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Power Analysis Of Trials With Multilevel Data

Author : Mirjam Moerbeek
ISBN : 9781498729901
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 31.44 MB
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Power Analysis of Trials with Multilevel Data covers using power and sample size calculations to design trials that involve nested data structures. The book gives a thorough overview of power analysis that details terminology and notation, outlines key concepts of statistical power and power analysis, and explains why they are necessary in trial design. It guides you in performing power calculations with hierarchical data, which enables more effective trial design. The authors are leading experts in the field who recognize that power analysis has attracted attention from applied statisticians in social, behavioral, medical, and health science. Their book supplies formulae that allow statisticians and researchers in these fields to perform calculations that enable them to plan cost-efficient trials. The formulae can also be applied to other sciences. Using power analysis in trial design is increasingly important in a scientific community where experimentation is often expensive, competition for funding among researchers is intense, and agencies that finance research require proposals to give thorough justification for funding. This handbook shows how power analysis shapes trial designs that have high statistical power and low cost, using real-life examples. The book covers multiple types of trials, including cluster randomized trials, multisite trials, individually randomized group treatment trials, and longitudinal intervention studies. It also offers insight on choosing which trial is best suited to a given project. Power Analysis of Trials with Multilevel Data helps you craft an optimal research design and anticipate the necessary sample size of data to collect to give your research maximum effectiveness and efficiency.
Category: Mathematics

Compositional Data Analysis In Practice

Author : Michael Greenacre
ISBN : 9780429849015
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 39.3 MB
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Compositional Data Analysis in Practice is a user-oriented practical guide to the analysis of data with the property of a constant sum, for example percentages adding up to 100%. Compositional data can give misleading results if regular statistical methods are applied, and are best analysed by first transforming them to logarithms of ratios. This book explains how this transformation affects the analysis, results and interpretation of this very special type of data. All aspects of compositional data analysis are considered: visualization, modelling, dimension-reduction, clustering and variable selection, with many examples in the fields of food science, archaeology, sociology and biochemistry, and a final chapter containing a complete case study using fatty acid compositions in ecology. The applicability of these methods extends to other fields such as linguistics, geochemistry, marketing, economics and finance. A unique didactic format, where each chapter has exactly eight pages of study material, many illustrative figures, and an end-of-chapter summary An approach aimed at students and applied researchers, gathering the mathematical aspects in a compact theoretical appendix Numerous examples from a variety of disciplines A computational appendix?that documents the easyCODA package for R developed by the author, making it possible for readers to reproduce the results A supporting website with data sets, R scripts and further study material
Category: Business & Economics

Applied Directional Statistics

Author : Christophe Ley
ISBN : 9781351856522
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 34.59 MB
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This book collects important advances in methodology and data analysis for directional statistics. It is the companion book of the more theoretical treatment presented in Modern Directional Statistics (CRC Press, 2017). The field of directional statistics has received a lot of attention due to demands from disciplines such as life sciences or machine learning, the availability of massive data sets requiring adapted statistical techniques, and technological advances. This book covers important progress in bioinformatics, biology, astrophysics, oceanography, environmental sciences, earth sciences, machine learning and social sciences.
Category: Mathematics

Bayesian Disease Mapping

Author : Andrew B. Lawson
ISBN : 9781351271745
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 45.10 MB
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Since the publication of the second edition, many new Bayesian tools and methods have been developed for space-time data analysis, the predictive modeling of health outcomes, and other spatial biostatistical areas. Exploring these new developments, Bayesian Disease Mapping: Hierarchical Modeling in Spatial Epidemiology, Third Edition provides an up-to-date, cohesive account of the full range of Bayesian disease mapping methods and applications. In addition to the new material, the book also covers more conventional areas such as relative risk estimation, clustering, spatial survival analysis, and longitudinal analysis. After an introduction to Bayesian inference, computation, and model assessment, the text focuses on important themes, including disease map reconstruction, cluster detection, regression and ecological analysis, putative hazard modeling, analysis of multiple scales and multiple diseases, spatial survival and longitudinal studies, spatiotemporal methods, and map surveillance. It shows how Bayesian disease mapping can yield significant insights into georeferenced health data. The target audience for this text is public health specialists, epidemiologists, and biostatisticians who need to work with geo-referenced health data.
Category: Mathematics

