MOHAMMED CHARLEMAGNE THE ORIGINS OF EUROPE

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Mohammed Charlemagne The Origins Of Europe

Author : Richard Hodges
ISBN : 0801492629
Genre : History
File Size : 23.36 MB
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In this concise book, Richard Hodges and David Whitehouse review the 'Pirenne thesis' in the light of archaeological information from northern Europe, the Mediterranean and western Asia.
Category: History

Mohammed Charlemagne Revisited

Author : Emmet Scott
ISBN : 0578094185
Genre : Christianity and other religions
File Size : 83.9 MB
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During the 1920s Belgian historian Henri Pirenne came to an astonishing conclusion: the ancient classical civilization, which Rome had established throughout Europe and the Mediterranean world, was not destroyed by the Barbarians who invaded the western provinces in the fifth century, it was destroyed by the Arabs, whose conquest of the Middle East and North Africa terminated Roman civilization in those regions and cut off Europe from any further trading and cultural contact with the East. According to Pirenne, it was only in the mid-seventh century that the characteristic features of classical life disappeared from Europe, after which time the continent began to develop its own distinctive and somewhat primitive medieval culture. Pirenne's findings, published posthumously in his Mohammed et Charlemagne (1937), were even then highly controversial, for by the late nineteenth century many historians were moving towards a quite different conclusion: namely that the Arabs were actually a civilizing force who rekindled the light of classical learning in Europe after it had been extinguished by the Goths, Vandals and Huns in the fifth century. And because Pirenne went so diametrically against the grain of this thinking, the reception of his new thesis tended to be hostile. Paper after paper published during the 1940s and '50s strove to refute him. The most definitive rebuttal however appeared in the early 1980s. This was Mohammed, Charlemagne and the Origins of Europe, by English archaeologists Richard Hodges and David Whitehouse. These, in common with Pirenne's earlier critics, argued that classical civilization was already dead in Europe by the time of the Arab conquests, and that the Arabs arrived on the scene as civilizers rather than destroyers. Hodges and Whitehouse claimed that the latest findings of archaeology fully supported this view, and their work was highly influential. So influential indeed that over the next three decades Pirenne and his thesis was progressively sidelined, so that recent years have seen the publication of dozens of titles in the English language alone which fail even to mention his name. In Mohammed and Charlemagne Revisited historian Emmet Scott reviews the evidence put forward by Hodges and Whitehouse, as well as the more recent findings of archaeology, and comes to a rather different conclusion. For him, the evidence shows that classical civilization was not dead in Europe at the start of the seventh century, but was actually experiencing something of a revival. Populations and towns were beginning to grow again for the first time since this second century - a development apparently attributable largely to the spread of Christianity. In addition, the real centres of classical civilization, in the Middle East, were experiencing an unprecedented Golden Age at the time, with cities larger and more prosperous than ever before. Excavation has shown that these were destroyed thoroughly and completely by the Arab conquests, with many never again reoccupied. And it was precisely then, says Scott, that Europe's classical culture also disappeared, with the abandonment of the undefended lowland villas and farms of the Roman period and a retreat to fortified hilltop settlements; the first medieval castles. For Scott, archaeology demonstrated that the Arabs did indeed blockade the Mediterranean through piracy and slave-raiding, precisely as Pirenne had claimed, and he argues that the disappearance of papyrus from Europe was an infallible proof of this. Whatever classical learning survived after this time, says Scott, was due almost entirely to the efforts of Christian monks. The Pirenne thesis has taken on a new significance in the post 9/11 world. Scott's take on the theory will certainly ignite further and perhaps heated debate.
Category: Christianity and other religions

Mohammed And Charlemagne

Author : Henri Pirenne
ISBN : 9781135030186
Genre : Religion
File Size : 60.29 MB
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This posthumous work of the renowned scholar Henri Pirenne (originally published in 1939) offered a new and decisive explanation of the evolution of Europe from the time of Constantine to that of Charlemagne. His revolutionary ideas overthrew many of the most cherished conceptions concerning the Middle Ages: namely that "the Germanic invasions destroyed neither the Mediterranean unity of the ancient world, nor the essential features of Roman culture" and that "the cause of the break with the tradition of antiquity was the advance of Islam..."
Category: Religion

