LUMBEE INDIANS IN THE JIM CROW SOUTH RACE IDENTITY AND THE MAKING OF A NATION FIRST PEOPLES NEW DIRECTIONS IN INDIGENOUS STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS PAPERBACK

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Lumbee Indians In The Jim Crow South

Author : Malinda Maynor Lowery
ISBN : 0807898287
Genre : History
File Size : 50.69 MB
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With more than 50,000 enrolled members, North Carolina's Lumbee Indians are the largest Native American tribe east of the Mississippi River. Malinda Maynor Lowery, a Lumbee herself, describes how, between Reconstruction and the 1950s, the Lumbee crafted and maintained a distinct identity in an era defined by racial segregation in the South and paternalistic policies for Indians throughout the nation. They did so against the backdrop of some of the central issues in American history, including race, class, politics, and citizenship. Lowery argues that "Indian" is a dynamic identity that, for outsiders, sometimes hinged on the presence of "Indian blood" (for federal New Deal policy makers) and sometimes on the absence of "black blood" (for southern white segregationists). Lumbee people themselves have constructed their identity in layers that tie together kin and place, race and class, tribe and nation; however, Indians have not always agreed on how to weave this fabric into a whole. Using photographs, letters, genealogy, federal and state records, and first-person family history, Lowery narrates this compelling conversation between insiders and outsiders, demonstrating how the Lumbee People challenged the boundaries of Indian, southern, and American identities.
Category: History

The Only Land I Know

Author : Adolph L. Dial
ISBN : 0815603606
Genre : History
File Size : 54.52 MB
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Written from an Indian perspective, this text provides a history of the Lumbee Indians of southwestern North Carolina. Sections cover: the colonial period and the Revolutionary War; the Lowrie War; the development of the Lumbee educational system; Lumbee folklore; and the modern Lumbee.
Category: History

Journey To The West

Author : Sheri Marie Shuck-Hall
ISBN : UCSC:32106019817946
Genre : History
File Size : 23.99 MB
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When Europeans battled for control over North America in the eighteenth century, American Indians were caught in the cross fire. Two such peoples, the Alabamas and Coushattas, made the difficult decision to migrate from their ancestral lands and thereby preserve their world on their own terms. In this book, Sheri Marie Shuck-Hall traces the gradual movement of the Alabamas and Coushattas from their origins in the Southeast to their nineteenth-century settlement in East Texas, exploring their motivations for migrating west and revealing how their shared experience affected their identity. The first book to examine these peoples over such an extensive period, Journey to the West tells how they built and maintained their sovereignty despite five hundred years of trauma and change. Blending oral tradition, archaeological data, and archival sources, Shuck-Hall shows how they joined forces in the seventeenth century after their first contact with Europeans, then used trade and diplomatic relations to ally themselves with these newcomers and with larger Indian groups—including the Creeks, Caddos, and Western Cherokees—to ensure their continuing independence. In relating how the Alabamas and Coushattas determined their own future through careful reflection and forceful action, this book provides much-needed information on these overlooked peoples and places southeastern Indians within the larger narratives of southern and American history. It shows how diaspora and migration shaped their worldview and identity, reflecting similar stories of survival in other times and places.
Category: History

Serving The Nation

Author : Julie L. Reed
ISBN : 9780806155418
Genre : History
File Size : 90.91 MB
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Well before the creation of the United States, the Cherokee people administered their own social policy—a form of what today might be called social welfare—based on matrilineal descent, egalitarian relations, kinship obligations, and communal landholding. The ethic of gadugi, or work coordinated for the social good, was at the heart of this system. Serving the Nation explores the role of such traditions in shaping the alternative social welfare system of the Cherokee Nation, as well as their influence on the U.S. government’s social policies. Faced with removal and civil war in the early and mid-nineteenth century, the Cherokee Nation asserted its right to build institutions administered by Cherokee people, both as an affirmation of their national sovereignty and as a community imperative. The Cherokee Nation protected and defended key features of its traditional social service policy, extended social welfare protections to those deemed Cherokee according to citizenship laws, and modified its policies over time to continue fulfilling its people's expectations. Julie L. Reed examines these policies alongside public health concerns, medical practices, and legislation defining care and education for orphans, the mentally ill, the differently abled, the incarcerated, the sick, and the poor. Changing federal and state policies and practices exacerbated divisions based on class, language, and education, and challenged the ability of Cherokees individually and collectively to meet the social welfare needs of their kin and communities. The Cherokee response led to more centralized national government solutions for upholding social welfare and justice, as well as to the continuation of older cultural norms. Offering insights gleaned from reconsidered and overlooked historical sources, this book enhances our understanding of the history and workings of social welfare policy and services, not only in the Cherokee Nation but also in the United States. Serving the Nation is published in cooperation with the William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies, Southern Methodist University.
Category: History

