Author : Fawaz A. Gerges
ISBN : 9781400885596
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 76.82 MB
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The Islamic State has stunned the world with its savagery, destructiveness, and military and recruiting successes. What explains the rise of ISIS and what does it portend for the future of the Middle East? In this book, one of the world's leading authorities on political Islam and jihadism sheds new light on these questions as he provides a unique history of the rise and growth of ISIS. Moving beyond journalistic accounts, Fawaz Gerges provides a clear and compelling account of the deeper conditions that fuel ISIS. The book describes how ISIS emerged in the chaos of Iraq following the 2003 U.S. invasion, how the group was strengthened by the suppression of the Arab Spring and by the war in Syria, and how ISIS seized leadership of the jihadist movement from Al Qaeda. Part of a militant Sunni revival, ISIS claims its goals are to resurrect a caliphate and rid "Islamic lands" of all Shia and other minorities. In contrast to Al Qaeda, ISIS initially focused on the "near enemy"—Shia, the Iraqi and Syrian regimes, and secular, pro-Western states in the Middle East. But in a tactical shift ISIS has now taken responsibility for spectacular attacks in Europe and other places beyond the Middle East, making it clear that the group is increasingly interested in targeting the "far enemy" as well. Ultimately, the book shows how decades of dictatorship, poverty, and rising sectarianism in the Middle East, exacerbated by foreign intervention, led to the rise of ISIS—and why addressing those problems is the only way to ensure its end. An authoritative introduction to arguably the most important conflict in the world today, this is an essential book for anyone seeking a deeper understanding of the social turmoil and political violence ravaging the Arab-Islamic world.
Category: Political Science

Die Neuen Dschihadisten

Author : Peter R. Neumann
ISBN : 9783843711531
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 24.80 MB
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»Ein außergewöhnlich kluges Buch.« Georg Mascolo Wir stehen am Anfang einer neuen Terrorismuswelle. Ihre Wurzel ist die Krise in Syrien und dem Irak. Dort hat der Islamische Staat eine totalitäre Utopie verwirklicht, die gleichzeitig als Trainings- und Operationsbasis dient. Aus Europa sind Tausende in den Konflikt gezogen. Dazu kommen „einsame Wölfe“ und die Überbleibsel von al-Qaida. Sie drohen mit Anschlägen. Aber mehr noch: Sie kämpfen mit allen Mitteln gegen das europäische Gesellschaftsmodell – das friedliche Zusammenleben von Menschen unterschiedlicher Herkunft und Religionen. Was uns bevorsteht, kann dank seiner jahrzehntelangen Forschungsarbeit keiner so gut einschätzen wie der weltweit renommierte Terrorexperte Peter R. Neumann. Er ordnet die neue Bewegung ein und zeigt, wie wir der Bedrohung begegnen können. »Neumann ist zweifelsohne derzeit einer der wichtigsten, wenn nicht sogar der wichtigste Terrorismus-Experte der Welt.« Bild »Ein gut lesbares, informatives Handbuch.« tagesspiegel
Category: Social Science

The History Of Terrorism

Author : Gérard Chaliand
ISBN : 9780520966000
Genre : History
File Size : 51.97 MB
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This authoritative work provides an essential perspective on terrorism by offering a rare opportunity for analysis and reflection at a time of ongoing violence, threats, and reprisals. Some of the best international specialists on the subject examine terrorism’s complex history from antiquity to the present day and find that terror, long the weapon of the weak against the strong, is a tactic as old as warfare itself. Beginning with the Zealots of the first century CE, contributors go on to discuss the Assassins of the Middle Ages, the 1789 Terror movement in Europe, Bolshevik terrorism during the Russian Revolution, Stalinism, “resistance” terrorism during World War II, and Latin American revolutionary movements of the late 1960s. Finally, they consider the emergence of modern transnational terrorism, focusing on the roots of Islamic terrorism, al Qaeda, and the contemporary suicide martyr. Along the way, they provide a groundbreaking analysis of how terrorism has been perceived throughout history. What becomes powerfully clear is that only through deeper understanding can we fully grasp the present dangers of a phenomenon whose repercussions are far from over. This updated edition includes a new chapter analyzing the rise of ISIS and key events such as the 2015 Paris attacks.
Category: History

