MACHU PICCHU EXPLORING AN ANCIENT SACRED CENTER WORLD HERITAGE AND MONUMENTS

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Machu Picchu

Author : Johan Reinhard
ISBN : STANFORD:36105124100780
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 28.18 MB
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Machu Picchu, recently voted one of the New Wonders of the World, is one of the world's most famous archaeological sites, yet it remains a mystery. Even the most basic questions are still unanswered: What was its meaning and why was it built in such a difficult location? Renowned explorer Johan Reinhard attempts to answer such elusive questions from the perspectives of sacred landscape and archaeoastronomy. Using information gathered from historical, archaeological, and ethnographical sources, Reinhard demonstrates how the site is situated in the center of sacred mountains and associated with a sacred river, which is in turn symbolically linked with the sun's passage. Taken together, these features meant that Machu Picchu formed a cosmological, hydrological, and sacred geological center for a vast region.
Category: Social Science

At Home With The Sapa Inca

Author : Stella Nair
ISBN : 9781477305508
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 77.2 MB
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By examining the stunning stone buildings and dynamic spaces of the royal estate of Chinchero, Nair brings to light the rich complexity of Inca architecture. This investigation ranges from the paradigms of Inca scholarship and a summary of Inca cultural practices to the key events of Topa Inca's reign and the many individual elements of Chinchero's extraordinary built environment. What emerges are the subtle, often sophisticated ways in which the Inca manipulated space and architecture in order to impose their authority, identity, and agenda. The remains of grand buildings, as well as a series of deft architectural gestures in the landscape, reveal the unique places that were created within the royal estate and how one space deeply informed the other. These dynamic settings created private places for an aging ruler to spend time with a preferred wife and son, while also providing impressive spaces for imperial theatrics that reiterated the power of Topa Inca, the choice of his preferred heir, and the ruler's close relationship with sacred forces. This careful study of architectural details also exposes several false paradigms that have profoundly misguided how we understand Inca architecture, including the belief that it ended with the arrival of Spaniards in the Andes. Instead, Nair reveals how, amidst the entanglement and violence of the European encounter, an indigenous town emerged that was rooted in Inca ways of understanding space, place, and architecture and that paid homage to a landscape that defined home for Topa Inca.
Category: Social Science

Ice Maiden

Author : Johan Reinhard
ISBN : 9781426201769
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 61.45 MB
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Johan Reinhard's discovery of the 500-year-old frozen body of an Inca girl made international headlines in 1995, reaching more than a billion people worldwide. One of the best-preserved mummies ever found, it was a stunning and significant time capsule, the spectacular climax to an Andean quest that yielded no fewer than ten ancient human sacrifices as well as the richest collection of Inca artifacts in archaeological history. Here is the paperback edition of his first-person account, which The Washington Post called "incredible…compelling and often astonishing" and The Wall Street Journal described as "… part adventure story, part detective story, and part memoir—an engaging look at a rarefied world." It's a riveting combination of mountaineering adventure, archaeological triumph, academic intrigue, and scientific breakthrough which has produced important results ranging from the best-preserved DNA of its age to the first complete set of an Inca noblewoman's clothing. At once a vivid personal story, a treasure trove of new insights on the lives and culture of the Inca, and a fascinating glimpse of cutting-edge research in fields as varied as biology, botany, pathology, ornithology and history, The Ice Maiden is as spellbinding and unforgettable as the long-dead but still vital young woman at its heart.
Category: Social Science

Machu Picchu

Author : Richard L. Burger
ISBN : 9780300097634
Genre : History
File Size : 43.16 MB
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Details the status of contemporary research on Incan civilization, and addresses mysteries of the founding and abandonment of Machu Picchu, charting its archaeological history from 1911 to the present.
Category: History

Lost City Of The Incas

Author : Hiram Bingham
ISBN : 9780297865339
Genre : History
File Size : 24.84 MB
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First published in the 1950s, this is a classic account of the discovery in 1911 of the lost city of Machu Picchu. In 1911 Hiram Bingham, a pre-historian with a love of exotic destinations, set out to Peru in search of the legendary city of Vilcabamba, capital city of the last Inca ruler, Manco Inca. With a combination of doggedness and good fortune he stumbled on the perfectly preserved ruins of Machu Picchu perched on a cloud-capped ledge 2000 feet above the torrent of the Urubamba River. The buildings were of white granite, exquisitely carved blocks each higher than a man. Bingham had not, as it turned out, found Vilcabamba, but he had nevertheless made an astonishing and memorable discovery, which he describes in his bestselling book LOST CITY OF THE INCAS.
Category: History

Machu Picchu S Sacred Sisters

Author : Gary R. Ziegler
ISBN : 1555664571
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 79.92 MB
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Machu Picchu's Sacred Sisters shows how Inca monumental sites were carefully planned in accordance with astronomical alignments, and precisely placed in relationship to sacred rivers, mountains. It includes stories & notes from expedition journals interspersed with soundly researched & referenced facts, data & qualified interpretation.
Category: Social Science

