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Linear Causal Modeling With Structural Equations

Author : Stanley A. Mulaik
ISBN : 1439800391
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 87.82 MB
Format : PDF
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Emphasizing causation as a functional relationship between variables that describe objects, Linear Causal Modeling with Structural Equations integrates a general philosophical theory of causation with structural equation modeling (SEM) that concerns the special case of linear causal relations. In addition to describing how the functional relation concept may be generalized to treat probabilistic causation, the book reviews historical treatments of causation and explores recent developments in experimental psychology on studies of the perception of causation. It looks at how to perceive causal relations directly by perceiving quantities in magnitudes and motions of causes that are conserved in the effects of causal exchanges. The author surveys the basic concepts of graph theory useful in the formulation of structural models. Focusing on SEM, he shows how to write a set of structural equations corresponding to the path diagram, describes two ways of computing variances and covariances of variables in a structural equation model, and introduces matrix equations for the general structural equation model. The text then discusses the problem of identifying a model, parameter estimation, issues involved in designing structural equation models, the application of confirmatory factor analysis, equivalent models, the use of instrumental variables to resolve issues of causal direction and mediated causation, longitudinal modeling, and nonrecursive models with loops. It also evaluates models on several dimensions and examines the polychoric and polyserial correlation coefficients and their derivation. Covering the fundamentals of algebra and the history of causality, this book provides a solid understanding of causation, linear causal modeling, and SEM. It takes readers through the process of identifying, estimating, analyzing, and evaluating a range of models.
Category: Mathematics

Latent Markov Models For Longitudinal Data

Author : Francesco Bartolucci
ISBN : 9781466583719
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 66.37 MB
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Drawing on the authors’ extensive research in the analysis of categorical longitudinal data, Latent Markov Models for Longitudinal Data focuses on the formulation of latent Markov models and the practical use of these models. Numerous examples illustrate how latent Markov models are used in economics, education, sociology, and other fields. The R and MATLAB® routines used for the examples are available on the authors’ website. The book provides you with the essential background on latent variable models, particularly the latent class model. It discusses how the Markov chain model and the latent class model represent a useful paradigm for latent Markov models. The authors illustrate the assumptions of the basic version of the latent Markov model and introduce maximum likelihood estimation through the Expectation-Maximization algorithm. They also cover constrained versions of the basic latent Markov model, describe the inclusion of the individual covariates, and address the random effects and multilevel extensions of the model. After covering advanced topics, the book concludes with a discussion on Bayesian inference as an alternative to maximum likelihood inference. As longitudinal data become increasingly relevant in many fields, researchers must rely on specific statistical and econometric models tailored to their application. A complete overview of latent Markov models, this book demonstrates how to use the models in three types of analysis: transition analysis with measurement errors, analyses that consider unobserved heterogeneity, and finding clusters of units and studying the transition between the clusters.
Category: Mathematics

Multivariable Modeling And Multivariate Analysis For The Behavioral Sciences

Author : Brian S. Everitt
ISBN : 9781439807705
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 64.65 MB
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Multivariable Modeling and Multivariate Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences shows students how to apply statistical methods to behavioral science data in a sensible manner. Assuming some familiarity with introductory statistics, the book analyzes a host of real-world data to provide useful answers to real-life issues. The author begins by exploring the types and design of behavioral studies. He also explains how models are used in the analysis of data. After describing graphical methods, such as scatterplot matrices, the text covers simple linear regression, locally weighted regression, multiple linear regression, regression diagnostics, the equivalence of regression and ANOVA, the generalized linear model, and logistic regression. The author then discusses aspects of survival analysis, linear mixed effects models for longitudinal data, and the analysis of multivariate data. He also shows how to carry out principal components, factor, and cluster analyses. The final chapter presents approaches to analyzing multivariate observations from several different populations. Through real-life applications of statistical methodology, this book elucidates the implications of behavioral science studies for statistical analysis. It equips behavioral science students with enough statistical tools to help them succeed later on in their careers. Solutions to the problems as well as all R code and data sets for the examples are available at
Category: Business & Economics

Generalized Linear Models For Categorical And Continuous Limited Dependent Variables

