PRACTICAL PROGRAMMABLE CIRCUITS A GUIDE TO PLDS STATE MACHINES AND MICROCONTROLLERS

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Practical Programmable Circuits

Author : James D. Broesch
ISBN : 9780323139267
Genre : Computers
File Size : 59.10 MB
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This is a practical guide to programmable logic devices. It covers all devices related to PLD: PALs, PGAs, state machines, and microcontrollers. Usefulness is evaluated; support needed in order to effectively use the devices is discussed. All examples are based on real-world circuits.
Category: Computers

The Electrical Engineering Handbook Of Circuits Chan Shu Park Richard C Darf 2000

Author : CRC Press LLC
ISBN :
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 54.35 MB
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includes resistors, inductors, and capacitors, etc. as its components. Such an illustration, together with a set of linear differential equations, is referred to as a model system. Electrical circuits may be classified into various categories. Four of the more familiar classifications are (a) linear and nonlinear circuits, (b) time-invariant and time-varying circuits, (c) passive and active circuits, and (d) lumped and distributed circuits. A linear circuit can be described by a set of linear (differential) equations; otherwise it is a nonlinear circuit. A time-invariant circuit or system implies that none of the components of the circuit have parameters that vary with time; otherwise it is a time-variant system. If the total energy delivered to a given circuit is nonnegative at any instant of time, the circuit is said to be passive ; otherwise it is active . Finally, if the dimensions of the components of the circuit are small compared to the wavelength of the highest of the signal frequencies applied to the circuit, it is called a lumped circuit; otherwise it is referred to as a distributed circuit. There are, of course, other ways of classifying circuits. For example, one might wish to classify circuits according to the number of accessible terminals or terminal pairs (ports). Thus, terms such as n-terminal circuit and n-port are commonly used in circuit theory. Another method of classification is based on circuit configurations (topology), 1 which gives rise to such terms as ladders, lattices, bridged-T circuits, etc. As indicated earlier, although the words circuit and system are synonymous and will be used interchangeably throughout the text, the terms circuit theory and system theory sometimes denote different points of view in the study of circuits or systems. Roughly speaking, circuit theory is mainly concerned with interconnections of components (circuit topology) within a given system, whereas system theory attempts to attain generality by means of abstraction through a generalized (input-output state) model. One of the goals of this section is to present a unified treatment on the study of linear circuits and systems. That is, while the study of linear circuits with regard to their topological properties is treated as an important phase of the entire development of the theory, a generality can be attained from such a study. The subject of circuit theory can be divided into two main parts, namely, analysis and synthesis. In a broad sense, analysis may be defined as “the separating of any material or abstract entity [system] into its constituent elements;” on the other hand, synthesis is “the combining of the constituent elements of separate materials or abstract entities into a single or unified entity [system].” 2 It is worth noting that in an analysis problem, the solution is always unique no matter how difficult it may be, whereas in a synthesis problem there might exist an infinite number of solutions or, sometimes, none at all! It should also be noted that in some network theory texts the words synthesis and design might be used interchangeably throughout the entire discussion of the subject. However, the term synthesis is generally used to describe analytical procedures that can usually be carried out step by step, whereas the term design includes practical (design) procedures (such as trial-and-error techniques which are based, to a great extent, on the experience of the designer) as well as analytical methods. In analyzing the behavior of a given physical system, the first step is to establish a mathematical model. This model is usually in the form of a set of either differential or difference equations (or a combination of them), 1 Circuit topology or graph theory deals with the way in which the circuit elements are interconnected. A detailed discussion on elementary applied graph theory is given in Chapter 3.6. 2 The definitions of analysis and synthesis are quoted directly from The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed., Unabridged, New York: Random House, 1987. T © 2000 by CRC Press LLC the solution of which accurately describes the motion of the physical systems. There is, of course, no exception to this in the field of electrical engineering. A physical electrical system such as an amplifier circuit, for example, is first represented by a circuit drawn on paper. The circuit is composed of resistors, capacitors, inductors, and voltage and/or current sources, 1 and each of these circuit elements is given a symbol together with a mathematical expression (i.e., the voltage-current or simply v-i relation) relating its terminal voltage and current at every instant of time. Once the network and the v-i relation for each element is specified, Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws can be applied, possibly together with the physical principles to be introduced in Chapter 3.1, to establish the mathematical model in the form of differential equations. In Section I, focus is on analysis only (leaving coverage of synthesis and design to Section III, “Electronics”). Specifically, the passive circuit elements—resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers, and fuses—as well as voltage and current sources (active elements) are discussed. This is followed by a brief discussion on the elements of linear circuit analysis. Next, some popularly used passive filters and nonlinear circuits are introduced. Then, Laplace transform, state variables, z -transform, and T and p configurations are covered. Finally, transfer functions, frequency response, and stability analysis are discussed. Nomenclature 1 Here, of course, active elements such as transistors are represented by their equivalent circuits as combinations of resistors and dependent sources. Symbol Quantity Unit A area m 2 B magnetic flux density Tesla C capacitance F e induced voltage V e dielectric constant F/m e ripple factor f frequency Hz F force Newton f magnetic flux weber I current A J Jacobian k Boltzmann constant 1.38 ´ 10 –23 J/K k dielectric coefficient K coupling coefficient L inductance H l eigenvalue M mutual inductance H n turns ratio n filter order Symbol Quantity Unit w angular frequency rad/s P power W PF power factor q charge C Q selectivity R resistance W R ( T ) temperature coefficient W / ° C of resistance r resistivity W m s Laplace operator t damping factor q phase angle degree v velocity m/s V voltage V W energy J X reactance W Y admittance S Z impedance W Pecht, M., Lall, P., Ballou, G., Sankaran, C., Angelopoulos, N. “Passive Components” The Electrical Engineering Handbook Ed. Richard C. Dorf Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 2000
Category: Technology & Engineering

