ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF VIRUSES

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Origin And Evolution Of Viruses

Author : Esteban Domingo
ISBN : 0080564968
Genre : Science
File Size : 90.30 MB
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New viral diseases are emerging continuously. Viruses adapt to new environments at astounding rates. Genetic variability of viruses jeopardizes vaccine efficacy. For many viruses mutants resistant to antiviral agents or host immune responses arise readily, for example, with HIV and influenza. These variations are all of utmost importance for human and animal health as they have prevented us from controlling these epidemic pathogens. This book focuses on the mechanisms that viruses use to evolve, survive and cause disease in their hosts. Covering human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, it provides both the basic foundations for the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and specific examples of emerging diseases. * NEW - methods to establish relationships among viruses and the mechanisms that affect virus evolution * UNIQUE - combines theoretical concepts in evolution with detailed analyses of the evolution of important virus groups * SPECIFIC - Bacterial, plant, animal and human viruses are compared regarding their interation with their hosts
Category: Science

Viruses

Author : Joseph Panno
ISBN : 0816068550
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 33.62 MB
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Learn all about viruses in this New Biology book.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

The Logic Of Chance

Author : Eugene V. Koonin
ISBN : 013262317X
Genre : Science
File Size : 42.66 MB
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The Logic of Chance offers a reappraisal and a new synthesis of theories, concepts, and hypotheses on the key aspects of the evolution of life on earth in light of comparative genomics and systems biology. The author presents many specific examples from systems and comparative genomic analysis to begin to build a new, much more detailed, complex, and realistic picture of evolution. The book examines a broad range of topics in evolutionary biology including the inadequacy of natural selection and adaptation as the only or even the main mode of evolution; the key role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution and the consequent overhaul of the Tree of Life concept; the central, underappreciated evolutionary importance of viruses; the origin of eukaryotes as a result of endosymbiosis; the concomitant origin of cells and viruses on the primordial earth; universal dependences between genomic and molecular-phenomic variables; and the evolving landscape of constraints that shape the evolution of genomes and molecular phenomes. "Koonin's account of viral and pre-eukaryotic evolution is undoubtedly up-to-date. His "mega views" of evolution (given what was said above) and his cosmological musings, on the other hand, are interesting reading." Summing Up: Recommended Reprinted with permission from CHOICE, copyright by the American Library Association.
Category: Science

Evolution From Cellular To Social Scales

Author : Arne T. Skjeltorp
ISBN : 9781402087615
Genre : Science
File Size : 58.47 MB
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Evolution is a critical challenge for many areas of science, technology and development of society. The book reviews general evolutionary facts such as origin of life and evolution of the genome and clues to evolution through simple systems. Emerging areas of science such as "systems biology" and "bio-complexity" are founded on the idea that phenomena need to be understood in the context of highly interactive processes operating at different levels and on different scales. This is where physics meets complexity in nature, and where we must begin to learn about complexity if we are to understand it. Similarly, there is an increasingly urgent need to understand and predict the evolutionary behavior of highly interacting man-made systems, in areas such as communications and transport, which permeate the modern world. The same applies to the evolution of human networks such as social, political and financial systems, where technology has tended to vastly increase both the complexity and speed of interaction, which is sometimes effectively instantaneous. The book contains reviews on such diverse areas as evolution experiments with microorganisms, the origin and evolution of viruses, evolutionary dynamics of genes and environment in cancer development, aging as an evolution-facilitating program, evolution of vision and evolution of financial markets.
Category: Science

The Evolution And Emergence Of Rna Viruses

Author : Edward C. Holmes
ISBN : 9780199211128
Genre : Medical
File Size : 53.40 MB
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While the study of viral evolution has developed rapidly in the last 30 years, little attention has been directed toward linking the mechanisms of viral evolution to the epidemiological outcomes of these processes. This book intends to fill this gap by considering the patterns and processes of viral evolution at all its spatial and temporal scales.
Category: Medical

