MICROMOTIVES AND MACROBEHAVIOR

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Micromotives And Macrobehavior

Author : Thomas C. Schelling
ISBN : 9780393069778
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 61.82 MB
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Before Freakonomics and The Tipping Point there was this classic by the 2005 Nobel Laureate in Economics. "Schelling here offers an early analysis of 'tipping' in social situations involving a large number of individuals." —official citation for the 2005 Nobel Prize Micromotives and Macrobehavior was originally published over twenty-five years ago, yet the stories it tells feel just as fresh today. And the subject of these stories—how small and seemingly meaningless decisions and actions by individuals often lead to significant unintended consequences for a large group—is more important than ever. In one famous example, Thomas C. Schelling shows that a slight-but-not-malicious preference to have neighbors of the same race eventually leads to completely segregated populations. The updated edition of this landmark book contains a new preface and the author's Nobel Prize acceptance speech.
Category: Business & Economics

Strategy And Choice

Author : Richard J. Zeckhauser
ISBN : 0262240335
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 82.86 MB
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From the coalition's desert showdown with Saddam Hussein to the dieter's duel with himself in the midnight kitchen, strategic choices determine destinies. These essays by wellknown scholars - economists, psychologists, philosophers, and political scientists, inspired by master strategist Thomas Schelling - present the most significant recent advances in strategic choice theory.In activities ranging from gift giving to political wheeling and dealing, men and women strive ingeniously - though sometimes counterproductively - to secure desired outcomes. But as this book makes clear' the fundamental questions for strategy continually reappear: What factors motivate individuals' values and actions? What principles guide effective bargaining? How can incentives and decision processes be structured to yield desirable collective outcomes?In three parts, the book addresses many-player, fewplayer, and one-player situations. The first takes up questions such as: What outcomes result when an individual's welfare depends on comparisons with the situation of others? Under what circumstances do we expect many-player outcomes to at least resemble participants' desired outcomes? The second asks how we can build trust, distinguish between gifts and bribes, make commitments credible, or employ third parties to improve our bargaining position. The final part of the book focuses on the struggle of the individual decision maker. How does the recollected past influence one's evaluation of the present? How can we cope with errors in decision making? When should we rely on rules and principles, as opposed to the careful weighing of alternatives prescribed by the theory of rational choice? And - the most ethically challenging question - how shall we value human life?Richard Zeckhauser is Frank P. Ramsey Professor of Political Economy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.Contributors: Vincent P. Crawford. Avinash Dixit. Jon Elster. Robert H. Frank. Jerry R. Green. Dale Griffin. Russell Hardin. Richard J. Herrnstein. Robert Jervis. Robert Klitgaard. Howard Margolis. Barry Nalebuff. Mancur Olson. Drazen Prelec. Howard Raiffa. Amos Tversky. W. Kip Viscusi. Richard Zeckhauser.
Category: Business & Economics

Social Mechanisms

Author : Peter Hedström
ISBN : 0521596874
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 76.64 MB
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The advancement of social theory requires an analytical approach that systematically seeks to explicate the social mechanisms that generate and explain observed associations between events. These essays, written by prominent social scientists, advance criticisms of current trends in social theory and suggest alternative approaches. The mechanism approach calls attention to an intermediary level of analysis in between pure description and story-telling, on the one hand, and grand theorizing and universal social laws, on the other. For social theory to be of use for the working social scientist, it must attain a high level of precision and provide a toolbox from which middle range theories can be constructed.
Category: Political Science

Economics And Sociology

Author : Richard Swedberg
ISBN : 0691003769
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 49.12 MB
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The boundary between economics and sociology is presently being redefined--but how, why, and by whom? Richard Swedberg answers these questions in this thought-provoking book of conversations with well-known economists and sociologists. Among the economists interviewed are Gary Becker, Amartya Sen, Kenneth Arrow, and Albert O. Hirschman; the sociologists include Daniel Bell, Harrison White, James Coleman, and Mark Granovetter. The picture that emerges is that economists and sociologists have paid little attention to each other during most of the twentieth century: social problems have been analyzed as if they had no economic dimension and economic problems as if they had no social dimension. Today, however, there is a dialogue between the two fields, as economists take on social topics and as sociologists become interested in rational choice and "new economic sociology." The interviewees describe how they came to challenge the present separation between economics and sociology, what they think of the various proposals to integrate the fields, and how they envision the future. The author summarizes the results of the conversations in the final chapter. The individual interviews also serve as superb introductions to the work of these scholars.
Category: Business & Economics

National Choices And International Processes

Author : Zeev Maoz
ISBN : 0521365953
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 53.1 MB
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National Choices and International Processes will be of interest to students and specialists in foreign policy and international relations theory.
Category: Political Science