Statistical Methods In Psychiatry And Related Fields

Author : Ralitza Gueorguieva
ISBN : 9781351647564
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 37.65 MB
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Data collected in psychiatry and related fields are complex because outcomes are rarely directly observed, there are multiple correlated repeated measures within individuals, there is natural heterogeneity in treatment responses and in other characteristics in the populations. Simple statistical methods do not work well with such data. More advanced statistical methods capture the data complexity better, but are difficult to apply appropriately and correctly by investigators who do not have advanced training in statistics. This book presents, at a non-technical level, several approaches for the analysis of correlated data: mixed models for continuous and categorical outcomes, nonparametric methods for repeated measures and growth mixture models for heterogeneous trajectories over time. Separate chapters are devoted to techniques for multiple comparison correction, analysis in the presence of missing data, adjustment for covariates, assessment of mediator and moderator effects, study design and sample size considerations. The focus is on the assumptions of each method, applicability and interpretation rather than on technical details. The intended audience are applied researchers with minimal knowledge of statistics, although the book could also benefit collaborating statisticians. The book, together with the online materials, is a valuable resource aimed at promoting the use of appropriate statistical methods for the analysis of repeated measures data.
Category: Mathematics

Multiple Imputation And Its Application

Author : James Carpenter
ISBN : 9781118442616
Genre : Medical
File Size : 44.63 MB
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A practical guide to analysing partially observed data. Collecting, analysing and drawing inferences from data is central to research in the medical and social sciences. Unfortunately, it is rarely possible to collect all the intended data. The literature on inference from the resulting incomplete data is now huge, and continues to grow both as methods are developed for large and complex data structures, and as increasing computer power and suitable software enable researchers to apply these methods. This book focuses on a particular statistical method for analysing and drawing inferences from incomplete data, called Multiple Imputation (MI). MI is attractive because it is both practical and widely applicable. The authors aim is to clarify the issues raised by missing data, describing the rationale for MI, the relationship between the various imputation models and associated algorithms and its application to increasingly complex data structures. Multiple Imputation and its Application: Discusses the issues raised by the analysis of partially observed data, and the assumptions on which analyses rest. Presents a practical guide to the issues to consider when analysing incomplete data from both observational studies and randomized trials. Provides a detailed discussion of the practical use of MI with real-world examples drawn from medical and social statistics. Explores handling non-linear relationships and interactions with multiple imputation, survival analysis, multilevel multiple imputation, sensitivity analysis via multiple imputation, using non-response weights with multiple imputation and doubly robust multiple imputation. Multiple Imputation and its Application is aimed at quantitative researchers and students in the medical and social sciences with the aim of clarifying the issues raised by the analysis of incomplete data data, outlining the rationale for MI and describing how to consider and address the issues that arise in its application.
Category: Medical

Generalized Latent Variable Modeling

Author : Anders Skrondal
ISBN : 0203489438
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 70.93 MB
Format : PDF
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This book unifies and extends latent variable models, including multilevel or generalized linear mixed models, longitudinal or panel models, item response or factor models, latent class or finite mixture models, and structural equation models. Following a gentle introduction to latent variable modeling, the authors clearly explain and contrast a wide range of estimation and prediction methods from biostatistics, psychometrics, econometrics, and statistics. They present exciting and realistic applications that demonstrate how researchers can use latent variable modeling to solve concrete problems in areas as diverse as medicine, economics, and psychology. The examples considered include many nonstandard response types, such as ordinal, nominal, count, and survival data. Joint modeling of mixed responses, such as survival and longitudinal data, is also illustrated. Numerous displays, figures, and graphs make the text vivid and easy to read. About the authors: Anders Skrondal is Professor and Chair in Social Statistics, Department of Statistics, London School of Economics, UK Sophia Rabe-Hesketh is a Professor of Educational Statistics at the Graduate School of Education and Graduate Group in Biostatistics, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
Category: Mathematics

