POPULATION LEVEL ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

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Population Level Ecological Risk Assessment

Author : Lawrence W. Barnthouse
ISBN : 1420053337
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 79.10 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Most ecological risk assessments consider the risk to individual organisms or organism-level attributes. From a management perspective, however, risks to population-level attributes and processes are often more relevant. Despite many published calls for population risk assessment and the abundance of available scientific research and technical tools assessing risks to populations, risk assessors worldwide still have difficulty determining how population level considerations can be integrated into environmental decision-making. Population-Level Ecological Risk Assessment establishes a framework for goals, methods, and data needs for different assessment applications and for integrating population-level risk assessment into risk management decisions. Beginning with a summary of legal, regulatory, business, and other contexts, the book presents population-level ecological risk assessment as an internationally recognized, science-based tool and offers specific recommendations for using this tool to support environmental management decisions. It gives clear, explicit, operational population assessment definitions and explains the relevance of density dependence, genetics, and spatial considerations, as well as applicable lessons from conservation biology and natural resource management. The authors provide a "tool box" of empirical and modeling methods and describe the general approaches, assumptions, data requirements, strengths, and limitations of each method. They establish a working foundation for designing and conducting population-level ecological risk assessments consistent with North American, European, and Japanese risk management approaches. The book concludes by highlighting key considerations needed to improve the scientific quality and interpretation of assessments. Detailed appendices include examples of population-level assessment approaches applicable to specific environmental management contexts, a modeling case study, and a supplemental reading list.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Demographic Toxicity

Author : H. Resit Akcakaya
ISBN : 0199715645
Genre : Science
File Size : 88.1 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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This edited volume collects population and metapopulation models for a wide variety of species, focusing on the use of models in population-level risk assessment for toxins. Each chapter of Demographic Toxicity describes the application of a population model to one species, with the aim of demonstrating how various life history characteristics of the species are incorporated into the model, how ecotoxicological impacts are modeled, and how the results of the model has been or can be used in risk assessment. The model in each chapter is implemented in RAMAS software, which uses matrix modeling of population dynamics. RAMAS software is believed to be the most powerful tool ever invented for this task.Demographic Toxicity includes a CD that contains a demo version of the program and the data files for each species. The book explains how to use these specific tools for modeling, analysis, and interpretation of data. Demographic Toxicity provides a major review of current knowledge on population dynamics in different species, representing both terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Category: Science

Ecological Modeling In Risk Assessment

Author : Robert A. Pastorok
ISBN : 9781420032321
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 37.55 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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Toxic chemicals can exert effects on all levels of the biological hierarchy, from cells to organs to organisms to populations to entire ecosystems. However, most risk assessment models express their results in terms of effects on individual organisms, without corresponding information on how populations, groups of species, or whole ecosystems may respond to chemical stressors. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment: Chemical Effects on Populations, Ecosystems, and Landscapes takes a new approach by compiling and evaluating models that can be used in assessing risk at the population, ecosystem, and landscape levels. The authors give an overview of the current process of ecological risk assessment for toxic chemicals and of how modeling of populations, ecosystems, and landscapes could improve the status quo. They present a classification of ecological models and explain the differences between population, ecosystem, landscape, and toxicity-extrapolation models. The authors describe the model evaluation process and define evaluation criteria. Finally, the results of the model evaluations are presented in a concise format with recommendations on modeling approaches to use now and develop further. The authors present and evaluate various models on the basis of their realism and complexity, prediction of relevant assessment endpoints, treatment of uncertainty, regulatory acceptance, resource efficiency, and other criteria. They provide models that will improve the ecological relevance of risk assessments and make data collection more cost-effective. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment serves as a reference for selecting and applying the best models when performing a risk assessment.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Ecological Risk Assessment Second Edition

Author : Glenn W. Suter II
ISBN : 9781420012569
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 58.89 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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The definitive reference in its field, Ecological Risk Assessment, Second Edition details the latest advances in science and practice. In the fourteen years since the publication of the best-selling first edition, ecological risk assessment (ERA) has moved from the margins into the spotlight. It is now commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds, and other environmental management issues. Delineating the processes for performing an ERA, the book begins by defining the field, then goes on to describe its relationship to other environmental assessment practices and its organizational framework. The book also includes a chapter on ecological epidemiology, which has previously been treated as a type of ERA, but is now recognized as a distinct practice in itself. It explores important concepts in the ERA process including probability, uncertainty, scale, mode of action and multiple causes. Reflecting changes in the field, the book’s scope has been broadened to include discussions of the application of ERA to agents other than chemical contaminants. The multitude of illustrative figures provides a flavor for the diverse practice of ERA. The author has re-organized the material, presenting a unitary process of ERA that is applicable to various problems, scales, and mandates. He keeps the emphasis squarely on providing clear, scientifically sound, and unbiased technical advice on the risks from chemicals and chemical mixtures.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Ecotoxicology Ecological Risk Assessment And Multiple Stressors

