LOGIC MADE CLEAR BASIC CONCEPTS AND METHODS

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Logic Made Clear

Author : Marta Calvo
ISBN : 1537534211
Genre :
File Size : 50.97 MB
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This book is designed for readers interested in learning basic concepts and methods of logic. It introduces the principles and step by step procedures indispensable for analyzing written or verbal communication, especially that involving argumentation. The topics covered include: paradoxes of reason; the meaning, imprecision, and definitions of linguistic expressions; a procedure for identifying deductive and inductive arguments and determining their validity; propositional and quantificational systems of logic; analyzing and diagraming arguments; and classification and detection of fallacies, with emphasis on faulty analogy. For exercises the book employs diverse academic and non-academic sources. The book can be used as a self-guided study by any independent learner or as a framework for a college-level course in logic.
Category:

The Logic Book

Author : Merrie Bergmann
ISBN : 9780077578336
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 82.19 MB
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The Logic Book is a leading text for symbolic logic courses that presents all concepts and techniques with clear, comprehensive explanations. There is a wealth of carefully constructed examples throughout the text, and its flexible organization places materials within largely self-contained chapters that allow instructors the freedom to cover the topics they want, in the order they choose.
Category: Philosophy

More Precisely

Author : Eric Steinhart
ISBN : 1770480099
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 61.34 MB
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More Precisely provides a rigorous and engaging introduction to the mathematics necessary to do philosophy. It is impossible to fully understand much of the most important work in contemporary philosophy without a basic grasp of set theory, functions, probability, modality and infinity. Until now, this knowledge was difficult to acquire. Professors had to provide custom handouts to their classes, while students struggled through math texts searching for insight. More Precisely fills this key gap. Eric Steinhart provides lucid explanations of the basic mathematical concepts and sets out most commonly used notational conventions. Furthermore, he demonstrates how mathematics applies to many fundamental issues in branches of philosophy such as metaphysics, philosophy of language, epistemology, and ethics.
Category: Philosophy

Quantum Theory Concepts And Methods

Author : A. Peres
ISBN : 9780306471209
Genre : Science
File Size : 76.49 MB
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There are many excellent books on quantum theory from which one can learn to compute energy levels, transition rates, cross sections, etc. The theoretical rules given in these books are routinely used by physicists to compute observable quantities. Their predictions can then be compared with experimental data. There is no fundamental disagreement among physicists on how to use the theory for these practical purposes. However, there are profound differences in their opinions on the ontological meaning of quantum theory. The purpose of this book is to clarify the conceptual meaning of quantum theory, and to explain some of the mathematical methods which it utilizes. This text is not concerned with specialized topics such as atomic structure, or strong or weak interactions, but with the very foundations of the theory. This is not, however, a book on the philosophy of science. The approach is pragmatic and strictly instrumentalist. This attitude will undoubtedly antagonize some readers, but it has its own logic: quantum phenomena do not occur in a Hilbert space, they occur in a laboratory.
Category: Science

An Introduction To Logic And Scientific Method

Author : Morris F. Cohen
ISBN : 9781446547403
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.15 MB
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Many of the earliest books, particularly those dating back to the 1900s and before, are now extremely scarce and increasingly expensive. We are republishing these classic works in affordable, high quality, modern editions, using the original text and artwork.
Category: Science

Norms Values And Society

Author : Herlinde Pauer-Studer
ISBN : 9789401724548
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 68.18 MB
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Norms, Values, and Society is the second Yearbook of the Vienna Circle Institute, which was founded in October 1991. The main part of the book contains original contributions to an international symposium the Institute held in October 1993 on ethics and social philosophy. The papers deal among others with questions of justice, equality, just social institutions, human rights, the connections between rationality and morality and the methodological problems of applied ethics. The Documentation section contains previously unpublished papers by Rudolf Carnap, Philipp Frank, Charles W. Morris and Edgar Zilsel, and the review section presents new publications on the Vienna Circle. The Vienna Circle Institute is devoted to the critical advancement of science and philosophy in the broad tradition of the Vienna Circle, as well as to the focusing of cross-disciplinary interest on the history and philosophy of science in a social context. The Institute's Yearbooks will, for the most part, document its activities and provide a forum for the discussion of exact philosophy, logical and empirical investigations, and analysis of language.
Category: Philosophy

Ethical Argumentation

Author : Douglas Walton
ISBN : 0739141384
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 71.87 MB
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Bridging the gap between applied ethics and ethical theory, Ethical Argumentation draws on recent research in argumentation theory to develop a more realistic model of how ethical justification actually works. Douglas Walton presents a new model of ethical argumentation in which ethical justification is analyzed as a defeasible form of argumentation considered in a balanced dialogue. Walton's new model employs techniques such as: asking the appropriate critical questions, probing accepted values, finding nonexplicit assumptions in an ethical argument, and deconstructing emotive terms and persuasive definitions. This book will be of significant interest to scholars and advanced students in applied ethics and theory.
Category: Philosophy

Dictionary Of Logic As Applied In The Study Of Language

Author : W. Marciszewski
ISBN : 9789401712538
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 89.96 MB
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1. STRUCTURE AND REFERENCES 1.1. The main part of the dictionary consists of alphabetically arranged articles concerned with basic logical theories and some other selected topics. Within each article a set of concepts is defined in their mutual relations. This way of defining concepts in the context of a theory provides better understand ing of ideas than that provided by isolated short defmitions. A disadvantage of this method is that it takes more time to look something up inside an extensive article. To reduce this disadvantage the following measures have been adopted. Each article is divided into numbered sections, the numbers, in boldface type, being addresses to which we refer. Those sections of larger articles which are divided at the first level, i.e. numbered with single numerals, have titles. Main sections are further subdivided, the subsections being numbered by numerals added to the main section number, e.g. I, 1.1, 1.2, ... , 1.1.1, 1.1.2, and so on. A comprehensive subject index is supplied together with a glossary. The aim of the latter is to provide, if possible, short defmitions which sometimes may prove sufficient. As to the use of the glossary, see the comment preceding it.
Category: Philosophy

Philosophical Devices

Author : David Papineau
ISBN : 9780191656255
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 79.74 MB
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This book is designed to explain the technical ideas that are taken for granted in much contemporary philosophical writing. Notions like 'denumerability', 'modal scope distinction', 'Bayesian conditionalization', and 'logical completeness' are usually only elucidated deep within difficult specialist texts. By offering simple explanations that by-pass much irrelevant and boring detail, Philosophical Devices is able to cover a wealth of material that is normally only available to specialists. The book contains four sections, each of three chapters. The first section is about sets and numbers, starting with the membership relation and ending with the generalized continuum hypothesis. The second is about analyticity, a prioricity, and necessity. The third is about probability, outlining the difference between objective and subjective probability and exploring aspects of conditionalization and correlation. The fourth deals with metalogic, focusing on the contrast between syntax and semantics, and finishing with a sketch of Gödel's theorem. Philosophical Devices will be useful for university students who have got past the foothills of philosophy and are starting to read more widely, but it does not assume any prior expertise. All the issues discussed are intrinsically interesting, and often downright fascinating. It can be read with pleasure and profit by anybody who is curious about the technical infrastructure of contemporary philosophy.
Category: Philosophy

Logic Methodology And Philosophy Of Science Ix

Author : D. Prawitz
ISBN : 9780080544953
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 74.13 MB
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This volume is the product of the Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science and contains the text of most of the invited lectures. Divided into 15 sections, the book covers a wide range of different issues. The reader is given the opportunity to learn about the latest thinking in relevant areas other than those in which they themselves may normally specialise.
Category: Mathematics