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Mathematical Models Of Social Evolution

Author : Richard McElreath
ISBN : 9780226558288
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 85.2 MB
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Over the last several decades, mathematical models have become central to the study of social evolution, both in biology and the social sciences. But students in these disciplines often seriously lack the tools to understand them. A primer on behavioral modeling that includes both mathematics and evolutionary theory, Mathematical Models of Social Evolution aims to make the student and professional researcher in biology and the social sciences fully conversant in the language of the field. Teaching biological concepts from which models can be developed, Richard McElreath and Robert Boyd introduce readers to many of the typical mathematical tools that are used to analyze evolutionary models and end each chapter with a set of problems that draw upon these techniques. Mathematical Models of Social Evolution equips behaviorists and evolutionary biologists with the mathematical knowledge to truly understand the models on which their research depends. Ultimately, McElreath and Boyd’s goal is to impart the fundamental concepts that underlie modern biological understandings of the evolution of behavior so that readers will be able to more fully appreciate journal articles and scientific literature, and start building models of their own.
Category: Social Science

Guide For The Perplexed

Author : E. F. Schumacher
ISBN : 9780060906115
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 81.89 MB
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The author of the world wide best-seller, Small Is Beautiful, now tackles the subject of Man, the World, and the Meaning of Living. Schumacher writes about man's relation to the world. man has obligations -- to other men, to the earth, to progress and technology, but most importantly himself. If man can fulfill these obligations, then and only then can he enjoy a real relationship with the world, then and only then can he know the meaning of living. Schumacher says we need maps: a "map of knowledge" and a "map of living." The concern of the mapmaker--in this instance, Schumacher--is to find for everything it's proper place. Things out of place tend to get lost; they become invisible and there proper places end to be filled by other things that ought not be there at all and therefore serve to mislead. A Guide for the Perplexed teaches us to be our own map makers. This constantly surprising, always stimulating book will be welcomed by a large audience, including the many new fans who believe strongly in what Schumacher has to say.
Category: Philosophy

Foundations Of Social Evolution

Author : Steven A. Frank
ISBN : 0691059349
Genre : Science
File Size : 60.13 MB
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This is a masterly theoretical treatment of one of the central problems in evolutionary biology, the evolution of social cooperation and conflict. Steven Frank tackles the problem with a highly original combination of approaches: game theory, classical models of natural selection, quantitative genetics, and kin selection. He unites these with the best of economic thought: a clear theory of model formation and comparative statics, the development of simple methods for analyzing complex problems, and notions of information and rationality. Using this unique, multidisciplinary approach, Frank makes major advances in understanding the foundations of social evolution. Frank begins by developing the three measures of value used in biology--marginal value, reproductive value, and kin selection. He then combines these measures into a coherent framework, providing the first unified analysis of social evolution in its full ecological and demographic context. Frank also extends the theory of kin selection by showing that relatedness has two distinct meanings. The first is a measure of information about social partners, with close affinity to theories of correlated equilibrium and Bayesian rationality in economic game theory. The second is a measure of the fidelity by which characters are transmitted to future generations--an extended notion of heritability. Throughout, Frank illustrates his methods with many examples, including a complete reformulation of the theory of sex allocation. The book also provides a unique "how-to" guide for constructing models of social behavior. It is essential reading for evolutionary biologists and for economists, mathematicians, and others interested in natural selection.
Category: Science

The Dynamics And Evolution Of Social Systems

Author : Jürgen Klüver
ISBN : 0792364430
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 74.75 MB
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The central topic of this book is the mathematical analysis of social systems, understood in the following rather classical way: social systems consist of social actors who interact according to specific rules of interactions; the dynamics of social systems is then the consequences of these interactions, viz., the self-organization of social systems. According to particular demands of their environment, social systems are able to behave in an adaptive manner, that is they can change their rules of interaction by certain meta rules and thus generate a meta dynamics. It is possible to model and analyse mathematically both dynamics and meta dynamics, using cellular automata and genetic algorithms. These tools allow social systems theory to be carried through as precisely as the theories of natural systems, a feat that has not previously been possible. Readership: Researchers and graduate students in the fields of theoretical sociology and social and general systems theory and other interested scientists. No specialised knowledge of mathematics and/or computer science is required.
Category: Business & Economics

Mathematical Models For Society And Biology

Author : Edward Beltrami
ISBN : 9780124046931
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 20.68 MB
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Mathematical Models for Society and Biology, 2e, is a useful resource for researchers, graduate students, and post-docs in the applied mathematics and life science fields. Mathematical modeling is one of the major subfields of mathematical biology. A mathematical model may be used to help explain a system, to study the effects of different components, and to make predictions about behavior. Mathematical Models for Society and Biology, 2e, draws on current issues to engagingly relate how to use mathematics to gain insight into problems in biology and contemporary society. For this new edition, author Edward Beltrami uses mathematical models that are simple, transparent, and verifiable. Also new to this edition is an introduction to mathematical notions that every quantitative scientist in the biological and social sciences should know. Additionally, each chapter now includes a detailed discussion on how to formulate a reasonable model to gain insight into the specific question that has been introduced. Offers 40% more content – 5 new chapters in addition to revisions to existing chapters Accessible for quick self study as well as a resource for courses in molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology and cell biology, medicine, ecology and evolution, bio-mathematics, and applied math in general Features expanded appendices with an extensive list of references, solutions to selected exercises in the book, and further discussion of various mathematical methods introduced in the book
Category: Social Science