Author : Gerassimos Arapis
ISBN : 9781402044762
Genre : Science
File Size : 41.58 MB
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The science of ecotoxicology and the practice of ecological risk assessment are evolving rapidly. Ecotoxicology as a subject area came into prominence in the 1960s after the publication of Rachel Carson's book on the impact of pesticides on the environment. The rise of public and scientific concern for the effects of chemical pollutants on the environment in the 1960s and 1970s led to the development of the discipline of ecotoxicology, a science that takes into account the effects of chemicals in the context of ecology. Until the early 1980s, in spite of public concern and interest among scientists, the assessment of ecological risks associated with natural or synthetic pollutants was not considered a priority issue by most government. However, as the years passed, a better understanding of the importance of ecotoxicology emerged and with it, in some countries, the progressive formalization of an ecological risk assessment process. Ecological risk assessment is a conceptual tool for organizing and analyzing data and information to evaluate the likelihood that one or more stressors are causing or will cause adverse ecological effects. Ecological risk assessment allows risk managers to consider available scientific information when selecting a course of action, in addition to other factors that may affect their decision (e. g. , social, legal, political, or economic). Ecological risk assessment includes three phases (problem formulation, analysis, and risk characterization).
Category: Science

Ecological Modeling In Risk Assessment

Author : Robert A. Pastorok
ISBN : 9781420032321
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 52.80 MB
Format : PDF
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Read : 775

Toxic chemicals can exert effects on all levels of the biological hierarchy, from cells to organs to organisms to populations to entire ecosystems. However, most risk assessment models express their results in terms of effects on individual organisms, without corresponding information on how populations, groups of species, or whole ecosystems may respond to chemical stressors. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment: Chemical Effects on Populations, Ecosystems, and Landscapes takes a new approach by compiling and evaluating models that can be used in assessing risk at the population, ecosystem, and landscape levels. The authors give an overview of the current process of ecological risk assessment for toxic chemicals and of how modeling of populations, ecosystems, and landscapes could improve the status quo. They present a classification of ecological models and explain the differences between population, ecosystem, landscape, and toxicity-extrapolation models. The authors describe the model evaluation process and define evaluation criteria. Finally, the results of the model evaluations are presented in a concise format with recommendations on modeling approaches to use now and develop further. The authors present and evaluate various models on the basis of their realism and complexity, prediction of relevant assessment endpoints, treatment of uncertainty, regulatory acceptance, resource efficiency, and other criteria. They provide models that will improve the ecological relevance of risk assessments and make data collection more cost-effective. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment serves as a reference for selecting and applying the best models when performing a risk assessment.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Environmental Risk Assessment And Management From A Landscape Perspective

Author : Lawrence A. Kapustka
ISBN : 0470593016
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 46.81 MB
Format : PDF
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An important guide to assessing and managing the environment from a landscape perspective Ecological relationships are nested within the landscape. Identifying the relevant spatial and temporal scales is critical for an effective understanding of ecological functions that human societies depend upon. Moreover, human encroachment into natural areas, or changes in climate, can alter spatial relationships, which in turn can negatively affect vital plant and wildlife patterns—and weaken economic structures needed to sustain human societies. This book is the first to combine multiple disciplines into one cohesive strategy to study these crucial connections, and looks toward building a social paradigm that embraces the dynamics of ecological systems. This book: Integrates landscape ecology, environmental risk assessment, valuation of ecological goods and services, and environmental management decision processes into one single source Includes chapters on quantitative measures, Bayesian modeling,¿economic analysis, and sustainable landscapes Covers marine, forest, agricultural, and pharmaceutical risk assessment Has a chapter on predicting climate change risk to ecosystems Has a companion ftp site with color graphics, animations, and risk assessment tools With material that is accessible across all knowledge levels, Environmental Risk Assessment and Management from a Landscape Perspective moves beyond looking solely at chemical contaminants to diagnose environmental threats, and aims to accomplish practical risk assessment in a manner that supports long-term sustainable management.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Ecotoxicology

Author : Erik Jorgensen
ISBN : 0444536299
Genre : Science
File Size : 70.7 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
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Ecotoxicology offers an overview of current ecotoxicological problems. It includes basic ecotoxicological concepts, as well as information about chemicals and toxic substances that may cause harmful effects on the ecosystem and its living components. The book, with a total of 48 chapters, is divided into three parts. The first part includes the basic concepts of ecotoxicology, starting with an introductory chapter on ecotoxicology as a subdiscipline of ecology; assessment on ecotoxicological effects and risk; and properties and effects of toxic chemicals. These topics are further discussed throughout the book, along with nomenclature, focal topics, and the history of ecotoxicology. The two remaining parts tackle harmful properties and harmful chemicals. The second part also covers bioaccumulation, bioavailability, biodegradability, biodegradation, and biomagnification. It also provides models for ecotoxicological populations, ecosystems and landscapes, and on food-web bioaccumulation. Chemicals including benzene, copper, lead, nitrogen, phenols, pheromones, phthalates, plutonium, and uranium are covered in separate chapters in the final part. This book will be of great value to ecologists, ecotoxicologists, and environmental managers. Provides an overview of the theory and application of global ecology International focus and range of ecosystems makes Ecotoxicology an indispensable resource to scientists Based on the bestselling Encyclopedia of Ecology Full-color figures and tables support the text and aid in understanding
Category: Science