LUMINESCENCE DATING IN ARCHAEOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGY AND GEOARCHAEOLOGY AN OVERVIEW SPRINGERBRIEFS IN EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES

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Luminescence Dating In Archaeology Anthropology And Geoarchaeology

Author : Ioannis Liritzis
ISBN : 9783319001708
Genre : Science
File Size : 46.70 MB
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The field of Luminescence Dating has reached a level of maturity. Both research and applications from all fields of archaeological science, from archaeological materials to anthropology and geoarchaeology, now routinely employ luminescence dating. The advent of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques and the potential for exploring a spectrum of grain aliquots enhanced the applicability, accuracy and the precision of luminescence dating. The present contribution reviews the physical basis, mechanisms and methodological aspects of luminescence dating; discusses advances in instrumentations and facilities, improvements in analytical procedures, and statistical treatment of data along with some examples of applications across continents, covering all periods (Middle Palaeolithic to Medieval) and both Old and New World archaeology. They also include interdisciplinary applications that contribute to palaeo-landscape reconstruction.
Category: Science

Chemicals And Methods For Conservation And Restoration

Author : Johannes Karl Fink
ISBN : 9781119418917
Genre : Science
File Size : 48.61 MB
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Before the 1970s, most information concerning the conservation and restoration of paintings, wood, and archaeological artefacts were focused on the history of the artefacts, previous attempts of conservation, and the future use of these artefacts. The technical methods of how the restoration and conservation were made were dealt with only very briefly. Today, sophisticated methods of scientific analysis such as DNA are common place, and this encourages conservators and scientists to work together to work out the development of new methods for analysis and conservation of artefacts. This book focuses on the chemicals used for conservation and restoration of various artefacts in artwork and archaeology, as well as special applications of these materials. Also the methods used, both methods for cleaning, conservation and restoration, as well as methods for the analysis of the state of the respective artefacts. Topics include oil paintings, paper conservation, textiles and dyes for them, archaeological wood, fossils, stones, metals and metallic coins, and glasses, including church windows.
Category: Science

Obsidian And Ancient Manufactured Glasses

Author : Ioannis Liritzis
ISBN : 9780826351616
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 71.95 MB
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This edited volume offers archaeologists and archaeometrists the latest technical information, the fundamentals of provenance studies, instrumentation used in these investigations, and strategies for the dating and interpretation of archaeological materials in glass studies. The contributors discuss recent advances in obsidian hydration dating, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy, focusing on the application of these technologies to a variety of glass forms and incorporating studies that look at the social and economic strategies of past cultures. With examples from Greece, the Middle East, Italy, Peru, Bolivia, Russia, Africa, and the Pacific region, provenance studies look at regional patterns of glass acquisition, production, and exchange, providing examples that use one or more instrumental methods to characterize materials from ancient societies. Extensive figures and tables included.
Category: Social Science

Geomaterials In Cultural Heritage

Author : Marino Maggetti
ISBN : 1862391955
Genre : Science
File Size : 23.95 MB
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This volume gives a broad view of the application of geoscience techniques to the study of monuments and objects from excavations and museums, including their origin, technique of manufacture, age and conservation, and reaffirms the important contribution of geosciences in the interdisciplinary approach to the study of complex materials such as minerals, rocks, glass, metals, mortar, plaster, slags and pottery. The papers in this book cover three topics: the study of pottery, glass, stone and mortar; the application of Raman spectroscopy to a wide variety of objects; and the future of archaeometry. These interdisciplinary studies include field geology, geophysics, microscopy, textural analysis, physical methods and geochemistry. These studies unlock information from the ancient materials, such as the provenance of raw materials, the firing technology, the ancient recipes and the alteration pathways.
Category: Science

Hydrogeomorphic Risk Analysis Affecting Chalcolithic Archaeological Sites From Valea Oii Bahlui Watershed Northeastern Romania

Author : Ionut Cristi Nicu
ISBN : 9783319257099
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 54.38 MB
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This book presents a balanced combination of practical and theoretical aspects of geoarchaeology. To do so, it gathers all the components of a natural framework (geology, relief, hydrography, climate, soils, flora and fauna), which have been analyzed from an archaeological perspective. While globally this is a highly developed and researched area, unfortunately in Romania it is still a largely neglected field of study, as limited funds are available. However, the country has a huge potential and international researchers have applied geoarchaeological methods and techniques and published results in numerous journals. This area is important because traces of the Chalcolithic population (Cucuteni culture) have been discovered here. The culture is considered to be the oldest one in Europe, and is highly significant for Romanian as well as European archaeology. The degradation of these settlements is the main core of the work, with illustrative case studies offering insights into the natural and, in some cases, anthropic effects on the sites.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Adipose Tissue And Cancer