Managing World Heritage Sites

Author : Anna Leask
ISBN : 9780750665469
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 55.26 MB
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World Heritage Sites are some of the most recognised locations around the world. They include natural sites such as the Grand Canyon and the Great Barrier and cultural ones such as the Pyramids at Giza, the Walled City of Baku in Azerbaijan and the Historic Centre of Riga in Latvia. The responsibility to manage them successfully and ensure that the resources are not damaged by visitors, war or environment is therefore vital. Managing World Heritage Sites covers the management issues encountered at cultural and natural UNESCO World Heritage Sites). WHS sites are high profile and as their designation states they are unique. They are often government owned and subject to political debate, they have iconic status and are therefore crucial to national tourism industries, and often involve a large number of stakeholders within their management structures. This text considers all of these aspects in arriving at solutions for site management principles. In 12 chapters and 5 case studies it covers issues such as WHS designation, marketing, visitor management, revenue generation and management. Each chapter will examine the management issues associated with managing heritage within the WH Sites, making clear use of management practices to apply the theory. Managing World Heritage Sites: •Includes international case studies such as the Grand Canyon, Taj Mahal, Angor Wat, Statue of Liberty, Yosemite National Park. •Is authored by an international contributor team of well known and respected experts in this field •Has a user friendly and logical structure including aims, introduction, case study, conclusion, references and websites and examples best practice. •5 specific case study chapters including a location map, an explanation of key issues, conclusion, and questions for self-study * Covers the management issues encountered at cultural and natural world heritage sites including designation, marketing, visitor management, revenue generation and management. * Illustrated with international case studies including Grand Canyon, Taj Mahal, Angor Wat, Statue of Liberty, Yosemite National Park. * International contributor team of well known and respected experts in this field
Category: Business & Economics

Tourism And Archaeological Heritage Management At Petra

Author : Douglas C. Comer
ISBN : 9781461414803
Genre : History
File Size : 31.82 MB
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Once visited only by the cognoscenti of the ancient world, over the last decade Petra has drawn almost a million visitors in some years. Petra burst into popular consciousness with the release of enormously popular motion picture Raiders of the Lost Ark in 1981. Moviegoers all over the world were introduced to some of the spectacular scenic wonders of Petra: the Siq, a narrow chasm with colorful, towering sandstone walls, and Al-Khazna, the exquisitely carved tomb for a Nabataean king. For centuries, the Nabataeans controlled the trade in precious commodities across the Arabian Peninsula, bring spices from Southeast Asia, incense from present-day Yemen, gold and ivory from Africa, and silk from the Far East across the Empty Quarter to ports on the western Mediterranean. In 1985, Petra was included on the list of World Heritage Sites. Since then, low cost jet travel and a fast highway from the capital city of Amman have made the site increasingly accessible. The Jordanian government has made attracting tourists to Jordan a top priority. For all of the attention that Petra has received, it is still surprisingly poorly understood. A widely accepted chronology of the city, even the dates of major tombs and monuments, has yet to be established. Even the mystery of why and how Arab nomads adopted a sedentary lifestyle and built a great city has yet to be fully explained. Will Petra’s popularity as a tourism destination overshadow the importance of addressing these questions, and, more importantly, will tourism damage the archaeological remains there in ways that make answers more difficult or even impossible to find?
Category: History

The Machu Picchu Guidebook

Author : Ruth M. Wright
ISBN : 1555663273
Genre : Travel
File Size : 39.82 MB
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The best all around guide for those who've been or who are going to Machu Picchu . . . . Absolutely indispensable --Don Montague, president, South American Explorers. This revised edition includes newly discovered sites and full-color illustrations of real-life scenes from National Geographic.
Category: Travel

Inca Rituals And Sacred Mountains

Author : Johan Reinhard
ISBN : UCSD:31822038164984
Genre : History
File Size : 63.50 MB
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The Incas carried out some of the most dramatic ceremonies known to us from ancient times. Groups of people walked hundreds of miles across arid and mountainous terrain to perform them on mountains over 6,096 m (20,000 feet) high. The most important offerings made during these pilgrimages involved human sacrifices (capacochas). Although Spanish chroniclers wrote about these offerings and the state sponsored processions of which they were a part, their accounts were based on second-hand sources, and the only direct evidence we have of the capacocha sacrifices comes to us from archaeological excavations. Some of the most thoroughly documented of these were undertaken on high mountain summits, where the material evidence has been exceptionally well preserved. In this study we describe the results of research undertaken on Mount Llullaillaco (6,739 m/22,109 feet), which has the world's highest archaeological site. The types of ruins and artifact assemblages recovered are described and analyzed. By comparing the archaeological evidence with the chroniclers' accounts and with findings from other mountaintop sites, common patterns are demonstrated; while at the same time previously little known elements contribute to our understanding of key aspects of Inca religion. This study illustrates the importance of archaeological sites being placed within the broader context of physical and sacred features of the natural landscape.
Category: History