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Language And Meaning In Cognitive Science

Author : Andy Clark
ISBN : 9781136525391
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 20.67 MB
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Summarizes and illuminates two decades of research Gathering important papers by both philosophers and scientists, this collection illuminates the central themes that have arisen during the last two decades of work on the conceptual foundations of artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Each volume begins with a comprehensive introduction that places the coverage in a broader perspective and links it with material in the companion volumes. The collection is of interest in many disciplines including computer science, linguistics, biology, information science, psychology, neuroscience, iconography, and philosophy. Examines initial efforts and the latest controversies The topics covered range from the bedrock assumptions of the computational approach to understanding the mind, to the more recent debates concerning cognitive architectures, all the way to the latest developments in robotics, artificial life, and dynamical systems theory. The collection first examines the lineage of major research programs, beginning with the basic idea of machine intelligence itself, then focuses on specific aspects of thought and intelligence, highlighting the much-discussed issue of consciousness, the equally important, but less densely researched issue of emotional response, and the more traditionally philosophical topic of language and meaning. Provides a gamut of perspectives The editors have included several articles that challenge crucial elements of the familiar research program of cognitive science, as well as important writings whose previous circulation has been limited. Within each volume the papers are organized to reflect a variety of research programs and issues. The substantive introductions that accompany each volume further organize the material and provide readers with a working sense of the issues and the connection between articles.
Category: Philosophy

Foundational Issues In Artificial Intelligence And Cognitive Science

Author : Mark H. Bickhard
ISBN : 9780444825209
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 26.34 MB
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The book focuses on a conceptual flaw in contemporary artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Many people have discovered diverse manifestations and facets of this flaw, but the central conceptual impasse is at best only partially perceived. Its consequences, nevertheless, visit themselves as distortions and failures of multiple research projects - and make impossible the ultimate aspirations of the fields. The impasse concerns a presupposition concerning the nature of representation - that all representation has the nature of encodings: encodingism. Encodings certainly exist, but encodingism is at root logically incoherent; any programmatic research predicted on it is doomed too distortion and ultimate failure. The impasse and its consequences - and steps away from that impasse - are explored in a large number of projects and approaches. These include SOAR, CYC, PDP, situated cognition, subsumption architecture robotics, and the frame problems - a general survey of the current research in AI and Cognitive Science emerges. Interactivism, an alternative model of representation, is proposed and examined.
Category: Psychology

Minds Brains And Computers

Author : Ralph Morelli
ISBN : 0893917931
Genre : Computers
File Size : 24.16 MB
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The basic questions addressed in this book are: what is the computational nature of cognition, and what role does it play in language and other mental processes?; What are the main characteristics of contemporary computational paradigms for describing cognition and how do they differ from each other?; What are the prospects for building cognition and how do they differ from each other?; and what are the prospects for building an artificial intelligence?
Category: Computers

An Invitation To Cognitive Science Language

Author : Lila R. Gleitman
ISBN : 0262650444
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 59.31 MB
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Rather than surveying theories and data in the manner characteristic of many introductory textbooks in the field, An Invitation to Cognitive Science employs a unique case study approach, presenting a focused research topic in some depth and relying on suggested readings to convey the breadth of views and results.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Philosophy Of Artificial Intelligence

Author : Rajakishore Nath
ISBN : 9781599429052
Genre : Computers
File Size : 65.23 MB
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This book deals with the major philosophical issues in the theoretical framework of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in particular and cognitive science in general. The researchers in AI are concerned with the issues of consciousness, human subjectivity, creativity, etc. Cognitive Science and AI argue that consciousness can be artificially created and comprehended in the function of robots. The robotic activities explain the mechanism involved in computation, language processing, sensing the information, etc. Contrary to this thesis, the philosophical study tries to show that human consciousness, thinking, imagination, etc. are much larger concepts and need to be delved into in the broad theoretical framework. This book is a critique of the mechanistic theory of mind. It shows the basic foundation of AI and its limitations in explaining the activities of the human mental life. Machine-functionalism fails to account for the subjective nature of consciousness and the creativity involved in the conscious acts. There are two aspects of this thesis-- the epistemological and the metaphysical. Epistemologically, the subject of consciousness intimately knows the raw feelings or the qualia. Metaphysically speaking, however, the raw feelings are real in the sense that they are part of the furniture of the mental world. Therefore, we can hardly deny that the mental world is real.
Category: Computers