Author : Mikhail G. Kolonin
ISBN : 9781461476603
Genre : Medical
File Size : 42.24 MB
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Recent studies have shown that cells from adipose tissue are capable of trafficking to tumors, thus enabling paracrine action of adipokines from within the tumor microenvironment. Increased tumor vascularization, immune system suppression and direct effects on malignant cell survival and proliferation have been investigated as mechanisms regulated by adipokines. The goal of this book is to discuss data pointing to the role of adipose tissue in cancer and to dissect individual mechanisms through which adipose tissue excess or restriction could influence cancer progression.
Category: Medical

International And Transnational Perspectives On Urban Systems

Author : Celine Rozenblat
ISBN : 9789811077999
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 56.20 MB
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This book reviews the recent evolutions of cities in the world according to entirely revised theoretical fundamentals of urban systems. It relies on a vision of cities sharing common dynamic features as co-evolving entities in complex systems. Systems of cities that are interdependent in their evolutions are characterized in the context of that dynamics. They are identified on various geographical scales—worldwide, regional, or national. Each system exhibits peculiarities that are related to its demographic, economic, and geopolitical history, and that are underlined by the systematic comparison of continental and regional urban systems, following a common template throughout the book. Multi-scale urban processes, whether local (one city), or within national systems (systems of cities), or linked to the expansion of transnational networks (towards global urban systems) throughout the world over the period 1950–2010 are deeply analyzed in 16 chapters. This global overview challenges urban governance for designing policies facing globalization and the subsequent ecological transition. The answers, which emerge from the diversity of situations in the world, add some reflections on and recommendations to the “urban system framework” proposed in the Habitat III agenda.
Category: Social Science

The Coastlines Of The World With Google Earth

Author : Anja M. Scheffers
ISBN : 9789400707382
Genre : Science
File Size : 27.37 MB
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Far away shores, exotic islands or adventurous sea voyages - coasts are the destination of dreams for millions of people around the globe. Large numbers of people also call coasts their home; in many countries a narrow coastal strip is densely populated making these places vulnerable to marine natural hazards such as storms or tsunamis. The book Coastlines of the World with Google Earth aims to draw people's attention (within and outside of the science community) towards coastal sciences and spark interest for the extraordinary diversity and beauty of coastal environments. The book illustrates the fascinating variety of coastal landscapes using images from Google Earth's virtual globe that allow us to explore the world and demonstrate knowledge and applications of coastal science in many different fields in an engaging visual tour. The book of Anja and Sander Scheffers and Dieter Kelletat is a true cornucopia for everyone, both scientists and laymen, interested in coastal geomorphology. On the one hand, it documents the enormous significance of Google Earth for coastal science issues and shows how powerful this tool is for visualizing coastal features and processes. On the other hand, the reader gets a vivid insight in the many varieties of coastal science and its applications. This is especially true with regard to coastal hazards such as extreme events and global sea level rise knowing that the vulnerability of coastal zones has dramatically increased during the past decades. The fact that the book is so attractive and inspiring to both beginners and experts is also due to the huge experience that the authors have gained during their manifold research activities. Andreas Vött, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany This book will have great appeal to coastal researchers, at both beginning and advanced stages, because it integrates Google satellite imagery with coastal marine classification and in-depth studies by the authors from many parts of the world. The world’s coastline is well represented in this book which has a truly global perspective of unique, dramatic and commonplace coastal landforms. The authors in collaboration with the publisher have prepared a very handsome volume that will no doubt become a classic in the fullness of time. This book represents one of the first efforts to utilize Google images in a scientific manner to illustrate the diversity of coastal morphologies on a worldwide basis. The plethora of color satellite images, block diagrams, and oblique photography makes this book a valuable resource for a wide array of specialists that will want to have handy access to this unique work. This coastal compendium is an illustrated tour de force that belongs on researchers' bookshelves as well as on coffee tables for casual enjoyment. Charles Finkl, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA
Category: Science

Geomorphology Of Desert Environments

Author : A. D. Abrahams
ISBN : 9789401582544
Genre : Science
File Size : 70.6 MB
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Over the last twenty years there has been a major expansion of knowledge in the field of landforms and landforming processes of deserts. This advanced-level book provides a benchmark for the current state of science, and is written by an international team of authors who are acknowledged experts in their fields.
Category: Science

Beach Management Tools Concepts Methodologies And Case Studies

Author : Camilo M. Botero
ISBN : 9783319583044
Genre : Science
File Size : 36.29 MB
Format : PDF
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This book provides an overview of beach management tools, including carrying capacity, beach nourishment, environmental and tourism awards (like Blue Flag or others), bathing water quality, zoning, beach typologies, quality index, user's perception, interdisciplinary beach monitoring, coastal legislation, shore protection, social and economic indicators, ecosystem services, and coastal governance (applied in beach case studies). Beaches are one of the most intensely used coastal ecosystems and are responsible for more than half of all global tourism revenues, and as such the book introduces a wide range of state-of-the-art tools that can be used to deal with a variety of beach challenges. Each chapter features specific types of tools that can be applied to advantage in beach management practices. With examples of local and regional case studies from around the globe, this is a valuable resource for anyone involved in beach management.
Category: Science