LANGUAGE AND MEANING IN COGNITIVE SCIENCE COGNITIVE ISSUES AND SEMANTIC THEORY 4 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND COGNITIVE SCIENCE

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Language And Meaning In Cognitive Science

Author : Andy Clark
ISBN : 9781136525391
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 62.10 MB
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Summarizes and illuminates two decades of research Gathering important papers by both philosophers and scientists, this collection illuminates the central themes that have arisen during the last two decades of work on the conceptual foundations of artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Each volume begins with a comprehensive introduction that places the coverage in a broader perspective and links it with material in the companion volumes. The collection is of interest in many disciplines including computer science, linguistics, biology, information science, psychology, neuroscience, iconography, and philosophy. Examines initial efforts and the latest controversies The topics covered range from the bedrock assumptions of the computational approach to understanding the mind, to the more recent debates concerning cognitive architectures, all the way to the latest developments in robotics, artificial life, and dynamical systems theory. The collection first examines the lineage of major research programs, beginning with the basic idea of machine intelligence itself, then focuses on specific aspects of thought and intelligence, highlighting the much-discussed issue of consciousness, the equally important, but less densely researched issue of emotional response, and the more traditionally philosophical topic of language and meaning. Provides a gamut of perspectives The editors have included several articles that challenge crucial elements of the familiar research program of cognitive science, as well as important writings whose previous circulation has been limited. Within each volume the papers are organized to reflect a variety of research programs and issues. The substantive introductions that accompany each volume further organize the material and provide readers with a working sense of the issues and the connection between articles.
Category: Philosophy

Foundational Issues In Artificial Intelligence And Cognitive Science

Author : Mark H. Bickhard
ISBN : 9780444825209
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 26.62 MB
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The book focuses on a conceptual flaw in contemporary artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Many people have discovered diverse manifestations and facets of this flaw, but the central conceptual impasse is at best only partially perceived. Its consequences, nevertheless, visit themselves as distortions and failures of multiple research projects - and make impossible the ultimate aspirations of the fields. The impasse concerns a presupposition concerning the nature of representation - that all representation has the nature of encodings: encodingism. Encodings certainly exist, but encodingism is at root logically incoherent; any programmatic research predicted on it is doomed too distortion and ultimate failure. The impasse and its consequences - and steps away from that impasse - are explored in a large number of projects and approaches. These include SOAR, CYC, PDP, situated cognition, subsumption architecture robotics, and the frame problems - a general survey of the current research in AI and Cognitive Science emerges. Interactivism, an alternative model of representation, is proposed and examined.
Category: Psychology

Foundational Issues In Artificial Intelligence And Cognitive Science

Author : Mark H. Bickhard
ISBN : 9780444825209
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 42.77 MB
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The book focuses on a conceptual flaw in contemporary artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Many people have discovered diverse manifestations and facets of this flaw, but the central conceptual impasse is at best only partially perceived. Its consequences, nevertheless, visit themselves as distortions and failures of multiple research projects - and make impossible the ultimate aspirations of the fields. The impasse concerns a presupposition concerning the nature of representation - that all representation has the nature of encodings: encodingism. Encodings certainly exist, but encodingism is at root logically incoherent; any programmatic research predicted on it is doomed too distortion and ultimate failure. The impasse and its consequences - and steps away from that impasse - are explored in a large number of projects and approaches. These include SOAR, CYC, PDP, situated cognition, subsumption architecture robotics, and the frame problems - a general survey of the current research in AI and Cognitive Science emerges. Interactivism, an alternative model of representation, is proposed and examined.
Category: Psychology

Cognitive Science

Author : Jay Friedenberg
ISBN : 1412925681
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 42.98 MB
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Throughout history, different fields of inquiry have attempted to understand the great mystery of mind and answer questions like: What is mind? How does it operate? What is consciousness? Only recently have these efforts in traditional and cutting edge disciplines become more united in their focus. Cognitive Science is the comprehensive result of the authors' drawing together of this work. Key features: -Includes numerous ancillaries to promote the book's effective use, a companion student website at www.sagepub.com/CSstudy featuring online student-friendly exercises, E-flash cards, and interactive quizzes; and an Instructors CD-ROM with a test bank, chapter outlines, PowerPoint slides, a sample syllabus, and ideas for student projects - After introducing a major perspective, an `Evaluating' section discusses the strengths and weaknesses of that perspective `Thought Balloons' in margins further encourage students to think critically about key concepts; - `In-Depth' boxes elaborate on specific models, illustrating them in concrete terms, and `Minds On' exercises help students to familiarize themselves with key concepts in a hands-on fashion; - Student study is assisted via key terms (which are boldfaced and defined in context when first introduced), suggestions for further reading, and end-of-chapter `Food for Thought' discussion questions; - Covers all the traditional concerns of cognitive science together with analysis of newer areas such as robotics and the evolutionary approach. Cognitive Science is the perfect introductory textbook for cross-disciplinary courses on the mind in psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and computer science.
Category: Psychology