The Electrical Engineering Handbook Second Edition

Author : Richard C. Dorf
ISBN : 1420049763
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 71.10 MB
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In 1993, the first edition of The Electrical Engineering Handbook set a new standard for breadth and depth of coverage in an engineering reference work. Now, this classic has been substantially revised and updated to include the latest information on all the important topics in electrical engineering today. Every electrical engineer should have an opportunity to expand his expertise with this definitive guide. In a single volume, this handbook provides a complete reference to answer the questions encountered by practicing engineers in industry, government, or academia. This well-organized book is divided into 12 major sections that encompass the entire field of electrical engineering, including circuits, signal processing, electronics, electromagnetics, electrical effects and devices, and energy, and the emerging trends in the fields of communications, digital devices, computer engineering, systems, and biomedical engineering. A compendium of physical, chemical, material, and mathematical data completes this comprehensive resource. Every major topic is thoroughly covered and every important concept is defined, described, and illustrated. Conceptually challenging but carefully explained articles are equally valuable to the practicing engineer, researchers, and students. A distinguished advisory board and contributors including many of the leading authors, professors, and researchers in the field today assist noted author and professor Richard Dorf in offering complete coverage of this rapidly expanding field. No other single volume available today offers this combination of broad coverage and depth of exploration of the topics. The Electrical Engineering Handbook will be an invaluable resource for electrical engineers for years to come.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Artificial Neural Nets And Genetic Algorithms

Author : Rudolf F. Albrecht
ISBN : 9783709175330
Genre : Computers
File Size : 85.85 MB
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Artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms both are areas of research which have their origins in mathematical models constructed in order to gain understanding of important natural processes. By focussing on the process models rather than the processes themselves, significant new computational techniques have evolved which have found application in a large number of diverse fields. This diversity is reflected in the topics which are the subjects of contributions to this volume. There are contributions reporting theoretical developments in the design of neural networks, and in the management of their learning. In a number of contributions, applications to speech recognition tasks, control of industrial processes as well as to credit scoring, and so on, are reflected. Regarding genetic algorithms, several methodological papers consider how genetic algorithms can be improved using an experimental approach, as well as by hybridizing with other useful techniques such as tabu search. The closely related area of classifier systems also receives a significant amount of coverage, aiming at better ways for their implementation. Further, while there are many contributions which explore ways in which genetic algorithms can be applied to real problems, nearly all involve some understanding of the context in order to apply the genetic algorithm paradigm more successfully. That this can indeed be done is evidenced by the range of applications covered in this volume.
Category: Computers

Practical Programmable Circuits

Author : James D. Broesch
ISBN : CORNELL:31924090761499
Genre : Logic design.
File Size : 58.20 MB
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This is a practical guide to programmable logic devices. It covers all devices related to PLD: PALs, PGAs, state machines, and microcontrollers. Usefulness is evaluated; support needed in order to effectively use the devices is discussed. All examples are based on real-world circuits.
Category: Logic design.

