author : Chloé Ragazzoli
ISBN : 9781474288828
Genre : History
File Size : 66.79 MB
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For most people the mention of graffiti conjures up notions of subversion, defacement, and underground culture. Yet, the term was coined by classical archaeologists excavating Pompeii in the 19th century and has been embraced by modern street culture: graffiti have been left on natural sites and public monuments for tens of thousands of years. They mark a position in time, a relation to space, and a territorial claim. They are also material displays of individual identity and social interaction. As an effective, socially accepted medium of self-definition, ancient graffiti may be compared to the modern use of social networks. This book shows that graffiti, a very ancient practice long hidden behind modern disapproval and street culture, have been integral to literacy and self-expression throughout history. Graffiti bear witness to social events and religious practices that are difficult to track in normative and official discourses. This book addresses graffiti practices, in cultures ranging from ancient China and Egypt through early modern Europe to modern Turkey, in illustrated short essays by specialists. It proposes a holistic approach to graffiti as a cultural practice that plays a key role in crucial aspects of human experience and how they can be understood.
Category: History

Codex Telleriano Remensis

Author : Eloise Quiñones Keber
ISBN : 0292769016
Genre : History
File Size : 59.36 MB
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"In this magnificently illustrated work with a facsimile reproduction of the Codex Telleriano-Remensis, Eloise Quiones Keber has presented an invaluable first-time publication of the entire codex along with an extensive scholarly commentary, sixteenth-century Spanish annotations, and an English translation of its texts.... This volume is highly recommended as an important acquisition for any research library on colonial Mexican history." —Colonial Latin American Historical Review As one of the finest surviving examples of the art of Aztec manuscript painting, the Codex Telleriano-Remensis provides invaluable information about the core of Aztec culture. In this landmark publication, Eloise Quiones Keber presents the first photographic color facsimile of the entire codex, accompanied by the most extensive commentary ever undertaken on its abundant images and Spanish annotations and the first English translation of its texts. Produced in sixteenth-century colonial Mexico, the codex consists of a ceremonial calendar of the "months" of the year, a divinatory almanac featuring the deities that determined the fates of the days, and a history of the Aztecs from their legendary migration in the twelfth century through the first decades of Spanish occupation. Dr. Quiones Keber's commentary offers new data and hypotheses regarding the physical features of the manuscript, its origins, dating, authorship, prototypes, Spanish influence, and relationship to its partial cognate, the Codex Vaticanus A. Now owned by the Bibliothque Nationale of Paris, the Codex Telleriano-Remensis offers a rare visual example of the cultural encounter between the "old" and "new" worlds as European practices mingled with indigenous traditions to produce an expression unique to its time and place. It is thus a key document for understanding not only ancient Mexico and New Spain but also the processes of cultural persistence and accommodation that shaped them both.
Category: History

The Memory Of Bones

Author : Stephen Houston
ISBN : 9780292756182
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 37.80 MB
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All of human experience flows from bodies that feel, express emotion, and think about what such experiences mean. But is it possible for us, embodied as we are in a particular time and place, to know how people of long ago thought about the body and its experiences? In this groundbreaking book, three leading experts on the Classic Maya (ca. AD 250 to 850) marshal a vast array of evidence from Maya iconography and hieroglyphic writing, as well as archaeological findings, to argue that the Classic Maya developed a coherent approach to the human body that we can recover and understand today. The authors open with a cartography of the Maya body, its parts and their meanings, as depicted in imagery and texts. They go on to explore such issues as how the body was replicated in portraiture; how it experienced the world through ingestion, the senses, and the emotions; how the body experienced war and sacrifice and the pain and sexuality that were intimately bound up in these domains; how words, often heaven-sent, could be embodied; and how bodies could be blurred through spirit possession. From these investigations, the authors convincingly demonstrate that the Maya conceptualized the body in varying roles, as a metaphor of time, as a gendered, sexualized being, in distinct stages of life, as an instrument of honor and dishonor, as a vehicle for communication and consumption, as an exemplification of beauty and ugliness, and as a dancer and song-maker. Their findings open a new avenue for empathetically understanding the ancient Maya as living human beings who experienced the world as we do, through the body.
Category: Social Science

Hidden Thunder

Author : Geri Schrab
ISBN : 9780870207686
Genre : Art
File Size : 79.93 MB
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In Hidden Thunder, renowned watercolor artist Geri Schrab and archaeologist Robert "Ernie" Boszhardt give readers an up-close-and-personal look at rock art. With an eye toward preservation, Schrab and Boszhardt take you with them as they research, document, and interpret at the ancient petroglyphs and pictographs made my Native Americans in past millennia. In addition to publicly accessible sites such as Wisconsin’s Roche-a-Cri State Park and Minnesota’s Jeffers Petroglyphs, Hidden Thunder covers the artistic treasures found at several remote and inaccessible rock art sites—revealing the ancient stories through words, full-color photographs, and artistic renditions. Offering the duo perspectives of scientist and artist, Boszhardt shares the facts that archaeologists have been able to establish about these important artifacts of our early history, while Schrab offers the artist's experience, describing her emotional and creative response upon encountering and painting these sites. Viewpoints by members of the Menominee, Ho-Chunk, Ojibwe, and other Native nations offer additional insight on the historic and cultural significance of these sites. Together these myriad voices reveal layers of meaning and cultural context that emphasize why these fragile resources—often marred by human graffiti and mishandling or damage from the elements—need to be preserved.
Category: Art

