OVERVIEW OF THE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS IN THE OFFICE OF PESTICIDE PROGRAMS U S ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES EFFECTS DETERMINATIONS

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Ecological Risk Assessment For Chlorpyrifos In Terrestrial And Aquatic Systems In The United States

Author : John P. Giesy
ISBN : 9783319038650
Genre : Science
File Size : 60.94 MB
Format : PDF
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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavor in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications.
Category: Science

Pesticide Risk Assessment In Rice Paddies Theory And Practice

Author : Ettore Capri
ISBN : 0080551149
Genre : Science
File Size : 34.41 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
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Rice is cultivated throughout the world under submerged conditions. The high water requirements and the heavy pesticide load used in rice paddies worldwide have resulted in contamination of associated surface water, such as streams, ditches, rivers and lakes. The uniform risk assessment approach which has been developed for other crops is not applicable to rice paddies, because of the specific conditions applied to rice cultivation. Pesticide Risk Assessment in Rice Paddies: Theory and Practice fills the gap in information on this subject. Written by experts, this book summarizes the methods used for pesticide risk assessment in rice paddies, the limitations and problems encountered and future developments. It also examines the various agronomic, pesticide application and risk assessment approaches used in different rice cultivated zones in Asia, America and Europe and is an essential reference for those working in this area. * The only up-to-date book dealing with pesticide risk assessment in the flooded conditions of rice paddies * Offers guidelines on the use and application of existing modeling tools, specific for rice cultivation * Presents the differences and similarities in rice cropping systems and how these relate to pesticide risk assessment
Category: Science

Science And Decisions

Author : Committee on Improving Risk Analysis Approaches Used by the U.S. EPA
ISBN : 9780309120463
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 34.12 MB
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Risk assessment has become a dominant public policy tool for making choices, based on limited resources, to protect public health and the environment. It has been instrumental to the mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as other federal agencies in evaluating public health concerns, informing regulatory and technological decisions, prioritizing research needs and funding, and in developing approaches for cost-benefit analysis. However, risk assessment is at a crossroads. Despite advances in the field, risk assessment faces a number of significant challenges including lengthy delays in making complex decisions; lack of data leading to significant uncertainty in risk assessments; and many chemicals in the marketplace that have not been evaluated and emerging agents requiring assessment. Science and Decisions makes practical scientific and technical recommendations to address these challenges. This book is a complement to the widely used 1983 National Academies book, Risk Assessment in the Federal Government (also known as the Red Book). The earlier book established a framework for the concepts and conduct of risk assessment that has been adopted by numerous expert committees, regulatory agencies, and public health institutions. The new book embeds these concepts within a broader framework for risk-based decision-making. Together, these are essential references for those working in the regulatory and public health fields.
Category: Political Science

Federal Register

Author :
ISBN : UCR:31210024841437
Genre : Delegated legislation
File Size : 51.51 MB
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Category: Delegated legislation

Assessing Risks To Endangered And Threatened Species From Pesticides

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309285834
Genre : Medical
File Size : 32.16 MB
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The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) are responsible for protecting species that are listed as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and for protecting habitats that are critical for their survival. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for registering or reregistering pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and must ensure that pesticide use does not cause any unreasonable adverse effects on the environment, which is interpreted to include listed species and their critical habitats. The agencies have developed their own approaches to evaluating environmental risk, and their approaches differ because their legal mandates, responsibilities, institutional cultures, and expertise differ. Over the years, the agencies have tried to resolve their differences but have been unsuccessful in reaching a consensus regarding their assessment approaches. As a result, FWS, NMFS, EPA, and the US Department of Agriculture asked the National Research Council (NRC) to examine scientific and technical issues related to determining risks posed to listed species by pesticides. Specifically, the NRC was asked to evaluate methods for identifying the best scientific data available; to evaluate approaches for developing modeling assumptions; to identify authoritative geospatial information that might be used in risk assessments; to review approaches for characterizing sublethal, indirect, and cumulative effects; to assess the scientific information available for estimating effects of mixtures and inert ingredients; and to consider the use of uncertainty factors to account for gaps in data. Assessing Risks to Endangered and Threatened Species from Pesticides, which was prepared by the NRC Committee on Ecological Risk Assessment under FIFRA and ESA, is the response to that request.
Category: Medical

Issues In Risk Assessment

Author : Committee on Risk Assessment Methodology
ISBN : 9780309584906
Genre : Science
File Size : 48.48 MB
Format : PDF
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The scientific basis, inference assumptions, regulatory uses, and research needs in risk assessment are considered in this two-part volume. The first part, Use of Maximum Tolerated Dose in Animal Bioassays for Carcinogenicity, focuses on whether the maximum tolerated dose should continue to be used in carcinogenesis bioassays. The committee considers several options for modifying current bioassay procedures. The second part, Two-Stage Models of Carcinogenesis, stems from efforts to identify improved means of cancer risk assessment that have resulted in the development of a mathematical dose-response model based on a paradigm for the biologic phenomena thought to be associated with carcinogenesis.
Category: Science