LEARNING A BEHAVIORAL COGNITIVE AND EVOLUTIONARY SYNTHESIS

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Learning

Author : Jerome Frieman
ISBN : 9781483359243
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 66.85 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
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Learning: A Behavioral, Cognitive, and Evolutionary Synthesis by Jerome Frieman and Steve Reilly provides an integrated account of the psychological processes involved in learning and conditioning and their influence on human behavior. With a skillful blend of behavioral, cognitive, and evolutionary themes, the text explores various types of learning as adaptive specialization that evolved through natural selection. Robust pedagogy and relevant examples bring concepts to life in this unique and accessible approach to the field.
Category: Psychology

Advances In The Evolutionary Synthesis Of Intelligent Agents

Author : Mukesh Patel
ISBN : 0262162016
Genre : Computers
File Size : 83.22 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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This book explores a central issue in artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and artificial life: how to design information structures and processes that create and adapt intelligent agents through evolution and learning. Among the first uses of the computer was the development of programs to model perception, reasoning, learning, and evolution. Further developments resulted in computers and programs that exhibit aspects of intelligent behavior. The field of artificial intelligence is based on the premise that thought processes can be computationally modeled. Computational molecular biology brought a similar approach to the study of living systems. In both cases, hypotheses concerning the structure, function, and evolution of cognitive systems (natural as well as synthetic) take the form of computer programs that store, organize, manipulate, and use information. Systems whose information processing structures are fully programmed are difficult to design for all but the simplest applications. Real-world environments call for systems that are able to modify their behavior by changing their information processing structures. Cognitive and information structures and processes, embodied in living systems, display many effective designs for biological intelligent agents. They are also a source of ideas for designing artificial intelligent agents. This book explores a central issue in artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and artificial life: how to design information structures and processes that create and adapt intelligent agents through evolution and learning. The book is organized around four topics: the power of evolution to determine effective solutions to complex tasks, mechanisms to make evolutionary design scalable, the use of evolutionary search in conjunction with local learning algorithms, and the extension of evolutionary search in novel directions.
Category: Computers

Cognition Evolution And Behavior

Author : Sara J. Shettleworth
ISBN : 0199717818
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 44.77 MB
Format : PDF
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How do animals perceive the world, learn, remember, search for food or mates, communicate, and find their way around? Do any nonhuman animals count, imitate one another, use a language, or have a culture? What are the uses of cognition in nature and how might it have evolved? What is the current status of Darwin's claim that other species share the same "mental powers" as humans, but to different degrees? In this completely revised second edition of Cognition, Evolution, and Behavior, Sara Shettleworth addresses these questions, among others, by integrating findings from psychology, behavioral ecology, and ethology in a unique and wide-ranging synthesis of theory and research on animal cognition, in the broadest sense--from species-specific adaptations of vision in fish and associative learning in rats to discussions of theory of mind in chimpanzees, dogs, and ravens. She reviews the latest research on topics such as episodic memory, metacognition, and cooperation and other-regarding behavior in animals, as well as recent theories about what makes human cognition unique. In every part of this new edition, Shettleworth incorporates findings and theoretical approaches that have emerged since the first edition was published in 1998. The chapters are now organized into three sections: Fundamental Mechanisms (perception, learning, categorization, memory), Physical Cognition (space, time, number, physical causation), and Social Cognition (social knowledge, social learning, communication). Shettleworth has also added new chapters on evolution and the brain and on numerical cognition, and a new chapter on physical causation that integrates theories of instrumental behavior with discussions of foraging, planning, and tool using.
Category: Psychology

Evolution And Learning

Author : Bruce H. Weber
ISBN : 0262232294
Genre : FAMILY & RELATIONSHIPS
File Size : 74.76 MB
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Essays on the contributions to historical and contemporary evolutionary theory of the Baldwin effect, which postulates the effects of learned behaviors on evolutionary change.
Category: FAMILY & RELATIONSHIPS

A Brief History Of Psychology

Author : Michael Wertheimer
ISBN : 9781136620638
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 30.8 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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This brief, inexpensive text offers the utmost in flexibility in teaching the history of psychology. Used as a stand-alone text or with readers, this engaging book is noted for its analysis of the scientific and philosophical emergence of the field. Readers appreciate the book’s balanced coverage of experimental, applied, and clinical psychology, as well as the clear and succinct presentation of the field’s major events and schools of thought. This edition features an expanded pedagogical program with bolded terms, a complete glossary, more illustrations, and web-based instructional materials including Power Points, a test bank, discussion questions, and more. Extensively updated throughout, this edition features: A new final chapter with a current analysis of the state of the field including the growth of specialized organizations that promote the science of psychology and the push to influence policies that address global challenges such as environmental sustainability, intergroup conflict, health disparities, and the population explosion. A discussion of the growth in the number and role of women in psychology and the promotion of diversity initiatives related to ethnicity, gender, age, and sexual orientation. Recent developments in the growth of neuroscience, cognitive science, and the diversification of psychology. Portraits of some major figures in the history of psychology. Recent changes in the practice of psychology including more emphasis on "evidence-based practice," prescription privileges, and the application of psychological principles to industrial and engineering psychology. Recent changes in the APA including new divisions and new elected officials. Used independently or as a supplement with readers, this brief text is intended for undergraduate and graduate courses on the history of psychology. Due to its brevity and engaging style, the book is often used in introductory courses to introduce students to the field. The enormous index and substantial glossary make this volume a useful desk reference for the entire field.
Category: Psychology

