JAPANESE WAR CRIMES

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Japanese War Crimes

Author : Peter Li
ISBN : 9781351511087
Genre : History
File Size : 33.80 MB
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The question of national responsibility for crimes against humanity became an urgent topic due to the charge of ethnic cleansing against the previous Yugoslav government. But that was not the first such urging of legal and moral responsibility for war crimes. While the Nazi German regime has been prototypical, the actions of the Japanese military regime have been receiving increasing prominence and attention. Indeed, Peter Li's volume examines the phenomenon of denial as well as the deeds of destruction. Certainly one of the most troublesome unresolved problems facing many Asian and Western countries after the Asia Pacific war (1931u1945) is the question of the atrocities committed by the Japanese Imperial Army throughout Asia and the Japanese government's repeated attempts to whitewash their wartime responsibilities. The psychological and physical wounds suffered by victims, their families, and relations remain unhealed after more than half a century, and the issue is now pressing. This collection undertakes the critical task of addressing some of the multifaceted and complex issues of Japanese war crimes and redress. This collection is divided into five themes. In "It's Never Too Late to Seek Justice," the issues of reconciliation, accountability, and Emperor Hirohito's responsibility for war crimes are explored. "The American POW Experience Remembered" includes a moving account of the Bataan Death March by an American ex-soldier. "Psychological Responses" discusses the socio-psychological affects of the Nanjing Massacre and Japanese vivisection on Chinese subjects. The way in which Japanese war atrocities have been dealt with in the theater and cinema is the focus of "Artistic Responses." And central to "History Must not Forget" are the questions of memory, trauma, biological warfare, and redress. Included in this volume are samples of the many presentations given at the International Citizens' Forum on War Crimes and Redress held in Tokyo in Decem
Category: History

Judgment At Tokyo

Author : Timothy P. Maga
ISBN : 0813128986
Genre : History
File Size : 65.72 MB
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Category: History

The Knights Of Bushido

Author : Lord Russell of Liverpool
ISBN : 9781473887589
Genre : History
File Size : 48.45 MB
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The war crimes trials at Nuremberg and Tokyo meted out the Allies' official justice; Lord Russell of Liverpool's sensational bestselling books on the Axis' war crimes decided the public's opinion. The Knights of Bushido, Russell's shocking account of Japanese brutality in the Pacific in World War II, describes how the noble founding principles of the Empire of Japan were perverted by the military into a systematic campaign of torture, murder, starvation, rape, and destruction. Notorious incidents like the Nanking Massacre and the Bataan Death March emerge as merely part of a pattern of human rights abuses. Undoubtedly formidable soldiers, the Japanese were terrible conquerors. Their conduct in the Pacific is a harrowing example of the doctrine of mutual destruction carried to the extreme and begs the question of what is acceptable and unacceptable in total war.
Category: History

Select Documents On Japanese War Crimes And Japanese Biological Warfare 1934 2006

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The enactment of the Japanese Imperial Government Disclosure Act (P.L.106-657) and the issuance of Executive Order 13110 (Jan. 11, 1999) aimed at making U.S. government records related to Japanese war crimes and war criminals in World War II more accessible. Records surveys implementing these requirements disclosed that there were relatively few remaining security-classified relevant documents waiting for disclosure. On the other hand, better identification of relevant documents and improved access to these records was a primary goal of the White House. The Interagency Working Group (IWG) staff took up the admonition from the National Security Advisor that “Agencies should bring to light hitherto unknown relevant unclassified or declassified records encountered in the course of the search for relevant classified records.” In selecting documents, the IWG Staff focused on several subjects and topics that have longstanding interest and concerns for researchers: Japanese research and experiments in biological warfare (BW) Japanese instigation of biological warfare attacks in World War II Japanese biological warfare experiments on living humans and animals Japanese atrocities against prisoners of war Japanese atrocities against civilian populations Allied decisions to hold Japanese responsible for war crimes Allied decisions to hold war crimes trials Allied decision to consider Emperor Hirohito as a person responsible for war crimes Allied decisions to investigate specific Japanese scientists and military personnel for BW crimes American POWs held at Mukden POW Camp Hoten and any evidence of BW experiments on them Some subjects of current interest, such as “comfort women,” were specifically searched for, but with little success. This collection will continue to expand as new documents are discovered.
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Researching Japanese War Crimes Records Introductory Essays