The Isis Apocalypse

Author : William McCants
ISBN : 9781466892705
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 66.19 MB
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The Islamic State is one of the most lethal and successful jihadist groups in modern history, surpassing even al-Qaeda. Thousands of its followers have marched across Syria and Iraq, subjugating millions, enslaving women, beheading captives, and daring anyone to stop them. Thousands more have spread terror beyond the Middle East under the Islamic State's black flag. How did the Islamic State attract so many followers and conquer so much land? By being more ruthless, more apocalyptic, and more devoted to state-building than its competitors. The shrewd leaders of the Islamic State combined two of the most powerful yet contradictory ideas in Islam-the return of the Islamic Empire and the end of the world-into a mission and a message that shapes its strategy and inspires its army of zealous fighters. They have defied conventional thinking about how to wage wars and win recruits. Even if the Islamic State is defeated, jihadist terrorism will never be the same. Based almost entirely on primary sources in Arabic-including ancient religious texts and secret al-Qaeda and Islamic State letters that few have seen - William McCants' The ISIS Apocalypse explores how religious fervor, strategic calculation, and doomsday prophecy shaped the Islamic State's past and foreshadow its dark future.
Category: Political Science

History Of Women In The Sciences

Author : Sally Gregory Kohlstedt
ISBN : UCSD:31822028425395
Genre : Science
File Size : 46.38 MB
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Why is it that some women have created successful careers in science, when historically there have been so many barriers that exclude women from engaging in scientific work? At last, here is a comparative history that illuminates some of the patterns that have emerged in the history of women in science. This book features some of the most influential and pioneering studies of women in the sciences, with a special focus on patterns of education, access, barriers, and opportunities for women's work in science. Spanning the 17th through the 20th centuries, the book demonstrates the meaning and power of gender experienced by women in the sciences. Individual chapters focus on exceptional women whose unusual initiativee and particular circumstance led them to engage in science: Laura Bassi, Nettie Stevens, Maria Winkelmann, and others. Chapters on women's access to science discuss collaboration with family members in the domestic sphere, the impact of primers and popular science writing, and formal education in public schools and advanced research institutions. There are examinations of the reasons for clusters of women working in "female friendly" sciences such as botany and physiology in the 19th century and astronomy in the U.S. during the early 20th century. This important and useful book provides a thoughtful and detailed overview for scholars and students in the history of science, as well as for feminist historians, scientists, and others who who want a comparative and historical analysis of women in the sciences. Contributors include Janet Browne, Paula Findlen, Peggy Aldrich Kidwell, Ann Hibner Koblitz, M. Susan Lindee, Carolyn Merchant, Margaret W. Rossiter, Londa Schiebinger, Nancy Leys Stepan, and Deborah Jean Warner.
Category: Science

Undercover Dschihadistin

Author : Anna Erelle
ISBN : 9783426436370
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 88.81 MB
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Die Journalistin Anna Erelle recherchiert in den sozialen Netzwerken, mit welchen Methoden radikale islamistische Organisationen in Europa Jugendliche für den Krieg in Syrien und dem Irak anwerben. Unter dem Deckmantel der jungen Konvertitin Melodie nimmt sie auf Facebook Kontakt mit einem Kommandanten im Islamischen Staat auf, dem gerissenen Rekrutierer Abu Bilel. Er ermuntert sie, nach Syrien zu reisen, und malt ihr ein verlockendes Leben an seiner Seite aus. Über vier Wochen korrespondiert Melodie mit Abu Bilel und entlockt ihm Informationen über Strategien des Islamischen Staats und das Söldnerleben in der Kampfzone. Dabei wird ihr erst allmählich klar, in welche Gefahr sie sich begibt. Ein brisanter Aufdecker, der unter die Haut geht.
Category: Political Science

The Veil Of Isis

Author : Pierre Hadot
ISBN : 0674023161
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 68.26 MB
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Nearly twenty-five hundred years ago the Greek thinker Heraclitus supposedly uttered the cryptic words "Phusis kruptesthai philei." How the aphorism, usually translated as "Nature loves to hide," has haunted Western culture ever since is the subject of this engaging study by Pierre Hadot. Taking the allegorical figure of the veiled goddess Isis as a guide, and drawing on the work of both the ancients and later thinkers such as Goethe, Rilke, Wittgenstein, and Heidegger, Hadot traces successive interpretations of Heraclitus' words. Over time, Hadot finds, "Nature loves to hide" has meant that all that lives tends to die; that Nature wraps herself in myths; and (for Heidegger) that Being unveils as it veils itself. Meanwhile the pronouncement has been used to explain everything from the opacity of the natural world to our modern angst. From these kaleidoscopic exegeses and usages emerge two contradictory approaches to nature: the Promethean, or experimental-questing, approach, which embraces technology as a means of tearing the veil from Nature and revealing her secrets; and the Orphic, or contemplative-poetic, approach, according to which such a denuding of Nature is a grave trespass. In place of these two attitudes Hadot proposes one suggested by the Romantic vision of Rousseau, Goethe, and Schelling, who saw in the veiled Isis an allegorical expression of the sublime. "Nature is art and art is nature," Hadot writes, inviting us to embrace Isis and all she represents: art makes us intensely aware of how completely we ourselves are not merely surrounded by nature but also part of nature.
Category: Philosophy