Meta Analysis Of Binary Data Using Profile Likelihood

Author : Dankmar Bohning
ISBN : 1420011332
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 37.71 MB
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Providing reliable information on an intervention effect, meta-analysis is a powerful statistical tool for analyzing and combining results from individual studies. Meta-Analysis of Binary Data Using Profile Likelihood focuses on the analysis and modeling of a meta-analysis with individually pooled data (MAIPD). It presents a unifying approach to modeling a treatment effect in a meta-analysis of clinical trials with binary outcomes. After illustrating the meta-analytic situation of an MAIPD with several examples, the authors introduce the profile likelihood model and extend it to cope with unobserved heterogeneity. They describe elements of log-linear modeling, ways for finding the profile maximum likelihood estimator, and alternative approaches to the profile likelihood method. The authors also discuss how to model covariate information and unobserved heterogeneity simultaneously and use the profile likelihood method to estimate odds ratios. The final chapters look at quantifying heterogeneity in an MAIPD and show how meta-analysis can be applied to the surveillance of scrapie. Containing new developments not available in the current literature, along with easy-to-follow inferences and algorithms, this book enables clinicians to efficiently analyze MAIPDs.
Category: Mathematics

Statistical Analysis Of Questionnaires

Author : Francesco Bartolucci
ISBN : 9781466568501
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 27.56 MB
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Statistical Analysis of Questionnaires: A Unified Approach Based on R and Stata presents special statistical methods for analyzing data collected by questionnaires. The book takes an applied approach to testing and measurement tasks, mirroring the growing use of statistical methods and software in education, psychology, sociology, and other fields. It is suitable for graduate students in applied statistics and psychometrics and practitioners in education, health, and marketing. The book covers the foundations of classical test theory (CTT), test reliability, validity, and scaling as well as item response theory (IRT) fundamentals and IRT for dichotomous and polytomous items. The authors explore the latest IRT extensions, such as IRT models with covariates, multidimensional IRT models, IRT models for hierarchical and longitudinal data, and latent class IRT models. They also describe estimation methods and diagnostics, including graphical diagnostic tools, parametric and nonparametric tests, and differential item functioning. Stata and R software codes are included for each method. To enhance comprehension, the book employs real datasets in the examples and illustrates the software outputs in detail. The datasets are available on the authors’ web page.
Category: Mathematics

Survival Analysis With Interval Censored Data

Author : Kris Bogaerts
ISBN : 9781351643054
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 75.10 MB
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Survival Analysis with Interval-Censored Data: A Practical Approach with Examples in R, SAS, and BUGS provides the reader with a practical introduction into the analysis of interval-censored survival times. Although many theoretical developments have appeared in the last fifty years, interval censoring is often ignored in practice. Many are unaware of the impact of inappropriately dealing with interval censoring. In addition, the necessary software is at times difficult to trace. This book fills in the gap between theory and practice. Features: -Provides an overview of frequentist as well as Bayesian methods. -Include a focus on practical aspects and applications. -Extensively illustrates the methods with examples using R, SAS, and BUGS. Full programs are available on a supplementary website. The authors: Kris Bogaerts is project manager at I-BioStat, KU Leuven. He received his PhD in science (statistics) at KU Leuven on the analysis of interval-censored data. He has gained expertise in a great variety of statistical topics with a focus on the design and analysis of clinical trials. Arnošt Komárek is associate professor of statistics at Charles University, Prague. His subject area of expertise covers mainly survival analysis with the emphasis on interval-censored data and classification based on longitudinal data. He is past chair of the Statistical Modelling Society?and editor of?Statistical Modelling: An International Journal. Emmanuel Lesaffre is professor of biostatistics at I-BioStat, KU Leuven. His research interests include Bayesian methods, longitudinal data analysis, statistical modelling, analysis of dental data, interval-censored data, misclassification issues, and clinical trials. He is the founding chair of the?Statistical Modelling Society, past-president of the?International Society for Clinical Biostatistics,?and fellow of?ISI?and?ASA.
Category: Mathematics