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Lebanon After The Syrian Withdrawal

Author : Ohannes Geukjian
ISBN : 9781317106517
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 56.96 MB
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Lebanon experienced serious instability and ethno-national conflict following the Syrian withdrawal in 2005, compounded by the Arab Spring, which led to regional instability and civil war in Iraq and Syria. Why did consociational democracy fail? Was failure inevitable? What impact could external powers play in creating an environment where consociationalism might be successfully implemented? This book addresses these key questions and provides a comprehensive analysis of how internal and external elite relations influence the chances of a successful regulation of ethno-national conflict through power-sharing. Exploring the roles played by Syria, Qatar, Iran, Saudi Arabia, the United States and France, it argues that external actors in the Lebanese conflict largely determined whether power-sharing was successfully established and shows that the consociational democratic model cannot provide long-term conflict regulation in their absence. The author argues that relationships between internal and external actors determine the prospects for successful conflict regulation and pinpoints the crucial role of the external forces in the creation of power-sharing agreements in Lebanon concluding that future success is dependent on the maintenance of positive, exogenous pressures. This book will be of key interest to students and scholars studying politics, international relations, and Middle East studies.
Category: Political Science

Democracy In Lebanon

Author : Abbas Assi
ISBN : 178453093X
Genre :
File Size : 56.89 MB
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The 'Cedar Revolution' in Lebanon, which was sparked by the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri on 14 February 2005, was seen by many as an opportunity for Lebanon's fragile political system to move towards a more stable form of democracy. But contrary to these expectations, in the years since Syrian military withdrawal in April 2005, Lebanon has been plagued with sectarian and political unrest and conflict. Abbas Assi here explores the obstacles that impeded the democratic transition process and how subsequent events since 2005 (such as the passing of UNSCR 1559, the 2006 Hizbullah-Israel war and the Syrian conflict) have bolstered this trend. By looking at these, Assi examines how the intersection of the influence of external factors and powers with domestic conflicts has shaped the behaviour of political parties and has had implications on their ability to reach compromises and initiate democratic reforms. By analysing the impact of the intersection of domestic and external factors on democracy, this book is a vital reference for those studying politics of Lebanon and the Middle East more broadly.

Democracy In Lebanon

Author : Shelina Janmohamed
ISBN : 9781786720047
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 86.72 MB
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What does it mean to be young and Muslim today? There is a segment of the world’s 1.8 billion Muslims that is more influential than any other, and will shape not just the future generations of Muslims, but also the world around them: meet ‘Generation M’. Tech-savvy and self-empowered, Generation M believe their identity encompasses both faith and modernity. Shelina Janmohamed, award-winning author and leading voice on Muslim youth, investigates this growing cultural phenomenon, at a time where understanding the mindset of young Muslims, and what drives them, is critical. Exploring fashion magazines, social networking and everyday consumer choices, Generation M shows how this dynamic section of our society is not only adapting to Western consumerism, but reclaiming it as its own. From the ‘Mipsters’ to the ‘Haloodies’, Halal internet dating to Muslim boy bands, Generation M are making their mark. It’s time to get hijabilicious
Category: Business & Economics

The Syrian Refugee Crisis In Lebanon

Author : Robert G. Rabil
ISBN : 9781498535137
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 56.28 MB
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This book examines the unfolding of the Syrian refugee crisis in relation to the spillover of the Syrian civil war in Lebanon and against the background of Lebanon–Syria relations and Lebanon’s socio-political, cultural, legal, and economic conditions. It surveys Lebanon’s response plans to the refugee crisis as part of the development of the international response plans to address the protection and needs of the Syrian refugees and Palestinian refugees from Syria, as well as the impacted host communities and institutions. At the same time, this book emphasizes the dramatic shift in popular and institutional attitudes towards the refugees as a response to and as a growth of the sheer magnitude of the refugee crisis, which made Lebanon the only country in modern history with the highest per capita concentration of refugees in the world. By examining these attitudes against the background of achievements and failures of the response plans, the impact of the crisis on state institutions on the local and national levels, and the collective consciousness of a nation barely surviving the scars of its civil war, this book not only underscores the deepening tragedy of Syrian and Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, but also the consequential tragedy of many Lebanese, who have been forced into poverty and whose livelihoods have been affected by insecurity and the almost complete collapse of social services. As a result, the tragedy of the Syrian refugee crisis has become an international crisis affecting vulnerable persons across nationalities, and, unless it is addressed diplomatically and its response plans sufficiently funded, the tragedy will only deepen across continents.
Category: Political Science