Author : Michael Smithson
ISBN : 9781466551732
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 38.68 MB
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Generalized Linear Models for Categorical and Continuous Limited Dependent Variables is designed for graduate students and researchers in the behavioral, social, health, and medical sciences. It incorporates examples of truncated counts, censored continuous variables, and doubly bounded continuous variables, such as percentages. The book provides broad, but unified, coverage, and the authors integrate the concepts and ideas shared across models and types of data, especially regarding conceptual links between discrete and continuous limited dependent variables. The authors argue that these dependent variables are, if anything, more common throughout the human sciences than the kind that suit linear regression. They cover special cases or extensions of models, estimation methods, model diagnostics, and, of course, software. They also discuss bounded continuous variables, boundary-inflated models, and methods for modeling heteroscedasticity. Wherever possible, the authors have illustrated concepts, models, and techniques with real or realistic datasets and demonstrations in R and Stata, and each chapter includes several exercises at the end. The illustrations and exercises help readers build conceptual understanding and fluency in using these techniques. At several points the authors bring together material that has been previously scattered across the literature in journal articles, software package documentation files, and blogs. These features help students learn to choose the appropriate models for their purpose.
Category: Mathematics

Applied Survey Data Analysis

Author : Steven G. Heeringa
ISBN : 1420080679
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 67.33 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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Taking a practical approach that draws on the authors’ extensive teaching, consulting, and research experiences, Applied Survey Data Analysis provides an intermediate-level statistical overview of the analysis of complex sample survey data. It emphasizes methods and worked examples using available software procedures while reinforcing the principles and theory that underlie those methods. After introducing a step-by-step process for approaching a survey analysis problem, the book presents the fundamental features of complex sample designs and shows how to integrate design characteristics into the statistical methods and software for survey estimation and inference. The authors then focus on the methods and models used in analyzing continuous, categorical, and count-dependent variables; event history; and missing data problems. Some of the techniques discussed include univariate descriptive and simple bivariate analyses, the linear regression model, generalized linear regression modeling methods, the Cox proportional hazards model, discrete time models, and the multiple imputation analysis method. The final chapter covers new developments in survey applications of advanced statistical techniques, including model-based analysis approaches. Designed for readers working in a wide array of disciplines who use survey data in their work, this book also provides a useful framework for integrating more in-depth studies of the theory and methods of survey data analysis. A guide to the applied statistical analysis and interpretation of survey data, it contains many examples and practical exercises based on major real-world survey data sets. Although the authors use Stata for most examples in the text, they offer SAS, SPSS, SUDAAN, R, WesVar, IVEware, and Mplus software code for replicating the examples on the book’s website:
Category: Mathematics

Generalized Latent Variable Modeling

Author : Anders Skrondal
ISBN : 0203489438
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 59.88 MB
Format : PDF
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This book unifies and extends latent variable models, including multilevel or generalized linear mixed models, longitudinal or panel models, item response or factor models, latent class or finite mixture models, and structural equation models. Following a gentle introduction to latent variable modeling, the authors clearly explain and contrast a wide range of estimation and prediction methods from biostatistics, psychometrics, econometrics, and statistics. They present exciting and realistic applications that demonstrate how researchers can use latent variable modeling to solve concrete problems in areas as diverse as medicine, economics, and psychology. The examples considered include many nonstandard response types, such as ordinal, nominal, count, and survival data. Joint modeling of mixed responses, such as survival and longitudinal data, is also illustrated. Numerous displays, figures, and graphs make the text vivid and easy to read. About the authors: Anders Skrondal is Professor and Chair in Social Statistics, Department of Statistics, London School of Economics, UK Sophia Rabe-Hesketh is a Professor of Educational Statistics at the Graduate School of Education and Graduate Group in Biostatistics, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
Category: Mathematics

