INCAPACITATION TRENDS AND NEW PERSPECTIVES

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Incapacitation

Author : Marijke Malsch
ISBN : 9781317117674
Genre : Law
File Size : 33.32 MB
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In many criminal justice systems a new trend towards incapacitation can be witnessed. A ubiquitous want for control seems to have emerged as a consequence of perceived safety risks. This can be seen not only in the mass incarceration of offenders but also in the disqualification of offenders from jobs, in chemical castration in cases of sexual crimes, the increased use of electronic monitoring and in the life-long monitoring of individuals who pose certain risks. Trends towards incapacitation are now even spreading to public administration and the employment sector, in the refusal of licenses and the rejection of employees with past criminal records. This book discusses the topic of incapacitation from various angles and perspectives. It explores how theories of punishment are affected by the more recent emphasis on incapacitation and how criminal justice practice is changing as a consequence of this new emphasis. Many contributors express criticisms with this trend towards incapacitation. They argue for a better calibration of measures to the severity of the misconduct. In addressing an increasingly important development in criminal justice, the book will be an essential resource for students, researchers, and policy-makers working in the areas of criminal law, sentencing, probation and crime prevention.
Category: Law

Managing Fear

Author : Bernadette McSherry
ISBN : 9781136215179
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 81.11 MB
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Managing Fear examines the growing use of risk assessment as it relates to preventive detention and supervision schemes for offenders perceived to be at a high risk of re-offending, individuals with severe mental illness, and suspected terrorists. It outlines a number of legislative regimes in common law countries that have broadened ‘civil’ (as opposed to criminal) powers of detention and supervision. Drawing on the disciplines of criminology and social psychology, it explores how and why such schemes reflect a move towards curtailing liberty before harm results rather than after a crime has occurred. Human rights and ethical issues concerning the role of mental health practitioners in assessing risk for the purposes of preventive detention and supervision are explored, and regimes that require evidence from mental health practitioners are compared with those that rely on decision-makers’ notions of ‘reasonable belief’ concerning the risk of harm. Case studies are used to exemplify some of the issues relating to how governments have attempted to manage the fear of future harm. This book aims to educate mental health practitioners in the law relating to preventive detention and supervision schemes and how the legal requirements differ from clinical assessment practices; examine the reasons why there has been a recent renewal of preventive detention and supervision schemes in common law countries; provide a comparative overview of existing preventive detention and supervision schemes; and analyse the human rights implications and the ethics of using forensic risk assessment techniques for preventive detention and supervision schemes.
Category: Psychology

The Eternal Criminal Record

Author : James B. Jacobs
ISBN : 9780674368262
Genre : Law
File Size : 53.31 MB
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For 60 million Americans a criminal record overshadows everything else about their identity. Citizens have a right to know when someone around them represents a threat. But convicted persons have rights too. James Jacobs examines the problem of erroneous records and proposes ways to eliminate discrimination for those who have been rehabilitated.
Category: Law

Crime And Punishment In America

Author : Elliott Currie
ISBN : 9781250024213
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 62.59 MB
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An acclaimed criminologist examines America's ongoing war against violent crime, arguing that ever-increasing rates of imprisonment have not reduced--and will not reduce--crime rates and offering a range of tested alternatives based on deterrence. Tour.
Category: Political Science

Breaking Women

Author : Jill A. McCorkel
ISBN : 9780814761496
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 49.68 MB
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Since the 1980s, when the War on Drugs kicked into high gear and prison populations soared, the increase in women's rate of incarceration has steadily outpaced that of men. In Breaking Women, Jill A. McCorkel draws upon four years of on-the-ground research in a major US women's prison to uncover why tougher drug policies have so greatly affected those incarcerated there, and how the very nature of punishment in women's detention centres has been deeply altered as a result. Through compelling interviews with prisoners and state personnel, McCorkel reveals that popular so-called "habilitation" drug treatment programs force women to accept a view of themselves as inherently damaged, aberrant addicts in order to secure an earlier release. These programs work to enforce stereotypes of deviancy that ultimately humiliate and degrade the women. The prisoners are left feeling lost and alienated in the end, and many never truly address their addiction as the programs' organizers may have hoped. A fascinating and yet sobering study, Breaking Women foregrounds the gendered and racialized assumptions behind tough-on-crime policies while offering a vivid account of how the contemporary penal system impacts individual lives. Jill A. McCorkel is Associate Professor of Sociology at Villanova University.
Category: Social Science

