PEROXISOMES AND THEIR KEY ROLE IN CELLULAR SIGNALING AND METABOLISM 69 SUBCELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY

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Peroxisomes And Their Key Role In Cellular Signaling And Metabolism

Author : Luis A. del Rio
ISBN : 9789400768895
Genre : Medical
File Size : 46.68 MB
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Peroxisomes are a class of ubiquitous and dynamic single membrane-bounded cell organelles, devoid of DNA, with an essentially oxidative type of metabolism. In recent years it has become increasingly clear that peroxisomes are involved in a range of important cellular functions in almost all eukaryotic cells. In higher eukaryotes, including humans, peroxisomes catalyze ether phospholipids biosynthesis, fatty acid alpha-oxidation, glyoxylate detoxification, etc, and in humans peroxisomes are associated with several important genetic diseases. In plants, peroxisomes carry out the fatty acid beta-oxidation, photorespiration, metabolism of ROS, RNS and RSS, photomorphogenesis, biosynthesis of phytohormones, senescence, and defence against pathogens and herbivores. In recent years it has been postulated a possible contribution of peroxisomes to cellular signaling. In this volume an updated view of the capacity and function of peroxisomes from human, animal, fungal and plant origin as cell generators of different signal molecules involved in distinct processes of high physiological importance is presented.
Category: Medical

Nitric Oxide In Plants Metabolism And Role In Stress Physiology

Author : M. Nasir Khan
ISBN : 9783319067100
Genre : Science
File Size : 73.98 MB
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This book covers the key features of nitric oxide (NO) in plants. Comprising nine chapters, Part I highlights its metabolism and identification in plants. Part II, which consists of eight chapters, focuses on the chemical, physical and biochemical properties of the NO molecule and its derivatives; on its functional role and mode of action; and on its signaling and interaction with phytohormones, mineral nutrients, biomolecules, ions and ion channels in plants under abiotic stresses. Combining the expertise of leading researchers in the field, the book provides a concise overview of plant NO biology and offers a valuable reference work.
Category: Science

Molecular Machines Involved In Peroxisome Biogenesis And Maintenance

Author : Cecile Brocard
ISBN : 9783709117880
Genre : Science
File Size : 67.47 MB
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In eukaryotes, lipid metabolism requires the function of peroxisomes. These multitasking organelles are also part of species-specific pathways such as the glyoxylate cycle in yeast and plants or the synthesis of ether lipid in mammals. Proteins required for the biogenesis of peroxisomes typically assemble in large molecular complexes, which participate in membrane formation, protein transport, peroxisome duplication and - inheritance during cell division. Peroxisomal function is essential for life. Mutations in PEX genes, encoding for biogenesis factors, are often associated with lethal disorders. The association of peroxisomes with other organelles suggests an extensive participation in organellar crosstalk. This book represents a state-of-the-art review in the field of peroxisome research encompassing the cell and molecular biology of peroxisome biogenesis and its diseases, the protein complexes involved in this process and the modern technologies applied to study them. The book is intended for graduate students, researchers and lecturers in biochemistry, molecular and cell biology with a biomedical background.
Category: Science

Fungal Jewels Secondary Metabolites

Author : Nancy Keller
ISBN : 9782889451364
Genre :
File Size : 81.72 MB
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Fungal natural products are friends and foes of humans such as deleterious mycotoxins, cytotoxic, carcinogenic compounds or beneficial compounds such as antibiotics, fungicides, insecticides, antiviral and antitumor metabolites. Understanding fungal diversity and estimation of fungal species on our planet poses a great challenge to researchers. This complexity is further multiplied by secondary metabolite diversity of fungi, which requires interdisciplinary studies. It is extremely important to understand the fungal secondary metabolism to stop human, animal and plant diseases caused by fungi and harvest their valuable metabolites. Furthermore, many secondary metabolite gene clusters are silenced under laboratory conditions. It is vital to develop effective methods to activate those clusters in order to discover novel potent metabolites. This e-book is a compilation of original review articles contributed by leading fungal secondary metabolite researchers with a wide range of expertise. Important aspects of fungal secondary metabolism, including regulation, genome mining, evolution, synthetic biology and novel methods have been discussed. This book will be a great source to those people, who are interested in understanding overall structure, diversity and regulation of production of these tiny but precious chemicals.
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Lipid Hydroperoxide Derived Modification Of Biomolecules