Molecular Evolution Of Viruses Past And Present

Author : Yechiel Becker
ISBN : 9781461314073
Genre : Medical
File Size : 50.9 MB
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The studies presented in this special issue of VIRUS GENES provide information on the two aspects of virus evolution: the ancient evolution of viruses from the time prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells evolved, and the ongoing process of the current molecular evolution of viruses. The studies of many scientists collected in this issue and many more that were published in other scientific journals provide insight into the molecular evolution of viruses as one of nature's mysteries. The use of computer porograms to study the nucleotide sequences of viral genomes, the amino acid compositions of proteins coded by viral genomes, and searches for regulatory mechanisms in viral nucleic acid replication, as well as identities of motifs in proteins of viruses from all families, will provide additional information on the subject. In future issues that will be devoted to this subject, the origin and evolution of RNA and DNA viruses will be further investigated.
Category: Medical

Viruses Essential Agents Of Life

Author : Günther Witzany
ISBN : 9789400748996
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.80 MB
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A renaissance of virus research is taking centre stage in biology. Empirical data from the last decade indicate the important roles of viruses, both in the evolution of all life and as symbionts of host organisms. There is increasing evidence that all cellular life is colonized by exogenous and/or endogenous viruses in a non-lytic but persistent lifestyle. Viruses and viral parts form the most numerous genetic matter on this planet.
Category: Science

Origin Of Group Identity

Author : Luis P. Villarreal
ISBN : 0387779981
Genre : Science
File Size : 50.21 MB
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A sense of belonging is basic to the human experience. But in this, humans are not unique. Essentially all life, from bacteria to humans, have ways by which it determines which members belong and which do not. This is a basic cooperative nature of life I call group membership which is examined in this book. However, cooperation of living things is not easily accounted for by current theory of evolutionary biology and yet even viruses display group membership. That viruses have this feature would likely seem coincidental or irrelevant to most scientist as having any possible relationship to human group identity. Surely such simple molecular-based relationships between viruses are unrelated to the complex cognitive and emotional nature of human group membership. Yet viruses clearly affect bacterial group membership, which are the most diverse and abundant cellular life form on Earth and from which all life has evolved. Viruses are the most ancient, numerous and adaptable biological entities we know. And we have long recognized them for the harm and disease they can cause, and they have been responsible for the greatest numbers of human deaths. However, with the sequencing of entire genomes and more recently with the shotgun sequencings of habitats, we have come to realize viruses are the black hole of biology; a giant force that has until recently been largely unseen and historically ignored by evolutionary biology. Viruses not only can cause acute disease, but also persist as stable unseen agents in their host.
Category: Science

Encyclopedia Of Microbiology

Author :
ISBN : 9780123739445
Genre : Science
File Size : 30.31 MB
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Available as an exclusive product with a limited print run, Encyclopedia of Microbiology, 3e, is a comprehensive survey of microbiology, edited by world-class researchers. Each article is written by an expert in that specific domain and includes a glossary, list of abbreviations, defining statement, introduction, further reading and cross-references to other related encyclopedia articles. Written at a level suitable for university undergraduates, the breadth and depth of coverage will appeal beyond undergraduates to professionals and academics in related fields. 16 separate areas of microbiology covered for breadth and depth of content Extensive use of figures, tables, and color illustrations and photographs Language is accessible for undergraduates, depth appropriate for scientists Links to original journal articles via Crossref 30% NEW articles and 4-color throughout - NEW!
Category: Science

Viral Pathogenesis In Diagrams

Author : Hans-Wolfgang Ackermann
ISBN : 0849322073
Genre : Science
File Size : 71.82 MB
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Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams is the first book of its kind to illustrate viral pathogenesis on a comparative basis. The text covers the pathogenesis of viral diseases, including vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, and protists. The diagrams summarize and integrate large numbers of observations, from electron microscopy to clinical data, into a single picture or a few related drawings. Organized alphabetically by virus family or groups, this book covers the complete domain of virology. Transcending photographs and experimental data, the diagrams are ideally suited to illustrate the pathogenesis of viral diseases, from infection to host defenses and cell death. Included are two chapters describing general pathogenesis in vertebrate virus infections and illustrating the spread of viruses through the body, as well as cytopathology and host defenses. One chapter illustrates the pathogenic behavior of 19 vertebrate virus families, especially herpesviruses and retroviruses. The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci. This up-to-date reference will promote understanding and future research.
Category: Science