Social And Personality Development

Author : Kevin MacDonald
ISBN : 9781475702927
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 90.90 MB
Format : PDF
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This volume is an attempt to integrate the theory and data of social and personality development within a modem evolutionary framework. The various chapters are not meant to be read in isolation from one another but rather are intended to form an integrated whole. There is thus a great deal of cross-referencing between chapters and to some extent they all stand or fall together. This also suggests that the accuracy (or usefulness) of a particular chapter cannot be judged until the book is comprehended as a whole. Chapter 1 deals with the theoretical foundations of this enterprise, and the focus is on the compatibility of mainstream approaches within the field to a modem evolutionary approach. Chapters 2-4 concern what I view to be the fundamental proximal mechanisms underlying social and personality development. Chapter 2, on temperament and person ality development, is particularly central to the rest of the volume because these processes are repeatedly invoked as explanatory concepts at later points in the volume.
Category: Psychology

Extended Heredity

Author : Russell Bonduriansky
ISBN : 9781400890156
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.42 MB
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How genes are not the only basis of heredity—and what this means for evolution, human life, and disease For much of the twentieth century it was assumed that genes alone mediate the transmission of biological information across generations and provide the raw material for natural selection. In Extended Heredity, leading evolutionary biologists Russell Bonduriansky and Troy Day challenge this premise. Drawing on the latest research, they demonstrate that what happens during our lifetimes--and even our grandparents' and great-grandparents' lifetimes—can influence the features of our descendants. On the basis of these discoveries, Bonduriansky and Day develop an extended concept of heredity that upends ideas about how traits can and cannot be transmitted across generations. By examining the history of the gene-centered view in modern biology and reassessing fundamental tenets of evolutionary theory, Bonduriansky and Day show that nongenetic inheritance—involving epigenetic, environmental, behavioral, and cultural factors—could play an important role in evolution. The discovery of nongenetic inheritance therefore has major implications for key questions in evolutionary biology, as well as human health. Extended Heredity reappraises long-held ideas and opens the door to a new understanding of inheritance and evolution.
Category: Science

Darwin S Unfinished Symphony

Author : Kevin N. Laland
ISBN : 0691182817
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 70.48 MB
Format : PDF
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Humans possess an extraordinary capacity for culture, from the arts and language to science and technology. But how did the human mind--and the uniquely human ability to devise and transmit culture--evolve from its roots in animal behavior? Darwin's Unfinished Symphony presents a captivating new theory of human cognitive evolution. This compelling and accessible book reveals how culture is not just the magnificent end product of an evolutionary process that produced a species unlike all others--it is also the key driving force behind that process. Kevin Laland tells the story of the painstaking fieldwork, the key experiments, the false leads, and the stunning scientific breakthroughs that led to this new understanding of how culture transformed human evolution. It is the story of how Darwin's intellectual descendants picked up where he left off and took up the challenge of providing a scientific account of the evolution of the human mind.
Category: Psychology

I Dare To Say

Author : Hilda Twongyeirwe
ISBN : 9781569769690
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 75.89 MB
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Featuring the real-life experiences of contemporary African women who tell of atrocities, pain, motherhood, marriage, love, and courage in their daily life, this gripping collection brings greater awareness to a continuing struggle. Denied a voice by their own culture for centuries, these women speak out for the first time, sharing poignant tales of abuse and womanhood robbed, revealing their methods of survival, and divulging their dreams for themselves and their children. A girl describes hiding under a blanket from the Lord s Resistance Army in search of child brides; a woman speaks of her family abuse and rejection followed by the deaths of her child and partner only to learn later that the father of her child was already married with eight children and had AIDS. Dramatic, sometimes heartbreaking, often inspiring, this is the first book to truly show what it means to be a 21st-century African woman."
Category: Biography & Autobiography

Complexity And Evolution

Author : David S. Wilson
ISBN : 9780262035385
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 43.25 MB
Format : PDF
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An exploration of how approaches that draw on evolutionary theory and complexity science can advance our understanding of economics.
Category: Business & Economics