POPULATION LEVEL ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

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Population Level Ecological Risk Assessment

Author : Lawrence W. Barnthouse
ISBN : 1420053337
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 82.81 MB
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Most ecological risk assessments consider the risk to individual organisms or organism-level attributes. From a management perspective, however, risks to population-level attributes and processes are often more relevant. Despite many published calls for population risk assessment and the abundance of available scientific research and technical tools assessing risks to populations, risk assessors worldwide still have difficulty determining how population level considerations can be integrated into environmental decision-making. Population-Level Ecological Risk Assessment establishes a framework for goals, methods, and data needs for different assessment applications and for integrating population-level risk assessment into risk management decisions. Beginning with a summary of legal, regulatory, business, and other contexts, the book presents population-level ecological risk assessment as an internationally recognized, science-based tool and offers specific recommendations for using this tool to support environmental management decisions. It gives clear, explicit, operational population assessment definitions and explains the relevance of density dependence, genetics, and spatial considerations, as well as applicable lessons from conservation biology and natural resource management. The authors provide a "tool box" of empirical and modeling methods and describe the general approaches, assumptions, data requirements, strengths, and limitations of each method. They establish a working foundation for designing and conducting population-level ecological risk assessments consistent with North American, European, and Japanese risk management approaches. The book concludes by highlighting key considerations needed to improve the scientific quality and interpretation of assessments. Detailed appendices include examples of population-level assessment approaches applicable to specific environmental management contexts, a modeling case study, and a supplemental reading list.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Ecological Risk Assessment Second Edition

Author : Glenn W. Suter II
ISBN : 9781420012569
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 90.13 MB
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The definitive reference in its field, Ecological Risk Assessment, Second Edition details the latest advances in science and practice. In the fourteen years since the publication of the best-selling first edition, ecological risk assessment (ERA) has moved from the margins into the spotlight. It is now commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds, and other environmental management issues. Delineating the processes for performing an ERA, the book begins by defining the field, then goes on to describe its relationship to other environmental assessment practices and its organizational framework. The book also includes a chapter on ecological epidemiology, which has previously been treated as a type of ERA, but is now recognized as a distinct practice in itself. It explores important concepts in the ERA process including probability, uncertainty, scale, mode of action and multiple causes. Reflecting changes in the field, the book’s scope has been broadened to include discussions of the application of ERA to agents other than chemical contaminants. The multitude of illustrative figures provides a flavor for the diverse practice of ERA. The author has re-organized the material, presenting a unitary process of ERA that is applicable to various problems, scales, and mandates. He keeps the emphasis squarely on providing clear, scientifically sound, and unbiased technical advice on the risks from chemicals and chemical mixtures.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Demographic Toxicity

Author : H. Resit Akcakaya
ISBN : 0199715645
Genre : Science
File Size : 61.11 MB
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This edited volume collects population and metapopulation models for a wide variety of species, focusing on the use of models in population-level risk assessment for toxins. Each chapter of Demographic Toxicity describes the application of a population model to one species, with the aim of demonstrating how various life history characteristics of the species are incorporated into the model, how ecotoxicological impacts are modeled, and how the results of the model has been or can be used in risk assessment. The model in each chapter is implemented in RAMAS software, which uses matrix modeling of population dynamics. RAMAS software is believed to be the most powerful tool ever invented for this task.Demographic Toxicity includes a CD that contains a demo version of the program and the data files for each species. The book explains how to use these specific tools for modeling, analysis, and interpretation of data. Demographic Toxicity provides a major review of current knowledge on population dynamics in different species, representing both terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Category: Science