Author : Yoji Kato
ISBN : 9789400779204
Genre : Medical
File Size : 81.38 MB
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Lipid peroxidation is an important cellular process which can lead to detrimental effects if it is not regulated efficiently. Lipid hydroperoxide is formed in an initial step of lipid peroxidation. Lipid hydroperoxide is also known as a potential source of singlet oxygen. Harmful aldehydes are formed when the lipid hydroperoxide is degraded. The formed aldehyde has high reactivity against thiol or amine moieties. Therefore, it could act as a signaling molecule, which might induce the changing of gears inside a cell. Recent studies have shown that lipid hydroperoxide or a slightly modified product of the lipid hydroperoxide reacts with biomolecules such as proteins and aminophospholipids, which leads to formation of amide-type adducts. Amide-type adducts could be one of markers for oxidative stress and could also be an important player in some diseases. In this book, the chemistry and biochemistry of lipid hydroperoxide along with their conjugates with biomolecules are described.
Category: Medical

Molecular Mechanisms And Physiological Significance Of Organelle Interactions And Cooperation

Author : Michael Schrader
ISBN : 9782889451043
Genre :
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Eukaryotic cells contain distinct membrane-bound organelles, which compartmentalise cellular proteins to fulfil a variety of vital functions. Many organelles have long been regarded as isolated and static entities (e.g., peroxisomes, mitochondria, lipid droplets), but it is now evident that they display dynamic changes, interact with each other, share certain proteins and show metabolic cooperation and cross-talk. Despite great advances in the identification and characterisation of essential components and molecular mechanisms associated with the biogenesis and function of organelles, information on how organelles interact and are incorporated into metabolic pathways and signaling networks is just beginning to emerge. Organelle cooperation requires sophisticated targeting systems which regulate the proper distribution of shared proteins to more than one organelle. Organelle motility and membrane remodeling support organelle interaction and contact. This contact can be mediated by membrane proteins residing on different organelles which can serve as molecular tethers to physically link different organelles together. They can also contribute to the exchange of metabolites and ions, or act in the assembly of signaling platforms. In this regard organelle communication events have been associated with important cellular functions such as apoptosis, antiviral defense, organelle division/biogenesis, ROS metabolism and signaling, and various metabolic pathways such as breakdown of fatty acids or cholesterol biosynthesis. In this research topic we will focus on recent novel findings on the underlying molecular mechanisms and physiological significance of organelle interaction and cooperation with a particular focus on mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes and lipid droplets and their impact on the regulation of cellular homeostasis. Our understanding of how organelles physically interact and use cellular signaling systems to coordinate functional networks between each other is still in its infancy. Nevertheless recent discoveries of defined membrane structures such as the mitochondria-ER associated membranes (MAM) are revealing how membrane domains enriched in specific proteins transmit signals across organelle boundaries, allowing one organelle to influence the function of another. In addition to its role as a mediator between mitochondria and the ER, contacts between the MAM and peroxisomes contribute to antiviral signaling, and specialised regions of the ER are supposed to initiate peroxisome biogenesis, whereas intimate contacts between peroxisomes, lipid droplets and the ER mediate lipid metabolism. In line with these observations it is tempting to speculate that further physical contact sites between other organelles exist. Alternatively, novel regulated vesicle trafficking pathways between organelles (e.g., mitochondria to peroxisomes or lysosomes) have been discovered implying another mode of organelle communication. Identifying the key molecular players of such specialised membrane structures will be a prerequisite to understand how organelle communication is physically accomplished and will lead to the identification of new regulatory networks. In addition to the direct transmission of interorganellar information, cytosolic messenger systems (e.g., kinase/phosphatase systems or redox signaling) may contribute to the coordination of organelle functions. This research topic will integrate new findings from both modes of communication and will provide new perspectives for the functional significance of cross-talk among organelles. We would like to thank all the researchers who contributed their valuable work to this research topic. Furthermore, we are grateful to the reviewers and Associate Editors who contributed valuable comments and positive criticism to improve the contributions.
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Plant Peroxisomes