The Genetics Of Altruism

Author : Scott Boorman
ISBN : 9780323148856
Genre : Science
File Size : 75.13 MB
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The Genetics of Altruism covers the primary findings on social evolution, social trait, and altruism from a population genetics standpoint to establish a system of genetic boxes. It presents an evolutionary question with two faces: Why are there so many social species? Why, in all the diversity of the animal kingdom, are the social species so few? To address the evolutionary question, this book focuses on recognition of the fact that on an evolutionary time, scale genetics must underlie all changes in the capacity for social structure and other aspects of organic evolution. It presents comparative analyses framed in mathematical terms; mathematical concepts as a means of getting outside human, perhaps more generally primate and carnivore; frames of reference; and alternative network combinatorics as a natural basis for comparing social structures that are phylogenetically remote. It also discusses the comparative biology of social behavior on a purely descriptive basis through the social and evolutionary structures emergent. The book concludes by discussing major evolutionary pathways, various kinds of preadaptedness for sociality, and the use of cascade principle to suggest ways in which human evolution may have been a special case. This book is a valuable resource for biologists, social scientists, researchers, students, and all those who want to broaden their knowledge in the field of social behavior and altruism.
Category: Science

An Introduction To Mathematical Models In Ecology And Evolution

Author : Michael Gillman
ISBN : 9781405194891
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.14 MB
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Students often find it difficult to grasp fundamental ecological and evolutionary concepts because of their inherently mathematical nature. Likewise, the application of ecological and evolutionary theory often requires a high degree of mathematical competence. This book is a first step to addressing these difficulties, providing a broad introduction to the key methods and underlying concepts of mathematical models in ecology and evolution. The book is intended to serve the needs of undergraduate and postgraduate ecology and evolution students who need to access the mathematical and statistical modelling literature essential to their subjects. The book assumes minimal mathematics and statistics knowledge whilst covering a wide variety of methods, many of which are at the fore–front of ecological and evolutionary research. The book also highlights the applications of modelling to practical problems such as sustainable harvesting and biological control. Key features: Written clearly and succinctly, requiring minimal in–depth knowledge of mathematics Introduces students to the use of computer models in both fields of ecology and evolutionary biology Market – senior undergraduate students and beginning postgraduates in ecology and evolutionary biology
Category: Science

A Biologist S Guide To Mathematical Modeling In Ecology And Evolution

Author : Sarah P. Otto
ISBN : 9781400840915
Genre : Science
File Size : 38.81 MB
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Thirty years ago, biologists could get by with a rudimentary grasp of mathematics and modeling. Not so today. In seeking to answer fundamental questions about how biological systems function and change over time, the modern biologist is as likely to rely on sophisticated mathematical and computer-based models as traditional fieldwork. In this book, Sarah Otto and Troy Day provide biology students with the tools necessary to both interpret models and to build their own. The book starts at an elementary level of mathematical modeling, assuming that the reader has had high school mathematics and first-year calculus. Otto and Day then gradually build in depth and complexity, from classic models in ecology and evolution to more intricate class-structured and probabilistic models. The authors provide primers with instructive exercises to introduce readers to the more advanced subjects of linear algebra and probability theory. Through examples, they describe how models have been used to understand such topics as the spread of HIV, chaos, the age structure of a country, speciation, and extinction. Ecologists and evolutionary biologists today need enough mathematical training to be able to assess the power and limits of biological models and to develop theories and models themselves. This innovative book will be an indispensable guide to the world of mathematical models for the next generation of biologists. A how-to guide for developing new mathematical models in biology Provides step-by-step recipes for constructing and analyzing models Interesting biological applications Explores classical models in ecology and evolution Questions at the end of every chapter Primers cover important mathematical topics Exercises with answers Appendixes summarize useful rules Labs and advanced material available
Category: Science

Mathematical Modeling Of Biological Systems Volume Ii

Author : Andreas Deutsch
ISBN : 9780817645564
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 31.25 MB
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Volume II of this two-volume, interdisciplinary work is a unified presentation of a broad range of state-of-the-art topics in the rapidly growing field of mathematical modeling in the biological sciences. Highlighted throughout are mathematical and computational apporaches to examine central problems in the life sciences, ranging from the organization principles of individual cells to the dynamics of large populations. The chapters are thematically organized into the following main areas: epidemiology, evolution and ecology, immunology, neural systems and the brain, and innovative mathematical methods and education. The work will be an excellent reference text for a broad audience of researchers, practitioners, and advanced students in this rapidly growing field at the intersection of applied mathematics, experimental biology and medicine, computational biology, biochemistry, computer science, and physics.
Category: Mathematics

Social Evolution In Ants

Author : Andrew F. G. Bourke
ISBN : 9780691044262
Genre : Science
File Size : 32.95 MB
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Biologists have long been intrigued and confounded by the complex issues in the evolution and ecology of the social behaviour of insects. The self-sacrifice of sterile workers in ant colonies has been particularly difficult for evolutionary biologists to explain. This text presents an overview of the current state of scientific knowledge about social evolution in ants and shows how studies on ants have contributed to an understanding of many fundamental topics in behavioural ecology and evolutionary biology.
Category: Science