INVENTING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY

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Inventing Equal Opportunity

Author : Frank Dobbin
ISBN : 0691137439
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 61.58 MB
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Equal opportunity in the workplace is thought to be the direct legacy of the civil rights and feminist movements and the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964. Yet, as Frank Dobbin demonstrates, corporate personnel experts--not Congress or the courts--were the ones who determined what equal opportunity meant in practice, designing changes in how employers hire, promote, and fire workers, and ultimately defining what discrimination is, and is not, in the American imagination. Dobbin shows how Congress and the courts merely endorsed programs devised by corporate personnel. He traces how the first measures were adopted by military contractors worried that the Kennedy administration would cancel their contracts if they didn't take "affirmative action" to end discrimination. These measures built on existing personnel programs, many designed to prevent bias against unionists. Dobbin follows the changes in the law as personnel experts invented one wave after another of equal opportunity programs. He examines how corporate personnel formalized hiring and promotion practices in the 1970s to eradicate bias by managers; how in the 1980s they answered Ronald Reagan's threat to end affirmative action by recasting their efforts as diversity-management programs; and how the growing presence of women in the newly named human resources profession has contributed to a focus on sexual harassment and work/life issues. Inventing Equal Opportunity reveals how the personnel profession devised--and ultimately transformed--our understanding of discrimination.
Category: Business & Economics

Inventing Al Gore

Author : Bill Turque
ISBN : 9780544364264
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 38.65 MB
Format : PDF
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A “balanced, insightful” biography of the politician that “shows how the pressure to succeed has shaped virtually every aspect of Gore’s career” (Publishers Weekly, starred review). Why did Al Gore, after angry opposition to the Vietnam War, submit to the draft? What happened in Vietnam that made him sullen and bitter? After he renounced politics, what set this son of a Tennessee senator back on the track mapped out for him? What was the real nature of his partnership with Bill Clinton, and how was it altered by the Lewinsky affair? Inventing Al Gore addresses these issues and more as it unveils the true motivations, ideals, and idiosyncrasies of one of America’s most inscrutable political figures. Bill Turque, who covered both of Gore’s vice presidential campaigns and the Clinton White House, draws on extensive access to Gore’s key advisers, friends, and family. He unmasks a man who in private can sing and dance to George Strait’s music but in public measures every comment and gesture with legendary caution. As Turque details, Gore’s great political albatross—a lack of empathy—was hatched during his lonely childhood as the product of ambitious political parents who groomed him for the presidency. Turque’s keen analysis also uncovers the genesis of Gore’s questionable fund-raising and of a political platform laden with worthy but emotionally safe planks such as bioethics and global warming. In addition, Inventing Al Gore illuminates how personal tragedies have shaped his political life—and the remarkable influence that women, from his mother to Naomi Wolf, have had on his career. “Refreshing . . . Turque finds [Gore] to be like so many of the rest of us—occasionally decent, usually flawed, always conflicted.” —Newsday
Category: Biography & Autobiography

After Civil Rights

Author : John D. Skrentny
ISBN : 9781400848492
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 41.49 MB
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What role should racial difference play in the American workplace? As a nation, we rely on civil rights law to address this question, and the monumental Civil Rights Act of 1964 seemingly answered it: race must not be a factor in workplace decisions. In After Civil Rights, John Skrentny contends that after decades of mass immigration, many employers, Democratic and Republican political leaders, and advocates have adopted a new strategy to manage race and work. Race is now relevant not only in negative cases of discrimination, but in more positive ways as well. In today's workplace, employers routinely practice "racial realism," where they view race as real--as a job qualification. Many believe employee racial differences, and sometimes immigrant status, correspond to unique abilities or evoke desirable reactions from clients or citizens. They also see racial diversity as a way to increase workplace dynamism. The problem is that when employers see race as useful for organizational effectiveness, they are often in violation of civil rights law. After Civil Rights examines this emerging strategy in a wide range of employment situations, including the low-skilled sector, professional and white-collar jobs, and entertainment and media. In this important book, Skrentny urges us to acknowledge the racial realism already occurring, and lays out a series of reforms that, if enacted, would bring the law and lived experience more in line, yet still remain respectful of the need to protect the civil rights of all workers.
Category: Social Science

Inventing The Individual

Author : Larry Siedentop
ISBN : 9780674417533
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 83.8 MB
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Here, in a grand narrative spanning 1,800 years of European history, a distinguished political philosopher firmly rejects Western liberalism’s usual account of itself: its emergence in opposition to religion in the early modern era. Larry Siedentop argues instead that liberal thought is, in its underlying assumptions, the offspring of the Church.
Category: Political Science

How The Other Half Works

Author : Roger Waldinger
ISBN : 9780520229808
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 68.72 MB
Format : PDF
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Solving the riddle of America's immigration puzzle, this text seeks to address the question of why an increasingly high-tech society has use for so many immigrants who lack the basic skills that the modern economy seems to demand.
Category: Social Science

