LOGIC MADE CLEAR BASIC CONCEPTS AND METHODS

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Logic Made Clear

Author : Marta Calvo
ISBN : 1544800436
Genre :
File Size : 24.54 MB
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This revised, 2nd edition of Logic Made Clear is designed for readers interested in learning basic concepts and methods of logic. It introduces the principles and step by step procedures indispensable for analyzing written or verbal communication, especially that involving argumentation. The topics covered include: paradoxes of reason; the meaning, imprecision, and definitions of linguistic expressions; a procedure for identifying deductive and inductive arguments and determining their validity; propositional and quantificational systems of logic; analyzing and diagraming arguments; and classification and detection of fallacies, with emphasis on faulty analogy. For exercises the book employs diverse academic and non-academic sources. The book can be used as a self-guided study by any independent learner or as a framework for a college-level course in logic.
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Principles Of Logic And Logic Programming

Author : G. Metakides
ISBN : 9780080539645
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 21.43 MB
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Logic's basic elements are unfolded in this book. The relation of and the transition from Logic to Logic Programming are analysed. With the use and the development of computers in the beginning of the 1950's, it soon became clear that computers could be used, not only for arithmetical computation, but also for symbolic computation. Hence, the first arithmetical computation programs, and the first programs created to answer elementary questions and prove simple theorems, were written simultaneously. The basic steps towards a general method based on Logic, were accomplished in 1965 by Robinson and later by Kowalski and Colmerauer who made use of Logic directly as a Logic Programming language. Each chapter includes solved as well as unsolved exercises provided to help the reader assimilate the corresponding topics. The solved exercises demonstrate how to work methodically, whereas the unsolved exercises aim to stimulate the reader's personal initiative. The contents of the book are self-contained; only an elementary knowledge of analysis is required. Thus, it can be used by students in every academic year, as simply reading material, or in the context of a course. It can also be used by those who utilize Logic Programming without having any particular theoretical background knowledge of Logic, or by those simply interested in Logic and its applications in Logic Programming.
Category: Mathematics

Norms Values And Society

Author : Herlinde Pauer-Studer
ISBN : 9789401724548
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 20.42 MB
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Norms, Values, and Society is the second Yearbook of the Vienna Circle Institute, which was founded in October 1991. The main part of the book contains original contributions to an international symposium the Institute held in October 1993 on ethics and social philosophy. The papers deal among others with questions of justice, equality, just social institutions, human rights, the connections between rationality and morality and the methodological problems of applied ethics. The Documentation section contains previously unpublished papers by Rudolf Carnap, Philipp Frank, Charles W. Morris and Edgar Zilsel, and the review section presents new publications on the Vienna Circle. The Vienna Circle Institute is devoted to the critical advancement of science and philosophy in the broad tradition of the Vienna Circle, as well as to the focusing of cross-disciplinary interest on the history and philosophy of science in a social context. The Institute's Yearbooks will, for the most part, document its activities and provide a forum for the discussion of exact philosophy, logical and empirical investigations, and analysis of language.
Category: Philosophy

Programming Concepts And Methods Procomet 98

Author : David Gries
ISBN : 9780387353586
Genre : Computers
File Size : 80.65 MB
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This book constitutes the Proceedings of the IFIP Working Conference PRO COMET'98, held 8-12 June 1998 at Shelter Island, N.Y. The conference is organized by the t'wo IFIP TC 2 Working Groups 2.2 Formal Description of Programming Concepts and 2.3 Programming Methodology. WG2.2 and WG2.3 have been organizing these conferences every four years for over twenty years. The aim of such Working Conferences organized by IFIP Working Groups is to bring together leading scientists in a given area of computer science. Participation is by invitation only. As a result, these conferences distinguish themselves from other meetings by extensive and competent technical discus sions. PROCOMET stands for Programming Concepts and Methods, indicating that the area of discussion for the conference is the formal description of pro gramming concepts and methods, their tool support, and their applications. At PROCOMET working conferences, papers are presented from this whole area, reflecting the interest of the individuals in WG2.2 and WG2.3.
Category: Computers

Dictionary Of Logic As Applied In The Study Of Language

Author : W. Marciszewski
ISBN : 9789401712538
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 30.52 MB
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1. STRUCTURE AND REFERENCES 1.1. The main part of the dictionary consists of alphabetically arranged articles concerned with basic logical theories and some other selected topics. Within each article a set of concepts is defined in their mutual relations. This way of defining concepts in the context of a theory provides better understand ing of ideas than that provided by isolated short defmitions. A disadvantage of this method is that it takes more time to look something up inside an extensive article. To reduce this disadvantage the following measures have been adopted. Each article is divided into numbered sections, the numbers, in boldface type, being addresses to which we refer. Those sections of larger articles which are divided at the first level, i.e. numbered with single numerals, have titles. Main sections are further subdivided, the subsections being numbered by numerals added to the main section number, e.g. I, 1.1, 1.2, ... , 1.1.1, 1.1.2, and so on. A comprehensive subject index is supplied together with a glossary. The aim of the latter is to provide, if possible, short defmitions which sometimes may prove sufficient. As to the use of the glossary, see the comment preceding it.
Category: Philosophy