Medieval Cities

Author : Henri Pirenne
ISBN : 9781400851201
Genre : History
File Size : 34.52 MB
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Nearly a century after it was first published in 1925, Medieval Cities remains one of the most provocative works of medieval history ever written. Here, Henri Pirenne argues that it was not the invasion of the Germanic tribes that destroyed the civilization of antiquity, but rather the closing of Mediterranean trade by Arab conquest in the seventh century. The consequent interruption of long-distance commerce accelerated the decline of the ancient cities of Europe. Pirenne challenges conventional wisdom by attributing the origins of medieval cities to the revival of trade, tracing their growth from the tenth century to the twelfth. He also describes the important role the middle class played in the development of the modern economic system and modern culture. Featuring a new introduction by Michael McCormick, this Princeton Classics edition of Medieval Cities is essential reading for all students of medieval European history.
Category: History

Charlemagne Muhammad And The Arab Roots Of Capitalism

Author : Gene William Heck
ISBN : 9783110202830
Genre : History
File Size : 53.26 MB
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Gene W. Heck explores the role of Islam in precipitating Europe’s twelfth century commercial renaissance. Determining that Europe’s medieval feudal interregnum was largely caused by indigenous governmental business regulation and not by shifts in international trade patterns, he demonstrates how Islamic economic precepts provided the ideological rationales that empowered medieval Europe to escape its three-centuries-long experiment in “Dark Age economics” – in the process, providing the West with its archetypic tools of capitalism.
Category: History

A History Of Europe

Author : Henri Pirenne
ISBN : 1494121743
Genre :
File Size : 50.53 MB
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This is a new release of the original 1955 edition.
Category:

Dark Age Economics

Author : Richard Hodges
ISBN : 0715616668
Genre : History
File Size : 87.14 MB
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It was in the second half of the first millennium A.D. that northern Europe took on the basic configuration that it now presents. Recently a wealth of new archaeological evidence has emerged to enable historians to assess the growth of international trade and the evolution of towns in this crucial period. This book analyses models of economic evelopment in the light of this new evidence to evaluate not only the changing character of the first post-Roman urban centers but also the organization of the countryside which supported them. Boat remains, coins and trade artifacts are all examined. Finally, a general account is offered of the role of towns and trade in the creation of Western Europe. This is the first synthesis of its kind for the medieval period, and confirms the importance of archaeology as a major source of evidence for an understanding of the economic history of the Dark Ages.
Category: History

Economic And Social History Of Medieval Europe

Author : Henri Pirenne
ISBN : UCAL:B3826898
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 84.9 MB
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The Belgian historian attempts an international viewpoint in this general history of the social and economic evolution in Western Europe
Category: Business & Economics

Towns And Trade In The Age Of Charlemagne

Author : Richard Hodges
ISBN : STANFORD:36105110659906
Genre : History
File Size : 49.91 MB
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This is an illustrated study of towns and trade in the age of Charlemagne, in the Debates in Archaeology series, which analyses urban continuity and discontinuity in Europe during the Dark Ages. It examines the important continuing discussion of the rebirth of urbanism in Carolingian Europe. Drawing upon new archaeological evidence from southern and northern Europe, Richard Hodges looks at the end of towns in Roman antiquity, the phenomenon of the Dark Age emporium, and the hotly disputed mechanisms which led to the inception of market towns during the age of Charlemagne. He focusses particularly on recently excavated evidence from the Mediterranean, as well as from England.
Category: History

Holy Warriors

Author : John J. O'Neill
ISBN : 9780980994896
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 67.47 MB
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Historian O'Neill examines a great variety of evidence from many specialties and reaches an astonishing and novel conclusion: Classical Greek Civilization was not destroyed by Barbarians or by Christians. It survived intact into the mid-7th century when everything changed.
Category: Architecture