The Power Of Positive Destruction

Author : Seth Merrin
ISBN : 9781119196426
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 66.64 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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It's no longer good enough to build a company to last; today it's about building a company to ignite change. The Power of Positive Destruction reveals how to start a new business, disrupt an industry, and adapt to changing environments by leveraging technology and a new mindset. Serial entrepreneur Seth Merrin has built businesses by seeing issues with the status quo and introducing positive changes that have disrupted—and revolutionized—industries. In this book, he breaks down his process step-by-step to show you what you need to know to successfully start a company and transform an industry. Merrin's incredible story, coupled with real, actionable advice, will resonate with anyone who wants to be a catalyst of change. With this book, readers will learn to see the inefficiencies, ineptitudes, and everyday problems that others dismiss as the cost of doing business and create "unfair competitive advantages" to stack the deck—and win. You'll see how problems in current business models are really opportunities of which to take advantage and learn what you need to know and do to seize those opportunities —no matter where you work. Seth Merrin saw Wall Street as it was, then built a company to turn it into what it could be—safer and more efficient for investors. This book shows you how he did it, and how you can too, with the power of positive destruction. Discover how to turn status quo into disruption Understand how to stack the deck in your favor to achieve the best possible chances of success Learn how to build and run a company and design a culture for constant change Acquire new skills to create strategy, sell your disruptive product or service, and negotiate effectively Technology and innovation can disrupt or transform any industry. It's happening faster and more broadly now than ever, creating myriad opportunities for everyone. But winning in this new world is not easy. The incumbents will fight mightily against it and even those who would benefit from change may first express fear. This book reveals the techniques from identifying the opportunities to designing and executing the strategy you'll need to succeed. With The Power of Positive Destruction you can to tap into your inner change agent and transform your company, your industry, and the world.
Category: Business & Economics

Inventing The Mathematician

Author : Sara N. Hottinger
ISBN : 9781438460116
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 50.31 MB
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Considers how our ideas about mathematics shape our individual and cultural relationship to the field. Where and how do we, as a culture, get our ideas about mathematics and about who can engage with mathematical knowledge? Sara N. Hottinger uses a cultural studies approach to address how our ideas about mathematics shape our individual and cultural relationship to the field. She considers four locations in which representations of mathematics contribute to our cultural understanding of mathematics: mathematics textbooks, the history of mathematics, portraits of mathematicians, and the field of ethnomathematics. Hottinger examines how these discourses shape mathematical subjectivity by limiting the way some groups—including women and people of color—are able to see themselves as practitioners of math. Inventing the Mathematician provides a blueprint for how to engage in a deconstructive project, revealing the limited and problematic nature of the normative construction of mathematical subjectivity.
Category: Mathematics

The Blank Slate

Author : Steven Pinker
ISBN : 1101200324
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 89.15 MB
Format : PDF
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A brilliant inquiry into the origins of human nature. "Sweeping, erudite, sharply argued, and fun to read..also highly persuasive." -Time Now updated with a new afterword One of the world's leading experts on language and the mind explores the idea of human nature and its moral, emotional, and political colorings. With characteristic wit, lucidity, and insight, Pinker argues that the dogma that the mind has no innate traits-a doctrine held by many intellectuals during the past century-denies our common humanity and our individual preferences, replaces objective analyses of social problems with feel-good slogans, and distorts our understanding of politics, violence, parenting, and the arts. Injecting calm and rationality into debates that are notorious for ax-grinding and mud-slinging, Pinker shows the importance of an honest acknowledgment of human nature based on science and common sense.
Category: Psychology

Working Law

Author : Lauren B. Edelman
ISBN : 9780226400938
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 55.31 MB
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Since the passage of the Civil Rights Act, virtually all companies have antidiscrimination policies in place. Although these policies represent some progress, women and minorities remain underrepresented within the workplace as a whole and even more so when you look at high-level positions. They also tend to be less well paid. How is it that discrimination remains so prevalent in the American workplace despite the widespread adoption of policies designed to prevent it? One reason for the limited success of antidiscrimination policies, argues Lauren B. Edelman, is that the law regulating companies is broad and ambiguous, and managers therefore play a critical role in shaping what it means in daily practice. Often, what results are policies and procedures that are largely symbolic and fail to dispel long-standing patterns of discrimination. Even more troubling, these meanings of the law that evolve within companies tend to eventually make their way back into the legal domain, inconspicuously influencing lawyers for both plaintiffs and defendants and even judges. When courts look to the presence of antidiscrimination policies and personnel manuals to infer fair practices and to the presence of diversity training programs without examining whether these policies are effective in combating discrimination and achieving racial and gender diversity, they wind up condoning practices that deviate considerably from the legal ideals.
Category: Social Science

The Fifth Freedom

Author : Anthony S. Chen
ISBN : 9781400831395
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 90.21 MB
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Where did affirmative action in employment come from? The conventional wisdom is that it was instituted during the Johnson and Nixon years through the backroom machinations of federal bureaucrats and judges. The Fifth Freedom presents a new perspective, tracing the roots of the policy to partisan conflicts over fair employment practices (FEP) legislation from the 1940s to the 1970s. Drawing on untapped sources, Anthony Chen chronicles the ironic, forgotten role played by American conservatives in the development of affirmative action. Decades before affirmative action began making headlines, millions of Americans across the country debated whether government could and should regulate job discrimination. On one side was an interfaith and interracial bloc of liberals, who demanded FEP legislation that would establish a centralized system for enforcing equal treatment in the labor market. On the other side was a bloc of business-friendly, small-government conservatives, who felt that it was unwise to "legislate tolerance" and who made common cause with the conservative wing of the Republican party. Conservatives ultimately prevailed, but their obstruction of FEP legislation unintentionally facilitated the rise of affirmative action, a policy their ideological heirs would find even more abhorrent. Broadly interdisciplinary, The Fifth Freedom sheds new light on the role of parties, elites, and institutions in the policymaking process; the impact of racial politics on electoral realignment; the history of civil rights; the decline of New Deal liberalism; and the rise of the New Right. Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.
Category: Political Science