Author : Anthony H.C. Huang
ISBN : 9780323158572
Genre : Science
File Size : 82.73 MB
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Plant Peroxisomes deals with the biogenesis of plant peroxisomes and its relevance to the proposed model for peroxisome biogenesis in germinated seeds. The book is divided into seven chapters that discuss the history, cytochemistry, morphology, properties, isolation, metabolism, enzymology, and ontogeny of plant peroxisomes. The book first explains how advances in electron microscopy and cell fractionation studies have led to the detection of peroxisome. The subsequent chapters discuss the types and metabolic functions of plant peroxisomes and the cytochemical procedures for establishing the localization of specific enzymes and for analyzing peroxisome distribution in nonflowering plants, algae, and fungi. A chapter presents methods of peroxisome isolation from various tissues and the physical and chemical properties of the isolated organelles. Considerable chapters are devoted to the metabolic functions, enzymatic activities, development of their form, and biochemistry of peroxisomes. Several key enzymes of the glycolate pathway of photorespiration found in leaf peroxisomes are presented. A discussion on the physiology of plant peroxisomes is provided. This book will be of value to professional scientists and graduate students concerned with plant metabolism and development.
Category: Science

Microbodies And Related Particles

Author : Z. Hruban
ISBN : 9781483268996
Genre : Science
File Size : 88.82 MB
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Microbodies and Related Particles: Morphology, Biochemistry, and Physiology focuses on the reactions, properties, transformations, and technologies involved in microbodies and related particles. The book first offers information on cytoplasmic particles limited by a single membrane and microbodies of various animal species. Topics include multivesicular and heterogeneous dense bodies, rodents, lower vertebrates, birds, monotremes, marsupials, insectivores, primates, and carnivores. The text also underscores the marginal plate and crystalloid, including structure of the marginal plate, structures resembling the marginal plate, finely polytubular type, and crystalloids of other tissues. The publication takes a look at the distribution of microbodies and topographical relationship of microbodies to cellular organelles, as well as hepatic lobule and renal cortex and intracellular distribution. The text also examines the microbodies of fetal and newborn animals, formation of microbodies, and effect of tissue preparation on microbodies. The book is a valuable source of data for readers interested in microbodies and related particles.
Category: Science

Biosynthesis And Molecular Genetics Of Fungal Secondary Metabolites

Author : Susanne Zeilinger
ISBN : 9781493925315
Genre : Science
File Size : 71.94 MB
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​Fungi produce many chemically diverse secondary metabolites whose biological roles largely remain elusive. Within the increasing number of sequenced fungal genomes several important genes involved in secondary metabolite formation have been identified. Most of these genes are clustered and their coordinated transcription is controlled in a complex way by both narrow pathway-specific regulators as well as broad global transcription factors responsive to environmental cues. In recent years it was discovered many of the newly identified gene clusters are silent under laboratory conditions suggesting that the biosynthetic potential of fungi is far from being exploited. Besides identifying novel bioactive metabolites from still unexplored sources, the activation of these gene clusters by several approaches may result in the discovery of new substances with antibiotic and pharmaceutical benefits. This book covers recent advances in the field of fungal secondary metabolisms ranging from methodologies to biological aspects and will include the latest knowledge on fungal molecular biology, genomics, and metabolomics. With the related volume by Professor Juan-Francisco Martin, where the most relevant and well-studied fungal secondary metabolites are compiled, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art of research on fungal secondary metabolites.
Category: Science

Transcriptional And Translational Regulation Of Stem Cells

Author : Gary Hime
ISBN : 9789400766211
Genre : Medical
File Size : 21.89 MB
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This volume describes the latest findings on transcriptional and translational regulation of stem cells. Both transcriptional activators and repressors have been shown to be crucial for the maintenance of the stem cell state. A key element of stem cell maintenance is repression of differentiation factors or developmental genes – achieved transcriptionally, epigenetically by the Polycomb complex, and post-transcriptionally by RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs. This volume takes two approaches to this topic – (1) illustrating the general principles outlined above through a series of different stem cell examples – embryonic, iPS and adult stem cells, and (2) describing several molecular families that have been shown to have roles in regulation of multiple stem cell populations.
Category: Medical