Ecotoxicology Ecological Risk Assessment And Multiple Stressors

Author : Gerassimos Arapis
ISBN : 9781402044762
Genre : Science
File Size : 87.98 MB
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The science of ecotoxicology and the practice of ecological risk assessment are evolving rapidly. Ecotoxicology as a subject area came into prominence in the 1960s after the publication of Rachel Carson's book on the impact of pesticides on the environment. The rise of public and scientific concern for the effects of chemical pollutants on the environment in the 1960s and 1970s led to the development of the discipline of ecotoxicology, a science that takes into account the effects of chemicals in the context of ecology. Until the early 1980s, in spite of public concern and interest among scientists, the assessment of ecological risks associated with natural or synthetic pollutants was not considered a priority issue by most government. However, as the years passed, a better understanding of the importance of ecotoxicology emerged and with it, in some countries, the progressive formalization of an ecological risk assessment process. Ecological risk assessment is a conceptual tool for organizing and analyzing data and information to evaluate the likelihood that one or more stressors are causing or will cause adverse ecological effects. Ecological risk assessment allows risk managers to consider available scientific information when selecting a course of action, in addition to other factors that may affect their decision (e. g. , social, legal, political, or economic). Ecological risk assessment includes three phases (problem formulation, analysis, and risk characterization).
Category: Science

Ecological Modeling In Risk Assessment

Author : Robert A. Pastorok
ISBN : 9781420032321
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 51.96 MB
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Toxic chemicals can exert effects on all levels of the biological hierarchy, from cells to organs to organisms to populations to entire ecosystems. However, most risk assessment models express their results in terms of effects on individual organisms, without corresponding information on how populations, groups of species, or whole ecosystems may respond to chemical stressors. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment: Chemical Effects on Populations, Ecosystems, and Landscapes takes a new approach by compiling and evaluating models that can be used in assessing risk at the population, ecosystem, and landscape levels. The authors give an overview of the current process of ecological risk assessment for toxic chemicals and of how modeling of populations, ecosystems, and landscapes could improve the status quo. They present a classification of ecological models and explain the differences between population, ecosystem, landscape, and toxicity-extrapolation models. The authors describe the model evaluation process and define evaluation criteria. Finally, the results of the model evaluations are presented in a concise format with recommendations on modeling approaches to use now and develop further. The authors present and evaluate various models on the basis of their realism and complexity, prediction of relevant assessment endpoints, treatment of uncertainty, regulatory acceptance, resource efficiency, and other criteria. They provide models that will improve the ecological relevance of risk assessments and make data collection more cost-effective. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment serves as a reference for selecting and applying the best models when performing a risk assessment.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Linking Aquatic Exposure And Effects

Author : Theo C. Brock
ISBN : 9781439813492
Genre : Science
File Size : 60.82 MB
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Time-variable exposure profiles of pesticides are more often the rule than exception in the surface waters of agricultural landscapes. There is, therefore, a need to adequately address the uncertainties arising from time-variable exposure profiles in the aquatic risk assessment procedure for pesticides. Linking Aquatic Exposure and Effects: Risk Assessment of Pesticides provides guidance and recommendations for linking aquatic exposure and ecotoxicological effects in the environmental assessment of agricultural pesticides. Leading international scientists share their expertise in aquatic exposure assessment, aquatic ecotoxicology, and the risk assessment and management of plant protection products. The book incorporates the tools and approaches currently available for assessing the environmental risks of time-variable exposure profiles of pesticides. It also discusses the science behind these techniques. This volume covers the extrapolation techniques, including models that address the environmental fate, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, and ecological effects, for performing accurate aquatic environmental risk assessments of pesticides. It explains how to link aquatic exposure and effects in the risk assessment procedure for plant protection products.
Category: Science

Ecological Risk Assessment Of Contaminants In Soil

Author : Nico M. van Straalen
ISBN : 0412759004
Genre : Science
File Size : 67.81 MB
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Many industrialized and developing countries are faced with the assessment of potential risks associated with contaminated land. A variety of human activities have left their impacts on soils in the form of elevated and locally high concentrations of potential toxicants. In several cases sources have not yet been stopped and contamination continues. Decisions on the management of contaminated sites and on the regulation of chemicals in the terrestrial environment require information on the extent to which toxicants adversely affect the life support function of soils. Ecological insights into the soil as an ecosystem may support such decisions. This book reviews the latest ecological principles that should be considered in this respect.
Category: Science

Issues In Environment Health And Pollution 2012 Edition

Author :
ISBN : 9781481646833
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 72.9 MB
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Issues in Environment, Health, and Pollution: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Environmental Pollution. The editors have built Issues in Environment, Health, and Pollution: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Environmental Pollution in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Environment, Health, and Pollution: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Category: Technology & Engineering