To Die Game

Author : William McKee Evans
ISBN : 0815603592
Genre : History
File Size : 87.79 MB
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During the Civil War, many young Lumbee Indians of North Carolina hid in the swamps to avoid conscription into Confederate labour battalions and carried on a running guerilla war. This is the story of Henry Berry Lowry, a Lumbee who killed a Confederate official, escaped, and ran a guerilla gang.
Category: History

Nowhere Else On Earth

Author : Josephine Humphreys
ISBN : 0141002069
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 78.42 MB
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A North Carolina town struggles to preserve its sanity in 1864 as the Civil War approaches to shatter the peace, while sixteen-year-old Rhoda Strong falls in love with outlaw Henry Berry Lowrie.
Category: Fiction

The Lumbee

Author : Adolf L. Dial
ISBN : 155546713X
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 83.11 MB
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Discusses the history of the second largest Indian group in the United States, whose origin is traced to the Hatteras Indians who supposedly adopted the English settlers of the Roanoke colony into their tribe
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

The Tuscarora War

Author : David La Vere
ISBN : 9781469610917
Genre : History
File Size : 44.75 MB
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At dawn on September 22, 1711, more than 500 Tuscarora, Core, Neuse, Pamlico, Weetock, Machapunga, and Bear River Indian warriors swept down on the unsuspecting European settlers living along the Neuse and Pamlico Rivers of North Carolina. Over the following days, they destroyed hundreds of farms, killed at least 140 men, women, and children, and took about 40 captives. So began the Tuscarora War, North Carolina's bloodiest colonial war and surely one of its most brutal. In his gripping account, David La Vere examines the war through the lens of key players in the conflict, reveals the events that led to it, and traces its far-reaching consequences. La Vere details the innovative fortifications produced by the Tuscaroras, chronicles the colony's new practice of enslaving all captives and selling them out of country, and shows how both sides drew support from forces far outside the colony's borders. In these ways and others, La Vere concludes, this merciless war pointed a new direction in the development of the future state of North Carolina.
Category: History

Rivers Of Sand

Author : Christopher D. Haveman
ISBN : 9780803284883
Genre : History
File Size : 88.80 MB
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At its height the Creek Nation comprised a collection of multiethnic towns and villages stretching across large parts of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. By the 1830s, however, the Creeks had lost almost all this territory through treaties and by the unchecked intrusion of white settlers who illegally expropriated Native soil. With the Jackson administration unwilling to aid the Creeks in removing the squatters, the Creek people suffered from dispossession, starvation, and indebtedness. Between the 1825 Treaty of Indian Springs and the forced migrations beginning in 1836, nearly twenty-three thousand Creek Indians were relocated—voluntarily or involuntarily—to Indian Territory. Rivers of Sand fills a substantial gap in scholarship by capturing, for the first time, the full breadth and depth of the Creeks’ collective tragedy during the marches westward, on the Creek home front, and during the first years of resettlement. Unlike the Cherokee Trail of Tears, which was conducted largely at the end of a bayonet, most Creeks were removed through a combination of coercion and negotiation. Hopelessly outnumbered military personnel were forced to make concessions in order to gain the compliance of the headmen and their people. Christopher D. Haveman’s meticulous study uses previously unexamined documents to weave narratives of resistance and survival, making Rivers of Sand an essential addition to the ethnohistory of American Indian removal.
Category: History

Blood Politics

Author : Circe Sturm
ISBN : 9780520230972
Genre : History
File Size : 80.99 MB
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"Blood Politics offers an anthropological analysis of contemporary identity politics within the second largest Indian tribe in the United States--one that pays particular attention to the symbol of "blood." The work treats an extremely sensitive topic with originality and insight. It is also notable for bringing contemporary theories of race, nationalism, and social identity to bear upon the case of the Oklahoma Cherokee."—Pauline Turner Strong, author of Captive Selves, Captivating Others: The Politics and Poetics of Colonial American Captivity Narratives
Category: History