Advanced Digital Logic Design

Author : Sunggu Lee
ISBN : 0534551610
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 79.4 MB
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This textbook is intended to serve as a practical guide for the design of complex digital logic circuits such as digital control circuits, network interface circuits, pipelined arithmetic units, and RISC microprocessors. It is an advanced digital logic design textbook that emphasizes the use of synthesizable Verilog code and provides numerous fully worked-out practical design examples including a Universal Serial Bus interface, a pipelined multiply-accumulate unit, and a pipelined microprocessor for the ARM THUMB architecture.
Category: Technology & Engineering

The Design Warrior S Guide To Fpgas

Author : Clive Maxfield
ISBN : 9780080477138
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 32.14 MB
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Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are devices that provide a fast, low-cost way for embedded system designers to customize products and deliver new versions with upgraded features, because they can handle very complicated functions, and be reconfigured an infinite number of times. In addition to introducing the various architectural features available in the latest generation of FPGAs, The Design Warrior’s Guide to FPGAs also covers different design tools and flows. This book covers information ranging from schematic-driven entry, through traditional HDL/RTL-based simulation and logic synthesis, all the way up to the current state-of-the-art in pure C/C++ design capture and synthesis technology. Also discussed are specialist areas such as mixed hardward/software and DSP-based design flows, along with innovative new devices such as field programmable node arrays (FPNAs). Clive "Max" Maxfield is a bestselling author and engineer with a large following in the electronic design automation (EDA)and embedded systems industry. In this comprehensive book, he covers all the issues of interest to designers working with, or contemplating a move to, FPGAs in their product designs. While other books cover fragments of FPGA technology or applications this is the first to focus exclusively and comprehensively on FPGA use for embedded systems. First book to focus exclusively and comprehensively on FPGA use in embedded designs World-renowned best-selling author Will help engineers get familiar and succeed with this new technology by providing much-needed advice on choosing the right FPGA for any design project
Category: Technology & Engineering

Digital Systems Design With Fpgas And Cplds

Author : Ian Grout
ISBN : 008055850X
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 59.31 MB
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Digital Systems Design with FPGAs and CPLDs explains how to design and develop digital electronic systems using programmable logic devices (PLDs). Totally practical in nature, the book features numerous (quantify when known) case study designs using a variety of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLD), for a range of applications from control and instrumentation to semiconductor automatic test equipment. Key features include: * Case studies that provide a walk through of the design process, highlighting the trade-offs involved. * Discussion of real world issues such as choice of device, pin-out, power supply, power supply decoupling, signal integrity- for embedding FPGAs within a PCB based design. With this book engineers will be able to: * Use PLD technology to develop digital and mixed signal electronic systems * Develop PLD based designs using both schematic capture and VHDL synthesis techniques * Interface a PLD to digital and mixed-signal systems * Undertake complete design exercises from design concept through to the build and test of PLD based electronic hardware This book will be ideal for electronic and computer engineering students taking a practical or Lab based course on digital systems development using PLDs and for engineers in industry looking for concrete advice on developing a digital system using a FPGA or CPLD as its core. Case studies that provide a walk through of the design process, highlighting the trade-offs involved. Discussion of real world issues such as choice of device, pin-out, power supply, power supply decoupling, signal integrity- for embedding FPGAs within a PCB based design.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Msp430 Microcontroller Basics

Author : John H. Davies
ISBN : 9780080558554
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 68.19 MB
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The MSP430 microcontroller family offers ultra-low power mixed signal, 16-bit architecture that is perfect for wireless low-power industrial and portable medical applications. This book begins with an overview of embedded systems and microcontrollers followed by a comprehensive in-depth look at the MSP430. The coverage included a tour of the microcontroller's architecture and functionality along with a review of the development environment. Start using the MSP430 armed with a complete understanding of the microcontroller and what you need to get the microcontroller up and running! Details C and assembly language for the MSP430 Companion Web site contains a development kit Full coverage is given to the MSP430 instruction set, and sigma-delta analog-digital converters and timers
Category: Technology & Engineering

Fsm Based Digital Design Using Verilog Hdl

Author : Peter Minns
ISBN : 0470987618
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 64.13 MB
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As digital circuit elements decrease in physical size, resulting in increasingly complex systems, a basic logic model that can be used in the control and design of a range of semiconductor devices is vital. Finite State Machines (FSM) have numerous advantages; they can be applied to many areas (including motor control, and signal and serial data identification to name a few) and they use less logic than their alternatives, leading to the development of faster digital hardware systems. This clear and logical book presents a range of novel techniques for the rapid and reliable design of digital systems using FSMs, detailing exactly how and where they can be implemented. With a practical approach, it covers synchronous and asynchronous FSMs in the design of both simple and complex systems, and Petri-Net design techniques for sequential/parallel control systems. Chapters on Hardware Description Language cover the widely-used and powerful Verilog HDL in sufficient detail to facilitate the description and verification of FSMs, and FSM based systems, at both the gate and behavioural levels. Throughout, the text incorporates many real-world examples that demonstrate designs such as data acquisition, a memory tester, and passive serial data monitoring and detection, among others. A useful accompanying CD offers working Verilog software tools for the capture and simulation of design solutions. With a linear programmed learning format, this book works as a concise guide for the practising digital designer. This book will also be of importance to senior students and postgraduates of electronic engineering, who require design skills for the embedded systems market.
Category: Technology & Engineering