IN SITU REMEDIATION OF ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SITES ARSENIC IN THE ENVIRONMENT
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Providing an introduction, the scientific background, case studies and future perspectives of in-situ arsenic remediation technologies for soils, soil water and groundwater at geogenic and anthropogenic contaminated sites. The case studies present in-situ technologies about natural arsenic, specifically arsenate and arsenite, but also about organic arsenic compounds. This work covers geochemical, microbiological and plant ecological solutions for arsenic remediation. It will serve as a standard textbook for (post-)graduate students and researchers in the field of Environmental Sciences and Hydrogeochemistry as well as researchers, engineers, environmental scientists and chemists, toxicologists, medical scientists and even for general public seeking an in-depth view of arsenic which had been classed as a carcinogen. This book aims to stimulate awareness among administrators, policy makers and company executives of in-situ remediation technologies at sites contamined by arsenic and to improve the international cooperation on the subject.
Author : Ravi Naidu
ISBN : 9780643099234
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 27.21 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
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Arsenic is one of the most toxic and carcinogenic elements in the environment. This book brings together the current knowledge on arsenic contamination worldwide, reviewing the field, highlighting common themes and pointing to key areas needing future research. Contributions discuss methods for accurate identification and quantification of individual arsenic species in a range of environmental and biological matrices and give an overview of the environmental chemistry of arsenic. Next, chapters deal with the dynamics of arsenic in groundwater and aspects of arsenic in soils and plants, including plant uptake studies, effects on crop quality and yield, and the corresponding food chain and human health issues associated with these exposure pathways. These concerns are coupled with the challenge to develop efficient, cost effective risk management and remediation strategies: recent technological advances are described and assessed, including the use of adsorbants, photo-oxidation, bioremediation and electrokinetic remediation. The book concludes with eleven detailed regional perspectives of the extent and severity of arsenic contamination from around the world. It will be invaluable for arsenic researchers as well as environmental scientists and environmental chemists, toxicologists, medical scientists, and statutory authorities seeking an in-depth view of the issues surrounding this toxin.
The Congress "Arsenic in the Environment" offers an international, multi- and interdisciplinary discussion platform for research and innovation aimed towards a holistic solution to the problem posed by the environmental toxin arsenic, with considerable societal impact. The congress has focused on cutting edge and breakthrough research in physical, chemical, toxicological, medical, agricultural and other specific issues on arsenic across a broader environmental realm. The Congress "Arsenic in the Environment" was first organized in Mexico City (As2006) followed by As2008 in Valencia, Spain, As2010 in Tainan, Taiwan, As2012 in Cairns, Australia and As2014 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The 6th International Congress As2016 was held June 19-23, 2016 in Stockholm, Sweden and was entitled Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability. The Congress addressed the broader context of arsenic research along the following themes: Theme 1: Arsenic in Environmental Matrices and Interactions (Air, Water, Soil and Biological Matrices) Theme 2: Arsenic in Food Chain Theme 3: Arsenic and Health Theme 4: Clean Water Technology for Control of Arsenic Theme 5: Societal issues, Policy Studies, Mitigation and Management Long term exposure to low-to-medium levels of arsenic via contaminated food and drinking water can have a serious impact on human health and globally, more than 100 million people are at risk. Since the end of the 20th century, arsenic in drinking water (mainly groundwater) has emerged as a global health concern. In the past decade, the presence of arsenic in plant foods – especially rice – has gained increasing attention. In the Nordic countries in particular, the use of water-soluble inorganic arsenic chemicals (e.g. chromated copper arsenate, CCA) as wood preservatives and the mining of sulfidic ores have been flagged as health concern. The issue has been accentuated by discoveries of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, primarily in the private wells, in parts of the Fennoscandian Shield and in sedimentary formations, with potentially detrimental effects on public health. Sweden has been at the forefront of research on the health effects of arsenic, technological solutions for arsenic removal, and sustainable mitigation measures for developing countries. Hosting this Congress in Sweden was also relevant because historically Sweden has been one of the leading producer of As2O3 and its emission from the smelting industries in northern Sweden and has successfully implemented actions to reduce the industrial emissions of arsenic as well as minimizing the use of materials and products containing arsenic in since 1977. The Congress has gathered professionals involved in different segments of interdisciplinary research in an open forum, and strengthened relations between academia, industry, research laboratories, government agencies and the private sector to share an optimal atmosphere for exchange of knowledge, discoveries and discussions about the problem of arsenic in the environment and catalyze the knowledge generation and innovations at a policy context to achieve the goals for post 2015 Sustainable Development.
