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Moral Reason

Author : Julia Markovits
ISBN : 9780199567171
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 53.92 MB
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What is it to have a reason to do something? is one sort of question; what is it we have reason to do? is another. These questions are often explored separately. But our answers to them may not be independent: what reasons are may have implications for what reasons there are. In Moral Reason, Julia Markovits develops and defends a version of a desire-based, internalist, account of what normative reasons are. But doesthat account entail that there are no moral reasons that apply to all of us, regardless of what we happen to desire? It may look obvious that it does--that a bullet must be bitten somewhere. But on Markovits' account, the bullet may yet be avoided. She builds on Kant's argument for his formula of humanity to provide an internalist defense ofuniversal moral reasons, and provides a more satisfying answer to the age-old question: why be moral?
Category: Philosophy

Self And Others

Author : Jan Österberg
ISBN : 9789400928794
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 65.79 MB
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1. The Aim of This Essay Ethical Egoism, the doctrine that, roughly speaking, one should promote one's own good, has been a live issue since the very beginnings of moral philosophy. Historically, it is the most widely held normative theory, and, next to Utilitarianism, it is the most intensely debated one. What is at stake in this debate is a fundamental question of ethics: 'Is there any reason, except self-interest, for considering the interests of other people?' The ethical egoist answers No to this question, thus rejecting the received conception of morality. Is Ethical Egoism an acceptable position? There are many forms of Ethical Egoism, and each may be interpreted in several different ways. So the relevant question is rather, 'Is there an acceptable version of Ethical It is the main aim of this essay to answer this question. This Egoism?' means that I will be confronted with many other controversial questions, for example, 'What is a moral principle?', 'Is value objective or subjec tive?', 'What is the nature of the self?' For the acceptability of most ver sions of Ethical Egoism, it has been alleged, depends on what answers are given to questions such as these. (I will show that in some of these cases there is in fact no such dependence. ) It is, of course, impossible to ad equately discuss all these questions within the compass of my essay.
Category: Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook Of Philosophy Of Emotion

Author : Peter Goldie
ISBN : 9780199235018
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 36.26 MB
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This Handbook presents thirty-one state-of-the-art contributions from the most notable writers on philosophy of emotion today. Anyone working on the nature of emotion, its history, or its relation to reason, self, value, or art, whether at the level of research or advanced study, will find the book an unrivalled resource and a fascinating read.
Category: Philosophy

Reason And Morality

Author : Joanna Overing
ISBN : 9781135800475
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 55.75 MB
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First Published in 1985. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Category: Philosophy

Freiheit Und Vernunft

Author : Richard Mervyn Hare
ISBN : 3518280570
Genre :
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Jeder, der vor einem ernsten moralischen Problem steht, weiss, dass es sein eigenes Problem ist und dass ihm niemand die Beantwortung desselben abnehmen kann. Dennoch ist die Beantwortung moralischer Fragen nicht willkürlich: wir spüren vielmehr, dass es von ausschlaggebender Bedeutung ist, welche Antwort wir geben, und dass wir bei der Aufgabe, eine Antwort zu finden, unsere rationale Fähigkeiten bis an die Grenzen des Möglichen einsetzen sollten. Auf diese (scheinbare) Antinomie von Freiheit und Vernunft lassen sich fast alle zentralen Auseinandersetzungen in der Moralphilosphie zurückführen.

The Oxford Companion To Philosophy

Author : Ted Honderich
ISBN : 9780199264797
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 83.77 MB
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An in-depth philosophical reference work furnishes clear and reliable guidance on the ideas of philosophers, ranging from antiquity to the present day, and the major philosophical systems around the globe.
Category: Philosophy

Moral Disagreement

Author : Folke Tersman
ISBN : 0521853389
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 68.25 MB
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Folke Tersman explores the nature of moral thinking by examining moral disagreement.
Category: Philosophy

Vagueness And Thought

Author : Andrew Bacon
ISBN : 9780191020032
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 66.85 MB
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Vagueness is the study of concepts that admit borderline cases: the property of being bald is vague because there are people who are neither definitely bald, nor definitely not bald. The epistemology of vagueness concerns the sorts of attitudes we ought to have towards propositions we know to be borderline. Is it possible to discover whether a borderline bald man is bald? Could two people with access to the same facts reasonably disagree about whether he is bald? Does it matter, when making practical decisions, whether he is bald? By drawing on such considerations, Andrew Bacon develops a novel theory of vagueness in which vagueness is fundamentally a property of propositions, and is explicated in terms of its role in thought. On this theory, language plays little role in explaining the central puzzles of vagueness. Part I of the book outlines some of the central questions regarding the logic and epistemology of vagueness, and criticizes some extant approaches to them. Part II concerns issues in the epistemology of vagueness, touching on the ramifications of vague thoughts on the study of evidence, ignorance, desire, probability theory, and decision theory. By examining the effects of vague information on one's beliefs about the precise, a positive theory of vagueness is proposed. Part III concerns the logic of vagueness, including the interaction between vagueness and modality, vague identity, and the paradoxes of higher-order vagueness. Bacon suggests that some familiar philosophical notions — including the concept of a fundamental proposition, a possible world and a precisification — need to be revised.
Category: Philosophy

The Kantian Sublime

Author : Paul Crowther
ISBN : 9780198239314
Genre : Religion
File Size : 72.91 MB
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In recent years Kant's aesthetic theory has been the subject of a widespread revival of interest amongst English-speaking philosophers. This revival, however, has not so far encompassed Kant's aesthetic of the sublime. This neglect is unfortunate because, amongst Continental philosophers, the Kantian sublime is currently receiving widespread discussion in debates about the nature of postmodernism. Paul Crowther thus breaks new ground by providing what is probably the first monograph in any language to be devoted exclusively to Kant's theory of the sublime.
Category: Religion

Iris Murdoch Philosopher

Author : Justin Broackes
ISBN : 9780199289905
Genre : Philosophy
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This is a collection of essays on Iris Murdoch, who was a notable philosopher as well as novelist. She was and remained an admirer of Wittgenstein, and she taught at Oxford for 15 years; but she believed that British Philosophy needed the influence also of continental Europe, and above all from Kant and Hegel. Her philosophical books have the distinction of exciting a wide general readership as well as students and professionals-and, while they aim atrehabilitating a kind of metaphysics, they also aim to help us with the very practical question 'How can we make ourselves morally better?' This book gives not only an introduction to Murdoch's important philosophical life and work, but also a picture of British philosophy in one of its heydays and at animportant moment of transition.
Category: Philosophy