An Examination Of The Isis Cult With Preliminary Exploration Into New Testament Studies

Author : Elizabeth A. McCabe
ISBN : 0761834028
Genre : Religion
File Size : 25.13 MB
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This work serves as an investigation of the Isis cult by tracing its development from Egypt into Greco-Roman society. The origin of the Isis cult is described by using the accounts of Plutarch, Apuleius, and Diodorus before examining the effects of Isis on Egyptian culture. The Isis cult soon overflows into the Greco-Roman world. While this mysterious religion initially encounters opposition, especially since it clashes with Roman patriarchal society, it overcomes these limitations. The relevance of Isis to New Testament studies is demonstrated by comparing similar Pauline practices to Isiac beliefs and practices. The concepts of freedom, salvation, baptism, and resurrection in Pauline Christianity overlap with Isiac beliefs. The possibility of the Isis cult as an historical context is explored in the book of 1 Timothy, which serves as an example of the intersection between the biblical text and the Egyptian cult of Isis.
Category: Religion

The Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria

Author : Charles River Editors
ISBN : 1500443425
Genre : History
File Size : 25.80 MB
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*Includes pictures *Explains the formation, influences, ideology, and goals of the group *Includes footnotes and a bibliography for further reading Also known as ISIS, Da'esh, al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI), and a host of other names, the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has increasingly gained attention over the years for its brutal tactics and seemingly blatant disregard for human rights, but it has recently dominated the global media spotlight and made headlines when it attacked and seized control of Mosul, the second largest city in Iraq, and drove out an Iraqi army force that was more than five times its size in June 2014. It has since laid claim to various territories throughout Iraq and the Levant, and it has established operational control and maintained administrative structures on both sides of the Iraqi-Syrian border. Most recently, it declared the restoration of a caliphate and renamed itself the Islamic State. The ever-deteriorating crises in Iraq and Syria have continued to highlight the prolific activities of ISIS, but as a unified organization, ISIS is believed to consist of only a few thousand militants led by a shadowy and secretive leader named Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Nonetheless, despite its relatively small size, the group has taken on and at times successfully battled U.S. and Coalition forces, the Iraqi army, and other rival Iraqi and Syrian militant groups. The ferocity and fanaticism with which it fights, and the absolute commitment it has to the jihad in Iraq and the Levant, continue to set ISIS apart from other known terrorist organizations in the region. One of the reasons ISIS has gone by so many different names is because it has rebranded itself numerous times in the past. After starting as an al-Qaeda-inspired Sunni Islamist brigade that emerged from the ashes of the jihadist struggle against foreign forces in Iraq, the group grew into a full-fledged al-Qaeda branch, then evolved into a religiously motivated army, then finally separated from al-Qaeda to become the organization it is today. The frequent name changes are hardly cosmetic; they represent the multiple transformations the group has undergone and symbolize its flexibility and adaptability, which is also how the ISIL has not only survived for over a decade but even flourished as one of the most influential groups in the region. Today, the group attracts fighters who wish to join its ranks not just from across Iraq and the region but from all over the world. The group has also experienced many periods of withdrawal and reemergence, further confounding the true nature and structure of the organization, which has been littered with in-fighting, rivalries, and leadership shuffles. But the group's terrorism and violent capabilities have been made quite clear in the Syrian civil war, the fighting in Iraq, and even attacks into other countries within the region. Operatives have claimed bombings and attacks in Lebanon and Jordan, and there are known recruiting cells in places as far away as Egypt, Morocco, and the U.K. The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria: The History of ISIS/ISIL chronicles the birth and growth of the group, including the key figures and events that impacted its formation, as well as the ideology of the group and the historical context and environment that strengthened it. This book also looks at the various tactics and strategies the group has employed to achieve its goals and further its ideology, especially its notorious terrorist attacks. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about ISIS like never before, in no time at all.
Category: History