Post Colonial Syria And Lebanon

Author : Youssef Chaitani
ISBN : 9780857715838
Genre : History
File Size : 40.7 MB
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The complex relationship between Syria and Lebanon is the political fulcrum of the Middle East, and has dominated headlines since the withdrawal of French colonial forces from the Levant in 1943. One of the great paradoxes of this relationship is how two such very different political systems emerged in what many Syrian and Lebanese people see as one society. At the time of independence, it was assumed that only the divide-and-rule strategies of foreign powers kept the Arab peoples artificially separated. In this major new book, Youssef Chaitani examines how, despite the prevalence of Arab nationalism and the regression of imperial interference, Syria and Lebanon became more divided, rather than more integrated in the post-independence period. Drawing on untapped sources from the archives of Western foreign offices and the local press, Chaitani uncovers the strategies and motivations of both countries’ elites during this period, and produces conclusions which have major implications for our understanding of Arab nationalism, as well as the complexities of the Syrian-Lebanese relationship._x000D_ "This fascinating and profound diagnosis of why Syria and Lebanon fell out in their first years of independence helps explain the tensions which bedevil their relations to this day" - Patrick Seale_x000D_ "Syrian-Lebanese relations are high on the agenda of Middle East politics at present, and this is a most timely book..thoroughly researched and documented" Sami Zubaida, Birkbeck College, University of London
Category: History

Killing Mr Lebanon

Author : Nicholas Blanford
ISBN : 9780857714053
Genre : True Crime
File Size : 46.65 MB
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On Valentine’s Day 2005 former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri, nicknamed ‘Mr Lebanon’ for his local power and patronage, was killed by a massive explosion as he drove along the Beirut seafront. Ten weeks later, Syrian troops had withdrawn from Lebanon after an occupation of nearly thirty years. In this compelling book, Nicholas Blanford looks at how the murder of a businessman provoked such a seismic shift in Middle Eastern politics. He examines Hariri’s past, inextricably linked with that of Lebanon, and uncovers a murky world of shifting alliances between businesses, security services, politicians and diplomats. Based on exclusive interviews with the key players in the Syrian, Lebanese and international arenas, Blanford traces the last weeks of Hariri’s life, and reveals who and what stood to gain from his death. Gaining access to material never before made public, Blanford shows how right up until the morning of his assassination, Hariri was building up a unique political movement which would have upset the balance of power in Middle Eastern politics. Larger than life figures emerge in this Shakespearean political drama: the wily Druze leader, Walid Jumblatt, the much-feared head of Syrian military intelligence in Lebanon, Rustom Ghazaleh and the young Syrian leader eager to stamp his authority, Bashar al-Assad. With Lebanon reeling from the explosion of regional tensions in the summer of 2006, Blanford traces the impact of the Hariri assassination on Hizbullah, Syria and Israel. Full of intrigue, shady characters and suspense, Killing Mr Lebanon is the definitive account of how Beirut became once again the flashpoint of the Middle East._x000D_ _x000D_
Category: True Crime

