NATURAL KINDS AND CLASSIFICATION IN SCIENTIFIC PRACTICE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF BIOLOGY

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Natural Kinds And Classification In Scientific Practice

Author : Catherine Kendig
ISBN : 9781317215424
Genre : Science
File Size : 78.83 MB
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This edited volume of 13 new essays aims to turn past discussions of natural kinds on their head. Instead of presenting a metaphysical view of kinds based largely on an unempirical vantage point, it pursues questions of kindedness which take the use of kinds and activities of kinding in practice as significant in the articulation of them as kinds. The book brings philosophical study of current and historical episodes and case studies from various scientific disciplines to bear on natural kinds as traditionally conceived of within metaphysics. Focusing on these practices reveals the different knowledge-producing activities of kinding and processes involved in natural kind use, generation, and discovery. Specialists in their field, the esteemed group of contributors use diverse empirically responsive approaches to explore the nature of kindhood. This groundbreaking volume presents detailed case studies that exemplify kinding in use. Newly written for this volume, each chapter engages with the activities of kinding across a variety of disciplines. Chapter topics include the nature of kinds, kindhood, kinding, and kind-making in linguistics, chemical classification, neuroscience, gene and protein classification, colour theory in applied mathematics, homology in comparative biology, sex and gender identity theory, memory research, race, extended cognition, symbolic algebra, cartography, and geographic information science. The volume seeks to open up an as-yet unexplored area within the emerging field of philosophy of science in practice, and constitutes a valuable addition to the disciplines of philosophy and history of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
Category: Science

The Biological Foundations Of Action

Author : Derek M Jones
ISBN : 9781317196037
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 64.45 MB
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Philosophers have traditionally assumed that the difference between active and passive movement could be explained by the presence or absence of an intention in the mind of the agent. This assumption has led to the neglect of many interesting active behaviors that do not depend on intentions, including the "mindless" actions of humans and the activities of non-human animals. In this book Jones offers a broad account of agency that unifies these cases. The book addresses a range of questions, including: When are movements properly attributed to whole agents, rather than to their parts? What does it mean for an agent to guide its action? What distinguishes agents from other complex systems? What is the relationship between action and adaptive behavior? And why might the study of living systems be the key to understanding agency? This book makes an important contribution to current philosophical debate on the nature and origins of agency. It defines action as a uniquely biological process and recasts human intentional action as a specialized case of a broader and more common phenomenon than has been previously assumed. Uniting findings from philosophy, cognitive science, psychology, biology, computer science, complexity theory and ethology, this book will be of interest to students and scholars working in these areas.
Category: Philosophy

Organisms And Personal Identity

Author : A.M. Ferner
ISBN : 9781317245698
Genre : Science
File Size : 70.10 MB
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Over his philosophical career, David Wiggins has produced a body of work that, though varied and wide-ranging, stands as a coherent and carefully integrated whole. In this book Ferner examines Wiggins’ conceptualist-realism, his sortal theory ‘D’ and his human being theory in order to assess how far these elements of his systematic metaphysics connect. In addition to rectifying misinterpretations and analysing the relations between Wiggins’ works, Ferner reveals the importance of the philosophy of biology to Wiggins’ approach. This book elucidates the biological anti-reductionism present in Wiggins’ work and highlights how this stance stands as a productive alternative to emergentism. With an analysis of Wiggins’ construal of substances, specifically organisms, the book goes on to discuss how Wiggins brings together the concept of a person with the concept of a natural substance, or human being. An extensive introduction to the work of David Wiggins, as well as a contribution to the dialogue between personal identity theorists and philosophers of biology, this book will appeal to students and scholars working in the areas of philosophy, biology and the history of Anglophone metaphysics.
Category: Science

Scientific Enquiry And Natural Kinds

Author : P. Magnus
ISBN : 9781137271259
Genre : Science
File Size : 31.48 MB
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Some scientific categories seem to correspond to genuine features of the world and are indispensable for successful science in some domain; in short, they are natural kinds . This book gives a general account of what it is to be a natural kind and puts the account to work illuminating numerous specific examples.
Category: Science

Philosophy Of Stem Cell Biology

Author : M. Fagan
ISBN : 9781137296023
Genre : Science
File Size : 30.49 MB
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This examination of stem cell biology from a philosophy of science perspective clarifies the field's central concept, the stem cell, as well as its aims, methods, models, explanations and evidential challenges. Relations to systems biology and clinical medicine are also discussed.
Category: Science

Abenteuer Am Amazonas Und Am Rio Negro

Author : Alfred Russel Wallace
ISBN : 9783462308075
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 52.16 MB
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Sammler des verlorenen Schatzes. Ein waghalsiger Forscher begibt sich auf eine der abenteuerlichsten Expeditionen, die es je gab: Alfred Russel Wallace und seine Forschungsreise ins Amazonasgebiet. Auf eigene Faust bricht der Naturenthusiast Alfred Russel Wallace im Jahr 1848 von England nach Brasilien auf, um die Tier- und Pf lanzenwelt am Amazonas zu erforschen. Wallace schlägt sich von Pará (heute Belém) aus zu den Oberläufen des Rio Negro durch – und gelangt dabei in Gegenden, die noch kein Europäer vor ihm betreten hatte. Die Beobachtung der Affen- und Schmetterlingsarten an beiden Flussufern bringt ihn erstmals auf die Spur der Evolutionstheorie, die er später zeitgleich mit Charles Darwin entwickeln wird. Die Erträge seiner Expedition sind großartig, das Unternehmen endet jedoch in einer Katastrophe: Von Krankheiten, Sandf löhen (die ihre Eier unter seine Zehennägel legen) und den ewigen Kriebelmücken geplagt, ist Wallace am Ende so ausgezehrt, dass er nur mit der Hilfe der Einheimischen überlebt. Die aber trinken den Alkohol, mit dem eigentlich die Fundstücke konserviert werden sollten; und Horden von Ameisen machen sich über die Sammlung her. Auf dem Rückweg setzt Wallace alles auf eine Karte: Er selbst, seine Aufzeichnungen und Zigtausende Sammlungsstücke treten auf dem Zweimaster Helen die Heimreise an. Auf hoher See bricht an Bord ein Feuer aus. Die Besatzung kann sich auf Beiboote retten. Doch für Wallace’ Sammlung, auch für die lebenden Affen und Vögel, die in England an Zoos und Sammler verkauft werden sollten, gibt es keine Rettung. Nur einen einzigen Papagei kann Wallace lebend aus dem Wasser fischen. Der gesamte Ertrag seiner Reise versinkt in den Fluten des Ozeans. Zurück in England, rekonstruiert Wallace seine Erlebnisse anhand von wenigen Notizen und Erinnerungen. Seinen Reisebericht, sowohl Abenteuerroman, Forschungsgeschichte und frühes Zeugnis der Suche nach dem Ursprung der Arten, gab es auf Deutsch nur 1855 in einer stark verstümmelten Fassung – nun, nach über 150 Jahren, wird er endlich für die deutschsprachige Leserschaft erschlossen!
Category: Biography & Autobiography