Galileo S Logic Of Discovery And Proof

Author : W. A. Wallace
ISBN : 9789401580403
Genre : Science
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This volume is presented as a companion study to my translation of Galileo's MS 27, Galileo's Logical Treatises, which contains Galileo's appropriated questions on Aristotle's Posterior Analytics - a work only recently transcribed from the Latin autograph. Its purpose is to acquaint an English-reading audience with the teaching in those treatises. This is basically a sixteenth-century logic of discovery and of proof about which little is known in the present day, yet one that arguably guided the most significant research program of the seventeenth century. Despite its historical and systematic importance, the teaching is difficult to explain to the modern reader. Part of the problem stems from the fragmentary nature of the manuscript in which it is preserved, part from the contents of the teaching itself, which requires a considerable propadeutic for its comprehension. A word of explanation is thus required to set out the structure of the volume and to detail the editorial decisions that underlie its organization. Two major manuscript studies have advanced the cause of scholarship on Galileo within the past two decades. The first relates to Galileo's experimental activity at Padua prior to his discoveries with the telescope that led to the publication of his Sidereus nuncius in 1610. Much of this activity has been uncovered by Stillman Drake in analyses of manuscript fragments associated with the composition of Galileo's Two New Sciences, fragments now bound in a codex identified as MS 72 in the collection of Galileiana at the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale in Florence.
Category: Science

Carnap S Logical Syntax Of Language

Author : P. Wagner
ISBN : 9780230235397
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 71.10 MB
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This volume's aim is to provide an introduction to Carnap's book from a historical and philosophical perspective, each chapter focusing on one specific issue. The book will be of interest not only to Carnap scholars but to all those interested in the history of analytical philosophy.
Category: Philosophy

Kantian Reason And Hegelian Spirit

Author : Gary Dorrien
ISBN : 9781119016540
Genre : Religion
File Size : 38.61 MB
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Winner: 2012 The American Publishers Award for Professional and Scholarly Excellence in Theology and Religious Studies, PROSE Award. In this thought–provoking new work, the world renowned theologian Gary Dorrien reveals how Kantian and post–Kantian idealism were instrumental in the foundation and development of modern Christian theology. Presents a radical rethinking of the roots of modern theology Reveals how Kantian and post–Kantian idealism were instrumental in the foundation and development of modern Christian theology Shows how it took Kant′s writings on ethics and religion to launch a fully modern departure in religious thought Dissects Kant′s three critiques of reason and his moral conception of religion Analyzes alternative arguments offered by Schleiermacher, Schelling, Hegel, and others – moving historically and chronologically through key figures in European philosophy and theology Presents notoriously difficult and intellectual arguments in a lucid and accessible manner
Category: Religion

The Logical Foundations Of Scientific Theories

Author : Decio Krause
ISBN : 9781315535203
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 46.31 MB
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This book addresses the logical aspects of the foundations of scientific theories. Even though the relevance of formal methods in the study of scientific theories is now widely recognized and regaining prominence, the issues covered here are still not generally discussed in philosophy of science. The authors focus mainly on the role played by the underlying formal apparatuses employed in the construction of the models of scientific theories, relating the discussion with the so-called semantic approach to scientific theories. The book describes the role played by this metamathematical framework in three main aspects: considerations of formal languages employed to axiomatize scientific theories, the role of the axiomatic method itself, and the way set-theoretical structures, which play the role of the models of theories, are developed. The authors also discuss the differences and philosophical relevance of the two basic ways of aximoatizing a scientific theory, namely Patrick Suppes’ set theoretical predicates and the "da Costa and Chuaqui" approach. This book engages with important discussions of the nature of scientific theories and will be a useful resource for researchers and upper-level students working in philosophy of science.
Category: Mathematics

An Introduction To Logic And Scientific Method

Author : Morris F. Cohen
ISBN : 9781446547403
Genre : Science
File Size : 27.94 MB
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Many of the earliest books, particularly those dating back to the 1900s and before, are now extremely scarce and increasingly expensive. We are republishing these classic works in affordable, high quality, modern editions, using the original text and artwork.
Category: Science