INSTRUMENTATION MEASUREMENTS AND EXPERIMENTS IN FLUIDS
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Author : Ethirajan Rathakrishnan
ISBN : 9781315394848
Genre : Science
File Size : 38.55 MB
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Mechanical engineers involved with flow mechanics have long needed an authoritative reference that delves into all the essentials required for experimentation in fluids, a resource that can provide fundamental review, as well as the details necessary for experimentation on everything from household appliances to hi-tech rockets. Instrumentation, Measurements, and Experiments in Fluids meets this challenge, as its author is not only a highly respected pioneer in fluids, but also possesses twenty years experience teaching students of all levels. He clearly explains fundamental principles as well the tools and methods essential for advanced experimentation. Reflecting an awe for flow mechanics, along with a deep-rooted knowledge, the author has assembled a fourteen chapter volume that is destined to become a seminal work in the field. Providing ample detail for self study and the sort of elegant writing rarely found in so thorough a treatment, he provides insight into all the vital topics and issues associated with the devices and instruments used for fluid mechanics and gas dynamics experiments. Extremely organized, this work presents easy access to the principles behind the science and goes on to elucidate the current research and findings needed by those seeking to make further advancement. Unique and Thorough Coverage of Uncertainty Analysis The author provides valuable insight into the vital issues associated with the devices used in fluid mechanics and gas dynamics experiments. Leaving nothing to doubt, he tackles the most difficult concepts and ends the book with an introduction to uncertainty analysis. Structured and detailed enough for self study, this volume also provides the backbone for both undergraduate and graduate courses on fluids experimentation.
The third edition of this easy-to-understand text continues to provide students with a sound understanding of the fundamental concepts of various physical phenomena of science of fluid mechanics. It adds a new chapter (Vortex Theory) which presents a vivid interpretation of vortex motions that are of fundamental importance in aerodynamics and in the performance of many other engineering devices. It elaborately explains the dynamics of vortex motion with the help of Helmholtz's theorems and provides illustrations of how the manifestations of Helmholtz's theorems can be observed in daily life. Several new problems along with answers are added at the end of Chapter 4 on Boundary Layer. The book is suitable for a one-semester course in fluid mechanics for undergraduate students of mechanical, aerospace, civil and chemical engineering students. A Solutions Manual containing solutions to end-of-chapter problems is available for use by instructors.
This Second Edition contains 18 experiments in Fluid Mechanics, selected from the prescribed curriculum of various universities and institutes. The laboratory work in Fluid Mechanics is undertaken by the undergraduate engineering students of several branches such as civil, mechanical, production, aerospace, chemical, biotechnology, electrical (wherever prescribed), and instrumentation and control (wherever prescribed). The first part of the book allows the students to review the fundamental theory before stepping into the laboratory environment. The second part enumerates the experimental set-ups, and provides a concluding discussion of each experiment. Appendix A gives various questions based on each experiment to test the student’s understanding of the learned material. Appendix B gives data on physical properties of water, air and some commonly used fluids in the laboratory, and also lists other standard data to be used in various experiments.
Author : RATHAKRISHNAN, E.
ISBN : 9788120353169
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 89.59 MB
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This revised and updated sixth edition continues to provide the most accessible and readable approach to the study of all the vital topics and issues associated with gas dynamic processes. With a strong emphasis on the basic concepts and problem-solving skills, this text is suitable for a course on Gas Dynamics/Compressible Flows/High-speed Aerodynamics at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels in aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering and applied physics. In this edition, detailed analytical derivations of the shock polar relation, expressions for the pressure and density ratio across an expansion fan, the relation between the Mach numbers of incident and reflected shocks and the mathematical steps in arriving at the q−b−M relation of oblique shock are incorporated. Besides, the book includes several new solved examples on important analytical relations. New problems have been added in a number of chapters to help students practice applications of the theory studied. Some of the Distinguishing Features of the Book • Concise coverage of the thermodynamic concepts to serve as a revision of the background material. • Logical and systematic treatment of fundamental aspects of gas dynamics, waves in the supersonic regime and gas dynamic processes. • In-depth presentation of potential equations for compressible flows, similarity rule and two-dimensional compressible flows. • Introduction to measurements in compressible flows and optical flow visualization techniques. • Introduction to rarefied gas dynamics and high-temperature gas dynamics. • Solutions Manual for instructors containing the complete worked-out solutions to chapter-end problems. • Computer program to calculate the coordinates of contoured nozzle in C-language.
