MAKING PREHISTORY HISTORICAL SCIENCE AND THE SCIENTIFIC REALISM DEBATE CAMBRIDGE STUDIES IN PHILOSOPHY AND BIOLOGY

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Making Prehistory

Author : Derek Turner
ISBN : 9781139465052
Genre : Science
File Size : 82.73 MB
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Scientists often make surprising claims about things that no one can observe. In physics, chemistry, and molecular biology, scientists can at least experiment on those unobservable entities, but what about researchers in fields such as paleobiology and geology who study prehistory, where no such experimentation is possible? Do scientists discover facts about the distant past or do they, in some sense, make prehistory? In this book Derek Turner argues that this problem has surprising and important consequences for the scientific realism debate. His discussion covers some of the main positions in philosophy of science - realism, social constructivism, empiricism, and the natural ontological attitude - and shows how they relate to issues in paleobiology and geology. His original and thought-provoking book will be of wide interest to philosophers and scientists alike.
Category: Science

Paleontology

Author : Derek Turner
ISBN : 9781139497787
Genre : Science
File Size : 43.76 MB
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In the wake of the paleobiological revolution of the 1970s and 1980s, paleontologists continue to investigate far-reaching questions about how evolution works. Many of those questions have a philosophical dimension. How is macroevolution related to evolutionary changes within populations? Is evolutionary history contingent? How much can we know about the causes of evolutionary trends? How do paleontologists read the patterns in the fossil record to learn about the underlying evolutionary processes? Derek Turner explores these and other questions, introducing the reader to exciting recent work in the philosophy of paleontology and to theoretical issues including punctuated equilibria and species selection. He also critically examines some of the major accomplishments and arguments of paleontologists of the last 40 years.
Category: Science

Willenlos

Author : Jan-Hendrik Heinrichs
ISBN : 9783957438256
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 30.83 MB
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Dieses Buch nimmt eine umfangreiche Erörterung des Willensbegriffs vor. Es beschreibt ausführlich die ideengeschichtlichen Entwicklungslinien verschiedener Willenskonzepte seit der Antike bis in die Gegenwart. Dabei liegt der Fokus darauf, ob eine Epoche überhaupt einen Willensbegriff hatte,und wozu sie ihn verwendete. Die Darstellung ist wesentlich einer systematischen Perspektive verpflichtet, die historische Entwicklungsstränge als Kontrastfolie nutzt, um gegenwärtige Willensansätze argumentativ zu diskutieren. Der ideengeschichtlich-systematische Überblick über verschiedene Willenskonzepte mündet in einer Präzisierung und Klärung, sowie letztlich einer Kritik der aktuellen Debatte um die Freiheit des Willens. Leitende Fragestellungen des Buches sind: Welche Funktionen und Stellungen nimmt der Begriff des ›Willens‹ – besonders in der Philosophie, Psychologie und den Neurowissenschaften – ein und wie verhalten sich diese Funktionen zur Alltagssprache in den lebensweltlichen Kontexten?
Category: Philosophy

Rock Bone And Ruin

Author : Adrian Currie
ISBN : 9780262037266
Genre : Science
File Size : 70.31 MB
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"The Earth's deep past is a fascinating place to visit, both disturbingly alien and hauntingly familiar. In its life, the Earth has frozen solid, supported enormous animals (themselves sporting enormous fleas!), accommodated a diversity of cultures, and a diversity of ways-of-living. Rock, Bone & Ruin asks how much we can know about the deep past. To answer this, we need to understand the resources at our disposal: how do historical scientists like paleontologists, archaeologists and geologists learn about prehistory? Most people think of simple relationships--such as that between a fossilized bone and its long-dead owner--when they consider historical evidence. However, I argue that such scientists are best understood as 'methodological omnivores': they are creative, opportunistic and use a variety of different strategies and techniques. The reasoning used by historical scientists is much more diverse and complex than we have previously realized. And this supports optimism about our capacity to discover the deep past: our knowledge of it shall continue to grow. Along the way, we critically examine philosophical and scientific reflection on the relationship between the past and the present, the nature of evidence, contingency, scientific progress and scientific. Further, I provide suggestions about the value of knowledge about the past--including how it can inform us in the present and into the future--and how such sciences are best supported. The argument draws on fascinating examples from across paleontology, geology and archaeology"--
Category: Science

Explanation In The Special Sciences

Author : Marie I. Kaiser
ISBN : 9789400775633
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 87.18 MB
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Biology and history are often viewed as closely related disciplines, with biology informed by history, especially in its task of charting our evolutionary past. Maximizing the opportunities for cross-fertilization in these two fields requires an accurate reckoning of their commonalities and differences—precisely what this volume sets out to achieve. Specially commissioned essays by a team of recognized international researchers cover the full panoply of topics in these fields and include notable contributions on the correlativity of evolutionary and historical explanations, applying to history the latest causal-mechanical approach in the philosophy of biology, and the question of generalized laws that might pertain across the two subjects. The collection opens with a vital interrogation of general issues on explanation that apart from potentially fruitful areas of interaction (could the etiology of the causal-mechanical perspective in biology account for the historical trajectory of the Roman Empire?) this volume also seeks to chart relative certainties distinguishing explanations in biology and history. It also assesses techniques such as the use of probabilities in biological reconstruction, deployed to overcome the inevitable gaps in physical evidence on early evolution. Methodologies such as causal graphs and semantic explanation receive in-depth analysis. Contributions from a host of prominent and widely read philosophers ensure that this new volume has the stature of a major addition to the literature. ​
Category: Philosophy

Time Of Nature And The Nature Of Time

Author : Christophe Bouton
ISBN : 9783319537252
Genre : Science
File Size : 79.20 MB
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This volume addresses the question of time from the perspective of the time of nature. Its aim is to provide some insights about the nature of time on the basis of the different uses of the concept of time in natural sciences. Presenting a dialogue between philosophy and science, it features a collection of papers that investigate the representation, modeling and understanding of time as they appear in physics, biology, geology and paleontology. It asks questions such as: whether or not the notions of time in the various sciences are reducible to the same physical time, what status should be given to timescale differences, or what are the specific epistemic issues raised by past facts in natural sciences. The book first explores the experience of time and its relation to time in nature in a set of chapters that bring together what human experience and physics enable metaphysicians, logicians and scientists to say about time. Next, it studies time in physics, including some puzzling paradoxes about time raised by the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. The volume then goes on to examine the distinctive problems and conceptions of time in the life sciences. It explores the concept of deep time in paleontology and geology, time in the epistemology of evolutionary biology, and time in developmental biology. Each scientific discipline features a specific approach to time and uses distinctive methodologies for implementing time in its models. This volume seeks to define a common language to conceive of the distinct ways different scientific disciplines view time. In the process, it offers a new approach to the issue of time that will appeal to a wide range of readers: philosophers and historians of science, metaphysicians and natural scientists - be they scholars, advanced students or readers from an educated general audience.
Category: Science

Choice

Author :
ISBN : UCSC:32106018044344
Genre : Academic libraries
File Size : 43.61 MB
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Category: Academic libraries

Eine Kurze Geschichte Der Menschheit

Author : Yuval Noah Harari
ISBN : 9783641104986
Genre : History
File Size : 24.67 MB
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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
Category: History

Vorsokratiker

Author : Christof Rapp
ISBN : 3406547613
Genre : Pre-Socratic philosophers
File Size : 85.68 MB
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Category: Pre-Socratic philosophers