Generalized Structured Component Analysis

Author : Heungsun Hwang
ISBN : 9781466592940
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 38.47 MB
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Developed by the authors, generalized structured component analysis is an alternative to two longstanding approaches to structural equation modeling: covariance structure analysis and partial least squares path modeling. Generalized structured component analysis allows researchers to evaluate the adequacy of a model as a whole, compare a model to alternative specifications, and conduct complex analyses in a straightforward manner. Generalized Structured Component Analysis: A Component-Based Approach to Structural Equation Modeling provides a detailed account of this novel statistical methodology and its various extensions. The authors present the theoretical underpinnings of generalized structured component analysis and demonstrate how it can be applied to various empirical examples. The book enables quantitative methodologists, applied researchers, and practitioners to grasp the basic concepts behind this new approach and apply it to their own research. The book emphasizes conceptual discussions throughout while relegating more technical intricacies to the chapter appendices. Most chapters compare generalized structured component analysis to partial least squares path modeling to show how the two component-based approaches differ when addressing an identical issue. The authors also offer a free, online software program (GeSCA) and an Excel-based software program (XLSTAT) for implementing the basic features of generalized structured component analysis.
Category: Mathematics

Foundations Of Factor Analysis

Author : Stanley A. Mulaik
ISBN : 1420099612
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 64.7 MB
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Providing a practical, thorough understanding of how factor analysis works,Foundations of Factor Analysis, Second Editiondiscusses the assumptions underlying the equations and procedures of this method. It also explains the options in commercial computer programs for performing factor analysis and structural equation modeling. This long-awaited edition takes into account the various developments that have occurred since the publication of the original edition. New to the Second Edition A new chapter on the multivariate normal distribution, its general properties, and the concept of maximum-likelihood estimation More complete coverage of descriptive factor analysis and doublet factor analysis A rewritten chapter on analytic oblique rotation that focuses on the gradient projection algorithm and its applications Discussions on the developments of factor score indeterminacy A revised chapter on confirmatory factor analysis that addresses philosophy of science issues, model specification and identification, parameter estimation, and algorithm derivation Presenting the mathematics only as needed to understand the derivation of an equation or procedure, this textbook prepares students for later courses on structural equation modeling. It enables them to choose the proper factor analytic procedure, make modifications to the procedure, and produce new results.
Category: Business & Economics

Applied Categorical And Count Data Analysis

Author : Wan Tang
ISBN : 9781439897935
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 46.37 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
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Developed from the authors’ graduate-level biostatistics course, Applied Categorical and Count Data Analysis explains how to perform the statistical analysis of discrete data, including categorical and count outcomes. The authors describe the basic ideas underlying each concept, model, and approach to give readers a good grasp of the fundamentals of the methodology without using rigorous mathematical arguments. The text covers classic concepts and popular topics, such as contingency tables, logistic models, and Poisson regression models, along with modern areas that include models for zero-modified count outcomes, parametric and semiparametric longitudinal data analysis, reliability analysis, and methods for dealing with missing values. R, SAS, SPSS, and Stata programming codes are provided for all the examples, enabling readers to immediately experiment with the data in the examples and even adapt or extend the codes to fit data from their own studies. Designed for a one-semester course for graduate and senior undergraduate students in biostatistics, this self-contained text is also suitable as a self-learning guide for biomedical and psychosocial researchers. It will help readers analyze data with discrete variables in a wide range of biomedical and psychosocial research fields.
Category: Mathematics

Handbook Of International Large Scale Assessment

Author : Leslie Rutkowski
ISBN : 9781439895122
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 66.53 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
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Technological and statistical advances, along with a strong interest in gathering more information about the state of our educational systems, have made it possible to assess more students, in more countries, more often, and in more subject domains. The Handbook of International Large-Scale Assessment: Background, Technical Issues, and Methods of Data Analysis brings together recognized scholars in the field of ILSA, behavioral statistics, and policy to develop a detailed guide that goes beyond database user manuals. After highlighting the importance of ILSA data to policy and research, the book reviews methodological aspects and features of the studies based on operational considerations, analytics, and reporting. The book then describes methods of interest to advanced graduate students, researchers, and policy analysts who have a good grounding in quantitative methods, but who are not necessarily quantitative methodologists. In addition, it provides a detailed exposition of the technical details behind these assessments, including the test design, the sampling framework, and estimation methods, with a focus on how these issues impact analysis choices.
Category: Mathematics