Groundwater resources naturally contain high levels of arsenic in many parts of the world. Over the last two decades, the As-containing groundwater in South-East Asia has received much attention, but the situation is just as crucial in Latin America, where the number of studies is still relatively low, and the extent and severity of As-exposure in the populations has yet to be fully evaluated. This book aims to promote knowledge of the occurrence and genesis of As-rich groundwater in Latin America. It deals with constraints on the mobility of As in groundwater, As-uptake from soil and water by plants, As-propagation through the food chain, human health impacts, and As-removal technologies. Case studies are presented from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru, amongst others, and are viewed against the background of experience from other world regions. The book is a state-of-art overview of arsenic research in Latin America. It aims to create interest within the Latin American countries affected by the presence of arseniferous aquifers and to increase awareness among administrators, policy makers and company executives. It will also serve to inform the international scientific community, and improve international cooperation on arsenic in groundwater.
This work provides those involved in water purification research and administration with a comprehensive resource of methods for analyzing water to assure its safety from contaminants, both natural and human caused. The book first provides an overview of major water-related issues in developing and developed countries, followed by a review of issues of sampling for water analysis, regulatory considerations and forensics in water quality and purity investigations. The subsequent chapters cover microbial as well chemical contaminations from inorganic compounds, radionuclides, volatile and semi-volatile compounds, disinfectants, herbicides, and pharmaceuticals, including endocrine disruptors, as well as potential terrorist-related contamination. The last chapter describes the Grainger prize-winning filter that can remove arsenic from water sources and sufficiently protect the health of a large number of people. - Covers the scope of water contamination problems on a worldwide scale - Provides a rich source of methods for analyzing water to assure its safety from natural and deliberate contaminants - Describes the filter that won the $1 million Grainger prize and thereby highlighting an important approach to remediation
This book presents an up-to-the-minute overview of arsenic and fluoride pollution of soil and groundwater in Pakistan. It includes the author’s doctoral dissertation on Lahore as a case study and describes the mechanism of pollution on the basis of the findings in that area. The book highlights the concrete situation in Pakistan – including the severity of the problem, its health effects and the risks posed to the people living in affected areas by these two major pollutants– and points out essential research areas that call for immediate attention. As such, it draws attention to the need for management strategies in the affected areas and offers a valuable reference work on Pakistan for students and researchers alike.
Author : Jack C. Ng
ISBN : 9780203078808
Genre : Science
File Size : 33.62 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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The congress "Arsenic in the Environment" offers an international, multi- and interdisciplinary discussion platform for arsenic research aimed at practical solutions of problems with considerable social impact, as well as focusing on cutting edge and breakthrough research in physical, chemical, toxicological, medical and other specific issues on arsenic on a broader environmental realm. The congress "Arsenic in the Environment" was first organized in Mexico City (As 2006) followed by As 2008 in Valencia, Spain and As 2010 in Tainan, Taiwan. The 4th International Congress As 2012 was held in Cairns, Australia from July 22-27, 2012 entitled Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic. The session topics comprised: 1. Geology and hydrogeology of arsenic; 2. Medical and health issues of arsenic; 3. Remediation and policy; 4. Analytical methods for arsenic; and 5. Special topics on "Risk assessment of arsenic from mining", "Geomicrobiology of arsenic", "Geothermal arsenic", "Rice arsenic and health perspectives", "Sustainable mitigation of arsenic: from field trials to policy implications", and "Biogeochemical processes of high arsenic groundwater in inland basins" Hosting this congress in Australia was welcome and valued by the local scientific communities. Australia is a mineral rich country where mining has generated significant economic benefit to its people. Unfortunately historical mining for base metals, gold and arsenic had led to environmental contamination of arsenic. Locally produced arsenical compounds were widely used as pesticides and in timber preservation. It is known that there are several thousands of cattle- and sheep-dip sites contaminated with arsenic in Australia. However, commonly observed symptoms of chronic arsenic poisonings such as those found in endemic-blackfoot areas are seemingly absent from these types of environmental contamination due to good quality of potable water supply. Does this fall in the classic argument of "the dose makes the poison"? This congress theme of "understanding the geological and medical interface of arsenic" will advance our knowledge in minimising the risk posted by this so-called number one prioritised contaminant – arsenic.