This is an introductory level textbook which explains the elements of high temperature and high-speed gas dynamics. Readers will gain an understanding how the thermodynamic and transport properties of high temperature gas are determined from a microscopic viewpoint of the molecular gas dynamics, and how such properties affect the flow features, the shock waves and the nozzle flows, from a macroscopic viewpoint. In addition, the experimental facilities for the study on the high enthalpy flows are described in a concise and easy-to-understand style. Practical examples are given throughout emphasizing the application of the theory discussed. Each chapter ends with exercises/problems and solutions to enhance the learning experience. The book begins with the basics about enthalpy, its nature and difference with internal energy and its relationship to heat. Subsequent sections in the chapter on the Basics cover the essence of the gas dynamics of perfect gas, covering all aspects of the theory, which assumes the specific heats of the gas as constants and independent of temperature. The chapter on Thermodynamics of Fluid Flow reviews the concept of energy which plays an important role in both high temperature flows and perfect gas flows. The chapter on Wave Propagation describes the waves, namely the Mach waves, compression waves and expansion waves, which prevail in all gas dynamic streams. The chapter on High Temperature Flows begins with the discussion on the difference between the perfect gas flow and high temperature flow, and proceeds to the importance of high-enthalpy flows covering the nature of high-enthalpy flows, most probable macro state, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics, Boltzmann distribution, evaluation of thermodynamic properties and partition function, covering the various aspects of high-enthalpy flows with shocks. The final chapter on High Enthalpy Facilities describes the devices to provide hypersonic airflows at high enthalpy and high-pressure total conditions.
Written for chemical, mechanical, and aerospace engineering students taking courses on heat and mass transfer, this textbook presents the basics and proceeds to the required theory and its application aspects. Major topics covered include conduction, convection, radiation, boiling, heat exchangers, and mass transfer and are explained in a detailed, to-the-point manner. Along with coverage of the topics, the author provides appropriate numerical examples to clarify theory and concepts. Exercise problems are presented at the end of each chapter to test the understanding gained within each subject. A solutions manual and PowerPoint slides accompany the text, upon qualification.
Author : Martin Trusler
ISBN : 0750301139
Genre : Science
File Size : 81.63 MB
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The interaction of sound waves with the medium through which they pass can be used to investigate the thermophysical properties of that medium. With the advent of modern instrumentation, it is now possible to determine the speed and absorption of sound with extremely high precision and, through the dependence of those quantities on variables like temperature, pressure, and frequency to gain a sensitive measure of one or more properties of fluid. This has led to renewed interest in such measurements and in the extraction of thermophysical properties of gases and liquids there from. Physical Acoustics and Metrology of Fluids describes both how to design experiments to achieve the highest possible accuracy and how to relate the quantities measured in those experiments to the thermophysical properties of the medium. A thorough theoretical examination of the alternative experimental methods available is designed to guide the experimentalist toward better and more accurate methods. This theoretical analysis is enhanced and complemented by an in-depth discussion of practical experimental techniques and the problems inherent within them. Bringing together the fields of thermodynamics, kinetic theory, fluid mechanics, and theoretical acoustics, plus a wealth of information about practical instruments, this book represents an essential reference on the design and execution of valuable experiments in fluid metrology and physical acoustics.
This is the second volume of a two-volume guide to designing, conducting and interpreting laboratory and field experiments in a broad range of topics associated with hydraulic engineering. Specific guidance is provided on methods and instruments currently used in experimental hydraulics, with emphasis on new and emerging measurement technologies and methods of analysis. Additionally, this book offers a concise outline of essential background theory, underscoring the intrinsic connection between theory and experiments. This book is much needed, as experimental hydraulicians have had to refer to guidance scattered in scientific papers or specialized monographs on essential aspects of laboratory and fieldwork practice. The book is the result of the first substantial effort in the community of hydraulic engineering to describe in one place all the components of experimental hydraulics. Included is the work of a team of more than 45 professional experimentalists, who explore innovative approaches to the vast array of experiments of differing complexity encountered by today’s hydraulic engineer, from laboratory to field, from simple but well-conceived to complex and well-instrumented. The style of this book is intentionally succinct, making frequent use of convenient summaries, tables and examples to present information. All researchers, practitioners, and students conducting or evaluating experiments in hydraulics will find this book useful.
Author : Gregory S. Patience
ISBN : 9780444637925
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 34.75 MB
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Experimental Methods and Instrumentation for Chemical Engineers, Second Edition, touches many aspects of engineering practice, research, and statistics. The principles of unit operations, transport phenomena, and plant design constitute the focus of chemical engineering in the latter years of the curricula. Experimental methods and instrumentation is the precursor to these subjects. This resource integrates these concepts with statistics and uncertainty analysis to define what is necessary to measure and to control, how precisely and how often. The completely updated second edition is divided into several themes related to data: metrology, notions of statistics, and design of experiments. The book then covers basic principles of sensing devices, with a brand new chapter covering force and mass, followed by pressure, temperature, flow rate, and physico-chemical properties. It continues with chapters that describe how to measure gas and liquid concentrations, how to characterize solids, and finally a new chapter on spectroscopic techniques such as UV/Vis, IR, XRD, XPS, NMR, and XAS. Throughout the book, the author integrates the concepts of uncertainty, along with a historical context and practical examples. Includes the basics for 1st and 2nd year chemical engineers, providing a foundation for unit operations and transport phenomena Features many practical examples Offers exercises for students at the end of each chapter Includes up-to-date detailed drawings and photos of equipment