The Making Of Lebanese Foreign Policy

Author : Henrietta Wilkins
ISBN : 9781136776830
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 78.53 MB
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Seeking to explain Lebanon’s behavior in the international arena during the 2006 war between Hezbollah and Israel, this book offers a critique of both systemic and sub state factors in determining foreign policy decisions. The Making of Lebanese Foreign Policy illustrates how systemic theories are limited in terms of explaining foreign policy decisions because they largely ignore the role of internal, or sub state, factors. Within Lebanon, foreign policy is split between the interests of different internal Lebanese groups working in alliance with external actors. The competing interests of these internal groups compromise the cohesion of the Lebanese state and its capacity to promote its own interests above those of the different internal groups. The example of Lebanon during the 2006 war thus demonstrates the importance of these sub state factors in influencing state behaviour on an international level. Arguing that a more pluralistic approach is necessary in order to understand the conditions that affect the foreign policy making of the Lebanese state, this book fills an important gap in the literature on the topic and will be of interest to students of International Relations, Middle East Studies and Islamic Studies amongst others.
Category: Political Science

The Ghosts Of Martyrs Square

Author : Michael Young
ISBN : 1439109451
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 41.57 MB
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NOT SINCE THOMAS FRIEDMAN’SFROM BEIRUT TO JERUSALEM IN 1989 HAS A JOURNALIST OFFERED SUCH A POIGNANT AND PASSIONATE PORTRAIT OF LEBANON—A UNIQUELY PLURALIST ARAB COUNTRY STRUGGLING TO DEFEND ITS VIABILITY IN A TURBULENT AND TREACHEROUS MIDDLE EAST. Michael Young, who was taken to Lebanon at age seven by his Lebanese mother after the death of his American father and who has worked most of his career as a journalist there for American publications, brings to life a country in the crossfire of invasions, war, domestic division, incessant sectarian scheming, and often living in fear of its neighbors. Young knows or has known many of the players, politicians, writers, and religious leaders. A country riven by domestic tensions that have often resulted in assassinations, under the considerable sway of Hezbollah (in alliance with Iran and Syria), frequently set upon by Israel and Syria, nearly destroyed by civil war, Lebanon remains an exception among Arab countries because it is a place where liberal instincts and tolerance struggle to stay alive. An important and enduring symbol, Lebanon was once the outstanding example of an (almost) democratic society in an inhospitable, dangerous region—a laboratory both for modernity and violence, as a Lebanese intellectual who was later assassinated once put it. Young relates the growing tension between a domineering Syria and a Lebanese opposition in which charismatic leader and politician Rafiq al-Hariri was assassinated and the Independence Intifada—the Cedar Revolution—broke out. His searing account of his country’s confrontation with its domestic and regional demons is one of hope found and possibly lost. In this stunning narrative, Young tells us what might have been his country’s history, and what it may yet be.
Category: Political Science

Spheres Of Intervention

Author : James R. Stocker
ISBN : 9781501704154
Genre : History
File Size : 78.35 MB
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In Spheres of Intervention, James R. Stocker examines the history of diplomatic relations between the United States and Lebanon during a transformational period for Lebanon and a time of dynamic changes in US policy toward the Middle East. Drawing on tens of thousands of pages of declassified materials from US archives and a variety of Arabic and other non-English sources, Stocker provides a new interpretation of Lebanon’s slide into civil war, as well as insight into the strategy behind US diplomatic initiatives toward the Arab-Israeli conflict. During this period, Stocker argues, Lebanon was often a pawn in the games of larger powers. The stability of Lebanon was an aim of US policy at a time when Israel’s borders with Egypt and Jordan were in active contention. Following the June 1967 Arab-Israeli War, the internal political situation in Lebanon became increasingly unstable due to the regional military and political stalemate, the radicalization of the country’s domestic politics, and the appearance of Palestinian militias on Lebanese territory. US officials were more deeply involved in Lebanese affairs than most outside the region realized. After a series of internal crises in 1969, 1970, and 1973, civil war broke out in Lebanon in 1975. The conflict reached a temporary halt after a Syrian military intervention the following year, but this was only an end to the first stage of what would be a sixteen-year civil war. During these crises, the US sought to help the Lebanese government in a variety of ways, including providing military aid to the Lebanese military, convincing Arab countries to take measures to help the Lebanese government, mediating Lebanon’s relations with Israel, and even supporting certain militias.
Category: History