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Japanese war crimes committed in Asia and the Pacific between 1931 and 1945 concerned few Americans in the decades following World War II. Japan’s crimes against Asian peoples had never been a major issue in the postwar United States, and—with the notable exceptions of former U.S. prisoners of war held by the Japanese—even remembrance of Japanese wartime atrocities against Americans dimmed as years passed. American attitudes about Japanese war crimes changed markedly following the 1997 publication of Iris Chang’s The Rape of Nanking.2 Chang’s moving testament to the Chinese victims of the sack of Nanjing in 1937 graphically detailed the horror and scope of the crime and indicted the Japanese government and people for their collective amnesia about the wartime army’s atrocious conduct. The bestselling book spurred a tremendous amount of renewed interest in Japanese wartime conduct in China, Korea, the Philippines, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific. The Rape of Nanking raised many issues that demanded further explanation. Why were the Japanese not punished as severely as the Nazis for their crimes? Did the United States suppress evidence of the criminal responsibility of activity by the emperor to ensure a smoothly running occupation of Japan? Did the U.S. government protect Japanese medical officers in exchange for data on human experimentation? Chang also charged the U.S. government with “inexplicably and irresponsibly” returning confiscated wartime records to Japan before microfilming them, making it impossible to determine the extent of Japan’s guilt.3 Others were convinced that the U.S. government retained highly classified documents that would prove Japanese guilt beyond doubt and implicate the highest levels of Japanese government and society in the crimes. These issues led concerned parties to investigate Japanese wartime records among the holdings at the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in College Park, Maryland, and at other U.S. government agencies. Thorough documentation of Japanese war crimes and criminal activities among these holdings seemed unavailable, leading to speculation of an official cover-up. Suspicions that the U.S. government was deliberately concealing dark secrets were fueled when, instead of finding the records they sought, researchers encountered a card stating the records had been “withdrawn for security reasons,” as well as when they received a notice that requested information could not be located.
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Hidden Horrors

Author : Yuki Tanaka
ISBN : 9781538102701
Genre : History
File Size : 70.15 MB
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Now in a significant new edition, this landmark book documents little-known wartime Japanese atrocities during World War II, including cannibalism; the slaughter and starvation of prisoners of war; the rape, enforced prostitution, and murder of noncombatants; and biological warfare experiments.
Category: History

Japan S War Crimes

Author : Ri Jong Hyon
ISBN : STANFORD:36105123850161
Genre : History
File Size : 29.7 MB
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Category: History

Japanese War Criminals

Author : Sandra Wilson
ISBN : 9780231542685
Genre : History
File Size : 60.32 MB
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Beginning in late 1945, the United States, Britain, China, Australia, France, the Netherlands, and later the Philippines, the Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China convened national courts to prosecute Japanese military personnel for war crimes. The defendants included ethnic Koreans and Taiwanese who had served with the armed forces as Japanese subjects. In Tokyo, the International Military Tribunal for the Far East tried Japanese leaders. While the fairness of these trials has been a focus for decades, Japanese War Criminals instead argues that the most important issues arose outside the courtroom. What was the legal basis for identifying and detaining subjects, determining who should be prosecuted, collecting evidence, and granting clemency after conviction? The answers to these questions helped set the norms for transitional justice in the postwar era and today contribute to strategies for addressing problematic areas of international law. Examining the complex moral, ethical, legal, and political issues surrounding the Allied prosecution project, from the first investigations during the war to the final release of prisoners in 1958, Japanese War Criminals shows how a simple effort to punish the guilty evolved into a multidimensional struggle that muddied the assignment of criminal responsibility for war crimes. Over time, indignation in Japan over Allied military actions, particularly the deployment of the atomic bombs, eclipsed anger over Japanese atrocities, and, among the Western powers, new Cold War imperatives took hold. This book makes a unique contribution to our understanding of the construction of the postwar international order in Asia and to our comprehension of the difficulties of implementing transitional justice.
Category: History

Hidden Horrors

Author : Toshiyuki Tanaka
ISBN : 0813327172
Genre : History
File Size : 53.38 MB
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Uses previously unavailable archives to document Japanese atrocities, and sets these in context with atrocities committed by other nations in World War II
Category: History

The Knights Of Bushido

Author : Edward Frederick Langley Russell Baron Russell of Liverpool
ISBN : UVA:X030464666
Genre : History
File Size : 24.45 MB
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This is the classic, standard account of Japanese war crimes; a best seller in its time, but out of print for many years. Between 1931 and 1945 Japanese troops rampaged through one defeated country after another, executing civilians, despoiling cities, massacring prisoners and cruelly exploiting prisoners of war and native populations. This sweeping indictment of atrocities committed by the forces of the Rising Sun is a detailed and carefully documented study and one that throws light onto one of the most disturbing episodes of World War II.
Category: History