Mass Incarceration On Trial

Author : Jonathan Simon
ISBN : 9781595587923
Genre : Law
File Size : 79.54 MB
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For nearly forty years the United States has been gripped by policies that have placed more than 2.5 million Americans in jails and prisons designed to hold a fraction of that number of inmates. Our prisons are not only vast and overcrowded, they are degrading—relying on racist gangs, lockdowns, and Supermax-style segregation units to maintain a tenuous order. Mass Incarceration on Trial examines a series of landmark decisions about prison conditions—culminating in Brown v. Plata, decided in May 2011 by the U.S. Supreme Court—that has opened an unexpected escape route from this trap of “tough on crime” politics. This set of rulings points toward values that could restore legitimate order to American prisons and, ultimately, lead to the demise of mass incarceration. Simon argues that much like the school segregation cases of the last century, these new cases represent a major breakthrough in jurisprudence—moving us from a hollowed-out vision of civil rights to the threshold of human rights and giving court backing for the argument that, because the conditions it creates are fundamentally cruel and unusual, mass incarceration is inherently unconstitutional. Since the publication of Michelle Alexander’s The New Jim Crow, states around the country have begun to question the fundamental fairness of our criminal justice system. This book offers a provocative and brilliant reading to the end of mass incarceration.
Category: Law

Medicinal Chemistry Advances

Author : Federico G. De Las Heras
ISBN : 9781483158211
Genre : Medical
File Size : 39.1 MB
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Medicinal Chemistry Advances covers the proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Medicinal Chemistry. The book reviews the papers presented in the symposium. The main topics that this book covers are nucleosides in chemotherapy; theoretical approaches to medicinal chemistry; platelets and antithrombotic agents; receptors; antiviral agents; antilipidemic agents; respiratory system; central nervous system; enzyme inhibitors; and bioactive peptides. Chemists, pharmacologists, biochemists, physicians and other professionals and researchers concerned with the development of pharmaceutical field will find this book interesting.
Category: Medical

Killing Time

Author : Diarmuid Griffin
ISBN : 9783319726670
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 20.21 MB
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Little is known about life imprisonment and the process of releasing offenders back into the community in Ireland. Addressing this scarcity of information, Griffin’s empirical study examines the legal and policy framework surrounding life imprisonment and parole. Through an analysis of the rationales expressed by parole decision-makers in the exercise of their discretionary power of release, it is revealed that decision-makers view public protection as central to the process. However, the risk of reoffending features amidst an array of other factors that also influence parole outcomes including personal interpretations of the purposes of punishment, public opinion and the political landscape within which parole operates. The findings of this study are employed to provide a rationale for the upward trend in time served by life sentence prisoners prior to release in recent times. With reform of parole now on the political agenda, will a more formal process of release operate to constrain the increase in time served witnessed over the last number of decades or will the upward trajectory continue unabated?
Category: Social Science

Crime And Justice At The Millennium

Author : Marvin E. Wolfgang
ISBN : 0792375920
Genre : Law
File Size : 70.18 MB
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The major theme of this Festschrift will be state-of-the-art criminology at the millennium and its impact into the 21st century. The editors have solicited major figures in contemporary criminology to elucidate the current state and future prospects of criminology at the turn of the century. It is appropriate that such a volume be produced in honor of Marvin E. Wolfgang, the most influential criminologist in the English-speaking world. Those invited to contribute were students or colleagues of Professor Wolfgang and are themselves distinguished criminologists. They represent criminology both of the past and the future. The appeal of the current book is not that it honors Marvin Wolfgang, but rather that it provides an accounting of where the discipline of criminology currently stands and its future directions. Professor Marvin E. Wolfgang was unsurpassed as a criminologist, distinguished mentor, and gentleman. A book designed to contribute to the most contemporary debates in criminology is a most fitting tribute.
Category: Law

Fixing Broken Windows

Author : George L. Kelling
ISBN : 9780684837383
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 26.4 MB
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Cites successful examples of community-based policing
Category: Political Science