Cognitive Sciences

Author : Maria Nowakowska
ISBN : 9781483219004
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 88.54 MB
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Cognitive Sciences: Basic Problems, New Perspectives, and Implications for Artificial Intelligence presents models and theories that describe and analyze some selected topics in the cognitive sciences and their implications for artificial intelligence (AI). These topics range from problems of observability and its restrictions or distortions of the subjective perception of time, to visual perception, memory, and communication. Extensive use is made of fuzzy set theory. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the distortion of time perception and the relationship between objective and subjective time. An explanatory concept used here is that of a pre-event (being a candidate for an event to be stored in memory) and the concept of a dynamic event-representation of an object (events on events) generated by the perceiver in the process of perceptual work. The discussion then turns to the notion of an event that underlies the theory of time; the semantics of multimedial languages of verbal and non-verbal communication; and problems of the mechanisms underlying the formation of judgments, as well as the problems of expression of these judgments in forms ranging from simple answers to binary questions and the generation of texts or discourses. The book also considers memory and perception before concluding with a description of stochastic models of expertise formation, opinion change, and learning. This monograph will appeal to specialists in the fields of cognitive sciences and AI.
Category: Psychology

An Invitation To Cognitive Science Language

Author : Lila R. Gleitman
ISBN : 0262650444
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 24.28 MB
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Rather than surveying theories and data in the manner characteristic of many introductory textbooks in the field, An Invitation to Cognitive Science employs a unique case study approach, presenting a focused research topic in some depth and relying on suggested readings to convey the breadth of views and results.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Handbook Of Logic And Language

Author : Johan F.A.K. van Benthem
ISBN : 0444537279
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 80.12 MB
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The logical study of language is becoming more interdisciplinary, playing a role in fields such as computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and game theory. This new edition, written by the leading experts in the field, presents an overview of the latest developments at the interface of logic and linguistics as well as a historical perspective. It is divided into three parts covering Frameworks, General Topics and Descriptive Themes. Completely revised and updated - includes over 25% new material Discusses the interface between logic and language Many of the authors are creators or active developers of the theories
Category: Mathematics

Minds Brains And Computers

Author : Ralph Morelli
ISBN : 0893917931
Genre : Computers
File Size : 89.25 MB
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The basic questions addressed in this book are: what is the computational nature of cognition, and what role does it play in language and other mental processes?; What are the main characteristics of contemporary computational paradigms for describing cognition and how do they differ from each other?; What are the prospects for building cognition and how do they differ from each other?; and what are the prospects for building an artificial intelligence?
Category: Computers

Psychology And Cognitive Science

Author : Michel Denis
ISBN : 0863776027
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 26.5 MB
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This special issue includes revised versions of papers presented at the IUPsyS Symposium "Psychology and Cognitive Science", held during the XXVIth International Congress of Psychology in Montreal, August 1996. The introductory article reports the results of an international survey conducted for the IUPsyS on the place and role of psychology in cognitive science; the next three papers are illustrations of interdisciplinary approaches to cognitive issues. Approaches to discourse comprehension by cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and neurobiology are discussed, and it is considered how the human mind and machines represent knowledge from discourse and text. Finally, there is a description of a computational approach to vision and language inspired by psychological theories.
Category: Psychology

Cognitive Pluralism

Author : Steven Horst
ISBN : 9780262333634
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 47.36 MB
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An argument that we understand the world through many special-purpose mental models of different content domains, and an exploration of the philosophical implications. Philosophers have traditionally assumed that the basic units of knowledge and understanding are concepts, beliefs, and argumentative inferences. In Cognitive Pluralism, Steven Horst proposes that another sort of unit—a mental model of a content domain—is the fundamental unit of understanding. He argues that understanding comes not in word-sized concepts, sentence-sized beliefs, or argument-sized reasoning but in the form of idealized models and in domain-sized chunks. He argues further that this idea of “cognitive pluralism”—the claim that we understand the world through many such models of a variety of content domains—sheds light on a number of problems in philosophy. Horst first presents the “standard view” of cognitive architecture assumed in mainstream epistemology, semantics, truth theory, and theory of reasoning. He then explains the notion of a mental model as an internal surrogate that mirrors features of its target domain, and puts it in the context of ideas in psychology, philosophy of science, artificial intelligence, and theoretical cognitive science. Finally, he argues that the cognitive pluralist view not only helps to explain puzzling disunities of knowledge but also raises doubts about the feasibility of attempts to “unify” the sciences; presents a model-based account of intuitive judgments; and contends that cognitive pluralism favors a reliabilist epistemology and a “molecularist” semantics. Horst suggests that cognitive pluralism allows us to view rival epistemological and semantic theories not as direct competitors but as complementary accounts, each an idealized model of different dimensions of evaluation.
Category: Philosophy