Irrationality In Health Care

Author : Douglas E. Hough
ISBN : 9780804785747
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 44.58 MB
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The health care industry in the U.S. is peculiar. We spend close to 18% of our GDP on health care, yet other countries get better results—and we don't know why. To date, we still lack widely accepted answers to simple questions, such as "Would requiring everyone to buy health insurance make us better off?" Drawing on behavioral economics as an alternative to the standard tools of health economics, author Douglas E. Hough seeks to more clearly diagnose the ills of health care today. A behavioral perspective makes sense of key contradictions—from the seemingly irrational choices that we sometimes make as patients, to the incongruous behavior of physicians, to the morass of the long-lived debate surrounding reform. With the new health care law in effect, it is more important than ever that consumers, health care industry leaders, and the policymakers who are governing change reckon with the power and sources of our behavior when it comes to health.
Category: Business & Economics

The United Nations And The Rationale For Collective Intelligence

Author : Bassey Ekpe
ISBN : 9781604976144
Genre : Law
File Size : 62.4 MB
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Taking as its central argument the question of whether an intelligence system is both desirable and feasible within the UN structure, this study explores the complex and sometimes, irreconcilable issues of strategic intelligence in a sharing context. This study further identifies and develops both conceptual and empirical framework for a viable intelligence capability in multi-agency institutions; exploring and suggesting, for the first time, necessary and acceptable conditions for collective intelligence in an environment characterised by conflicting objectives among international actors. It takes as its main premise the view that the United Nations and the world of intelligence are two separate and contradicting entities that conflict in both principles and operating doctrines. From this point of view, the author explores the many theoretical imperatives which set the two institutions apart and stand in the way of understanding the concepts. He also goes further to examine the contexts in which the contradictions could be harmonised. This book is one of a handful of studies; it is highly original in that it focuses on the relationship between intelligence and the United Nations. While previous efforts to examine the subject have approached it from a strictly practical point of view, this work is clearly focused on the linkages between theory and practice. The methodology is thoughtful and broad in scope, and the work is theoretically well informed and sophisticated in its analysis of the subject matter. The discussion of aspects of the theory of international relations--specifically those relevant to the role of international governance and the examination of the working of the UN--and several case studies of the UN in action are further characteristics of the rigor and clarity in which the author approaches the study in an intelligent and illuminating manner. While the book's many contributions can be found at various levels of originality, its thorough assessment of the linkage between theory and policy stands out, perhaps, as the most important and primary contribution to the areas of collective intelligence and international relations. Other important contributions include the case study analyses and specification of criteria for evaluating collective security intelligence mechanisms. In essence, a lack of scholarly efforts to ground the notion of collective intelligence within a rigorous intellectual framework is a significant vacuum in the study of intelligence which the present study has filled. Scholars working within the international relations discipline and more specifically issues of global governance and security will find this study invaluable. The book should also appeal to many categories of readers working in information and policy environment, as well as governmental and non-governmental organisations.
Category: Law

Strategies Of Commitment And Other Essays

Author : Thomas C. Schelling
ISBN : 0674025679
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 74.74 MB
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All of the essays in this new collection by Thomas Schelling convey his unique perspective on individuals and society. Schelling, a 2005 Nobel Prize winner, has been one of the four or five most important social scientists of the past fifty years, and this collection shows why.
Category: Business & Economics

Agent Based Computational Sociology

Author : Flaminio Squazzoni
ISBN : 9781119941637
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 81.32 MB
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Most of the intriguing social phenomena of our time, such as international terrorism, social inequality, and urban ethnic segregation, are consequences of complex forms of agent interaction that are difficult to observe methodically and experimentally. This book looks at a new research stream that makes use of advanced computer simulation modelling techniques to spotlight agent interaction that allows us to explain the emergence of social patterns. It presents a method to pursue analytical sociology investigations that look at relevant social mechanisms in various empirical situations, such as markets, urban cities, and organisations. This book: Provides a comprehensive introduction to epistemological, theoretical and methodological features of agent-based modelling in sociology through various discussions and examples. Presents the pros and cons of using agent-based models in sociology. Explores agent-based models in combining quantitative and qualitative aspects, and micro- and macro levels of analysis. Looks at how to pose an agent-based research question, identifying the model building blocks, and how to validate simulation results. Features examples of agent-based models that look at crucial sociology issues. Supported by an accompanying website featuring data sets and code for the models included in the book. Agent-Based Computational Sociology is written in a common sociological language and features examples of models that look at all the traditional explanatory challenges of sociology. Researchers and graduate students involved in the field of agent-based modelling and computer simulation in areas such as social sciences, cognitive sciences and computer sciences will benefit from this book.
Category: Social Science