Cognitive Sciences

Author : Maria Nowakowska
ISBN : 9781483219004
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 43.7 MB
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Cognitive Sciences: Basic Problems, New Perspectives, and Implications for Artificial Intelligence presents models and theories that describe and analyze some selected topics in the cognitive sciences and their implications for artificial intelligence (AI). These topics range from problems of observability and its restrictions or distortions of the subjective perception of time, to visual perception, memory, and communication. Extensive use is made of fuzzy set theory. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the distortion of time perception and the relationship between objective and subjective time. An explanatory concept used here is that of a pre-event (being a candidate for an event to be stored in memory) and the concept of a dynamic event-representation of an object (events on events) generated by the perceiver in the process of perceptual work. The discussion then turns to the notion of an event that underlies the theory of time; the semantics of multimedial languages of verbal and non-verbal communication; and problems of the mechanisms underlying the formation of judgments, as well as the problems of expression of these judgments in forms ranging from simple answers to binary questions and the generation of texts or discourses. The book also considers memory and perception before concluding with a description of stochastic models of expertise formation, opinion change, and learning. This monograph will appeal to specialists in the fields of cognitive sciences and AI.
Category: Psychology


Author : John Robert Stewart
ISBN : 9780262014601
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 32.56 MB
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A comprehensive presentation of an approach that proposes a new account of cognition at levels from the cellular to the social.
Category: Philosophy

Predicative Forms In Natural Language And In Lexical Knowledge Bases

Author : P. Saint-Dizier
ISBN : 9789401727464
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 24.30 MB
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This volume is a selection of papers presented at a workshop entitled Predicative Forms in Natural Language and in Lexical Knowledge Bases organized in Toulouse in August 1996. A predicate is a named relation that exists among one or more arguments. In natural language, predicates are realized as verbs, prepositions, nouns and adjectives, to cite the most frequent ones. Research on the identification, organization, and semantic representa tion of predicates in artificial intelligence and in language processing is a very active research field. The emergence of new paradigms in theoretical language processing, the definition of new problems and the important evol ution of applications have, in fact, stimulated much interest and debate on the role and nature of predicates in naturallangage. From a broad theoret ical perspective, the notion of predicate is central to research on the syntax semantics interface, the generative lexicon, the definition of ontology-based semantic representations, and the formation of verb semantic classes. From a computational perspective, the notion of predicate plays a cent ral role in a number of applications including the design of lexical knowledge bases, the development of automatic indexing systems for the extraction of structured semantic representations, and the creation of interlingual forms in machine translation.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Dawn Of Cognitive Science

Author : L. Albertazzi
ISBN : 0792367995
Genre : History
File Size : 90.67 MB
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Current debate in cognitive science, from robotics to analysis of vision, deals with problems like the perception of form, the structure and formation of mental images and their modelling, the ecological development of artificial intelligence, and cognitive analysis of natural language. It focuses in particular on the presence of a hierarchy of intellectual constructions in different formats of representation. These diverse approaches, which share a common assumption of the inner nature of representation, call for a new epistemology - even a new psychophysics - based on a theory of reference which is intrinsically cognitive. As a contribution to contemporary research, the reading presents the core of theories developed in Central Europe between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by philosophers, physicists, psychologists and semanticists who shared a dynamic approach and a pronounced concern with problems of interaction and dependence. These theories offer innovative solutions to some of the epistemological and philosophical problems currently at the centre of debate, like part-whole, theory of relations, and conceptual and linguistic categorization.
Category: History

Dictionary Of Cognitive Science

Author : Olivier Houdé
ISBN : 9781135456351
Genre : Medical
File Size : 73.99 MB
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A translation of the renowned French reference book, Vocabulaire de sciences cognitives , the Dictionary of Cognitive Science presents comprehensive definitions in more than 120 subjects. Topics range from 'Abduction' to 'Writing', and each entry is covered from as many perspectives as possible within the domains of psychology, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics. The editor and his advisory board, each a specialist in one of these areas, have brought together 60 internationally recognized scholars to give the reader a comprehensive understanding of the most current and dynamic thinking in the cognitive sciences.
Category: Medical