Author : Neil Willey
ISBN : 9781597450980
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 78.47 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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Phytoremediation: Methods and Reviews presents the most innovative recent methodological developments in phytoremediation research, and outlines a variety of the contexts in which phytoremediation has begun to be applied. A significant portion of this volume is devoted to groundbreaking methods for the production of plants that are able to degrade, take up, or tolerate the effects of pollutants. Phytoremediation: Methods and Reviews adopts a multidisciplinary approach to the examination of principles and practices of phytoremediation, from molecular manipulation to field application. Parts I and II discuss detailed protocols for achieving several different goals of phytoremediation, including enhancing contaminant degradation, uptake, and tolerance by plants; exploiting plant diversity for phytoremedation; modifying contaminant availability; and experimentally analyzing phytoremediation potential. Parts III and IV examine a variety of progressive techniques for phytoremediation and explore their implementation and success on a global scale. This cutting-edge volume highlights the myriad of contexts in which phytoremediation can be applied, and energizes new research by describing ways in which barriers to success have been recently overcome.
This book presents a comprehensive and detailed description of remediation techniques for metal-contaminated soils derived from both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Using a methodical, step-by-step presentation, the book starts by overviewing the origin of toxicants and the correlated comparative extent of contamination to the environment. The legal provisions as proposed or applied in different countries are then discussed to explain the global regulatory situation regarding soil contamination and the extent of consequent concern. The core part of this publication describes the major techniques for in situ or ex situ treatment of the contaminated soil to meet the regulatory limits. Finally, risk evaluation is incorporated, giving special attention to possible impacts during or after implementation of the remediation strategies. The intrusion of metals in soils mostly occurs from various anthropogenic activities, e.g., agricultural practices, industrial activities, and municipal waste disposal. The volumes of metal-contaminated soil are becoming greater than before and are ever-increasing due to rapid urbanization, intensified industrialization, and/or population booms in certain parts of the world. Hence, the options previously proposed, such as isolation of the contaminated site or movement of the contaminated mass to a secure disposal site after excavation, are becoming unsuitable from the economic point of view, and instead, decontamination alternatives are preferred. This book will help readers such as scientists and regulators to understand the details of the remediation techniques available to deal with the soils contaminated by toxic metals.
The soil is being contaminated continuously by a large number of pollutants. Among them, heavy metals are an exclusive group of toxicants because they are stable and difficult to disseminate into non-toxic forms. The ever-increasing concentrations of such pollutants in the soil are considered serious threats toward everyone’s health and the environment. Many techniques are used to clean, eliminate, obliterate or sequester these hazardous pollutants from the soil. However, these techniques can be costly, labor intensive, and often disquieting. Phytoremediation is a simple, cost effective, environmental friendly and fast-emerging new technology for eliminating toxic heavy metals and other related soil pollutants. Soil Remediation and Plants provides a common platform for biologists, agricultural engineers, environmental scientists, and chemists, working with a common aim of finding sustainable solutions to various environmental issues. The book provides an overview of ecosystem approaches and phytotechnologies and their cumulative significance in relation to solving various environmental problems. Identifies the molecular mechanisms through which plants are able to remediate pollutants from the soil Examines the challenges and possibilities towards the various phytoremediation candidates Includes the latest research and ongoing progress in phytoremediation