The Mismeasure Of Desire

Author : David E. Stannard
ISBN : 0199838984
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 52.37 MB
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For four hundred years--from the first Spanish assaults against the Arawak people of Hispaniola in the 1490s to the U.S. Army's massacre of Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee in the 1890s--the indigenous inhabitants of North and South America endured an unending firestorm of violence. During that time the native population of the Western Hemisphere declined by as many as 100 million people. Indeed, as historian David E. Stannard argues in this stunning new book, the European and white American destruction of the native peoples of the Americas was the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world. Stannard begins with a portrait of the enormous richness and diversity of life in the Americas prior to Columbus's fateful voyage in 1492. He then follows the path of genocide from the Indies to Mexico and Central and South America, then north to Florida, Virginia, and New England, and finally out across the Great Plains and Southwest to California and the North Pacific Coast. Stannard reveals that wherever Europeans or white Americans went, the native people were caught between imported plagues and barbarous atrocities, typically resulting in the annihilation of 95 percent of their populations. What kind of people, he asks, do such horrendous things to others? His highly provocative answer: Christians. Digging deeply into ancient European and Christian attitudes toward sex, race, and war, he finds the cultural ground well prepared by the end of the Middle Ages for the centuries-long genocide campaign that Europeans and their descendants launched--and in places continue to wage--against the New World's original inhabitants. Advancing a thesis that is sure to create much controversy, Stannard contends that the perpetrators of the American Holocaust drew on the same ideological wellspring as did the later architects of the Nazi Holocaust. It is an ideology that remains dangerously alive today, he adds, and one that in recent years has surfaced in American justifications for large-scale military intervention in Southeast Asia and the Middle East. At once sweeping in scope and meticulously detailed, American Holocaust is a work of impassioned scholarship that is certain to ignite intense historical and moral debate.
Category: Psychology

The Maya Of The Cochuah Region

Author : Justine M. Shaw
ISBN : 9780826350909
Genre : History
File Size : 32.2 MB
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This book, the first major collection of data from the Cochuah region investigations, presents and analyzes findings on more than eighty sites and puts them in the context of the findings of other investigations from outside the area.
Category: History

The Ancient Nasca World

Author : Rosa Lasaponara
ISBN : 9783319470528
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 51.20 MB
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This book presents outstanding chapter contributions on the Nasca culture in a variety of artistic expressions such as architecture, geoglyphs, ceramics, music, and textiles. The approach, based on the integration of science with archaeology and anthropology, sheds new light on the Nasca civilization. In particular the multidisciplinary character of the contributions and earth observation technologies provide new information on geoglyphs, the monumental ceremonial architecture of Cahuachi, and the adaptation strategies in the Nasca desert by means of sophisticated and effective aqueduct systems. Finally, archaeological looting and vandalism are covered. This book will be of interest to students, archaeologists, historians, scholars of Andean civilizations, scientists in physical anthropology, remote sensing, geophysics, and cultural heritage management.
Category: Social Science

History Of Humanity From The Third Millennium To The Seventh Century B C

Author : Sigfried J. de Laet
ISBN : 9231028111
Genre : Civilization
File Size : 54.80 MB
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The second volume covers the first two and a half thousand years of recorded history, from the start of the Bronze Age 5,000 years ago to the beginnings of the Iron Age. Written by a team of over sixty specialists, this volume includes a comprehensive bibliography and a detailed index.
Category: Civilization

How To Practice Mayan Astrology

Author : Bruce Scofield
ISBN : 9781591439479
Genre : Body, Mind & Spirit
File Size : 72.57 MB
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A contemporary and practical guide to Mayan astrological techniques • Discusses the logic and meaning of the 20 day-signs of the Mayan calendar • Explains the many cycles of Mayan astrology, such as the 9-day cycle of the Night Lords and the 13-day trecena • Contains extensive tables of Mayan astrological data, allowing readers to cast their own Mayan horoscopes How to Practice Mayan Astrology presents a contemporary guide to one of the most sophisticated astrological systems ever developed. Like other ancient peoples, the Maya looked to the cycles of the planets as markers of time and designators of order. The predictable cycles they observed became codified in the Mayan calendar and astrological system as a way of organizing the seeming chaos of human life. Mayan astrology is based on 20 named days that are cycled 13 times to create a 260-day calendar, the Tzolkin. The authors explain the symbolism, logic, and meaning of the 20 day-signs; how these signs reflect 260 possible personality types; and how they can be used for divination. They also explain the important role of the Four Directions and the planet Venus in one’s personality matrix and life issues. Included are extensive, easy-to-use tables of Mayan astrological data, allowing readers to determine their day-signs, to see how these signs are also influenced by the cycle of the Night Lords and the 13-day trecena, and to cast their own horoscopes.
Category: Body, Mind & Spirit